Mega cities and sustainability


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Lessons 13, 14 and 15 Year 12

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Mega cities and sustainability

  1. 1. MINT countries Any ideas who?
  2. 2. Long Answer Feedback -10 marker & 15 marker -Overall very well answered -Improvements: timing, content, structure, answering question, detail examples with evidence -You have the question papers for h/w if you received less than 50 % for any question re-do
  3. 3. World Cities WORLD CITIES -Define world city, million city and megacity -Describe the causes of rural to urban migration -Describe and explain the pattern of megacities including regional variations in growth rates -Research two contrasting megacities, and identify reasons for their differences -Examine the consequences of rapid urban growth in the developing world -Assess strategies for improving developing city sustainability
  4. 4. Ideas • Examining the population of London (by various definitions; is it a megacity or not? Concept of a world city versus a megacity. • Mapping the changing location and size of megacities (1970, 1990, 2007); analysis of trends. • Contrasting growth rates in Asia versus Africa; photosets of contrasting cities to analyse conditions and level of development. • Factfiles produced on contrasting cities e.g. London versus Lagos versus Shanghai. Balance of push and pull forces in each case (using Lee’s model). • Video and internet research on cities such as Curitiba, Cairo and Mumbai to assess management strategies.
  5. 5. Key Terms • World city: a city with a significant economic and political power e.g. London (world’s busiest international airports, global financial centre) New York (global financial centre, home of UN) • Million city: an urban area with a total population in excess one million. There are 200+ with around 70 in China. • Mega city: a city with a total population of more than 10 million e.g. Sao Paulo, Brazil, LA, Mumbai. There were 20 in the world in 2007, 15 of which were in the developing world.
  6. 6. Why do cities grow?
  7. 7. Rural Urban migration • Cities grow from internal growth where rural areas and natural increase feed cities. • Most of the people who move to cities from the countryside are young fertile people who therefore cause a high birth rate within the cities, this migration feeds city growth. • The poorest areas of the world have the fastest urban growth • migration is the largest part, this is even more the case when one city dominates the country these type of cities can often grow at around 7% per year
  8. 8. Rural Urban migration • Much of this growth is in the form of slums • By 2020 the number of people living in slums in the developing world will reach 1.3/1.4 billion
  9. 9. Why do people Migrate To Cities • In pairs try to work out the factors below: Push Pull
  10. 10. Why do people Migrate To Cities PUSH PULL Poverty Jobs Conflict Education Natural Disasters Healthcare Crop Failure Safety Land Subdivision Housing Bright Lights
  11. 11. Types of Migration • Many rural immigrants use step migration from their homes to the nearest small town to larger town and so on. (Ravenstein) • Direct Migration Town City
  12. 12. • Many rural – urban migrants are well informed about the cities they are moving to, the process is not ‘Blind’ • The majority are young and relatively well skilled. Often aware that life in cities is not good • They realise their prospects with staying are worse • Fundamentally it is an economic decision
  13. 13. Is it the Right decision? • In Kenya figures suggest it’s a better quality of life in urban Kenya but not in the Nairobi slums. • Many know they will have to live in the slums but expect their to be more opportunities than in rural areas. IMR % living on less than $1 per day Access to clean Water Rural 76 53 46% Urban 57 49 89% Nairobi as a whole 39 Slums in Nairobi 9 Kibera Slum Nairobi 106
  14. 14. In pairs think about the push and pull factors into an urban slum
  15. 15. • Write down reasons why you think some cities become global cities (Mega-cities)
  16. 16. Name the cities
  17. 17. • London • Nairobi • Sao Paulo • Mumbai
  18. 18. Different Stages • Different stages of urbanisation means life can considerably vary from one city to the next • Rapid urban growth in the developing world has led to a slum crisis e.g. Mumbai 60% population live in slums on 6% of the city’s lan
  19. 19. Mumbai A Megacity Vision
  20. 20. Mumbai from the Air
  21. 21. Facts • Mumbai is the largest City in India • Mumbai was formerly Bombay • Natural harbour in the opening of the Thane Creek • 650 sq km of island • 484 sq km is densely populated • 14 million people
  22. 22. Reasons for Growth • Generates 33% of tax revenue • 40% of all international flights • Centrally positioned in Asia • Easy access to West and China • Global hub for TNC’s • Local TNC’s growing faster than TNC’s • E.g.. Tata Steel, Godrej Retail • Centre of Bollywood
  23. 23. Issues • Growth has caused high population density and overcrowding • Old and overcrowded transport system • Acute shortage of water
  24. 24. Dharavi • • • • 60% of people live in poverty Many live in Shanty towns Dharavi is one of the biggest in Asia Well organised and some say successful
  25. 25. • Check out this link for more information • Dharavi covers 220 hectares of land near the airport and an estimated 100,000 people live there • Produces $500m worth of goods
  26. 26. Mumbai – The Vision Transport
  27. 27. • 11 million people travel daily by Public Transport. (Rail- 48% , Bus- 44% & Private Vehicles - 8% ). • Inadequate road network is slowing down the traffic causing chronic road congestion & Environmental pollution. • Suburban rail traffic increased by 6 times while the capacity increased by only 2.3 times. • 4500 passengers travel per train against the carrying capacity of 1750 resulting an unbearable overcrowding. • Vehicular growth Increased from 61,000 to over 1.02 Million in the last four decades.
  28. 28. • Main objective is to provide a rail based mass transit connectivity to people within an approach distance of 1 to 2 km ; to serve the areas not connected by existing Suburban Rail System • To provide proper interchange facilities for connectivity to neighbouring areas • Total length by 2021 = Total Length 146.5 km • Done in 3 stages • More information >>HERE<<
  29. 29. Mumbai – The Vision Housing
  30. 30. • Massive clean up of city’s housing since 2004 • 200,000 illegal slum dwellers moved • 45 shanty towns destroyed • Dharavi is to be redeveloped – 7 storey apartments to be built to re-house dwellers • Non-polluting local industries encouraged to continue with help and premises supplied as well as sustainable strategic help
  31. 31. • Redevelopment is in private hands with developers receiving 1.3 sq m’s for commercial property for every sq m of housing they build. • Further reading >>HERE<<
  32. 32. Mumbai – The Vision Environment
  33. 33. • 325 new green spaces to be built • Maintained through corporate sponsorship • 300 extra public toilets to ease sanitation issues
  34. 34. Mumbai – The Vision Employment
  35. 35. • City needs a growth rate of between 810% to succeed • Hopes to create 200,000 service sector jobs (Healthcare, finance and entertainment) • 200,000 jobs in new industrial zones around the port and airport (PC assembly and fashion) • Construction – 500,000
  36. 36. The Vision • By 2015 Mumbai should have wide roads, efficient trains, buses, beautiful seafronts and gardens. • Better public utilities • If it succeeds it will become a major player in the global network/ economy and provide a healthy environment and place to live. • Find out more >>Only Bombay<<
  37. 37. Is your city mega? Read your article & summarise Look at comparative notes and highlight
  38. 38. HOMEWORK • Read through LA case study and make notes • Create a poster comparing Mumbai and London as mega cities using information in your booklet • Work in groups • Due next week
  39. 39. Megacities and sustainability AS Geography
  40. 40. • Can they be sustainable? • To become a world hub urban development must involve social and environmental development • Depends on good governance
  41. 41. • • • • Can be unsustainable because: Lack of adequate housing Poor health/ Sanitation Weak urban governance. Lack of will and resources • Environmental quality – poor infrastructures • Poverty – low wages and underemployment
  42. 42. Ecocities
  43. 43. Transport and Environment
  44. 44. • Developing cities often have extremely poor air pollution • In 2007 Calcutta reported 70% of pop’n had respiratory problems caused by SPM (Suspended particle matter) • WHO said pollution is so severe that a brown cloud shrouds much of SE Asia for most of the year. • Reducing this means heavy investment in infrastructure
  45. 45. Your case study for this should be Mumbai
  46. 46. Examples of Pollution Mexico city cars are banned from the city one day a week according to the digits on their number plates (Hoy no circula system) Beijing tried this in 2007
  47. 47. Delhi  All buses and rickshaws were converted to cleaner compressed natural gas in 2002  Strict emission controls since 2000  Many old lorries were banned  Since 1997 SO2 has fallen 35%
  48. 48. China • Shanghai opened the Maglev railway system in 2001 connecting Shanghai to the airport
  49. 49. Ecocities
  50. 50. • The idea of a sustainable city is not achievable by most developing countries especially in Africa • The focus is on basics supported by NGO’s and international aid. • Maturing developing cities are better suited to start to reduce pollution • Curitiba in Mexico comes closest to meeting this ideal but it is small with only 3 million people (Similar to the combined pop’n Greater Manchester)
  51. 51. Brazil • In Curitiba (SE Brazil) uses innovative approaches to curbing pollution • Low cost express bus lanes used by 85% of people • Community led recycling schemes and provision of parking
  52. 52. Dongtan • • • • • • • • At the mouth of the Yangtze river in China First eco-city. Being built by Shanghai Industrial Investment Corporation Aims to create a low energy city that is close to being carbon neutral Could accommodate up to 500,000 people It will be largely car-free and carbon neutral Energy will be provided from renewable sources – wind farms and solar panels Waste treatment plant will convert sewage and compast into biogas that will be used for cooking, heating and power generation
  53. 53. Your Task: In your groups research Curitiba or Dongtan and find out: 1. Background information – why was it built? What were the main aims? 2. How will it be sustainable? 3. Are there any problems?
  54. 54. Improving Slums • Building from scratch is not a viable solution for the millions of slum dwellers in rapidly expanding megacities • Help comes from NGOs working in slum districts with funding from local authorities by providing: -Residents with tenure (right to own) -Basic services such as clinics and schools -Improved water suppy
  55. 55. Activity 1  Define the following terms: Deindustrialisation Dependency Post Industrial Economy Ethical Purchase Purchasing Power Parity Ecological Footprint Quarternary Sector Externalities Food Miles Global Shift
  56. 56. Activity 2 • List the positive and negative effects of globalisation? • What do we mean by the term ‘Inner city spiral of deprivation? • What are the moral and social consequences of globalisation? • What are the Environments and social costs? • List the ways that we can offset the environmental costs of global trade?
  57. 57. Activity 3 • Explain the implications of this cartoon message:
  58. 58. Homework -Answer questions on page 122, use your notes and chapter 13 to help -Read and make notes on chapter 14 for next lesson
  59. 59. What are the social and environmental consequences of globalisation and can we manage these changes for a better world?
  60. 60. Issues-led globalisation • TNCs & GPNs • IMF • Money markets • Cultural imperialism • Hybridity • Gender Economic Political • Trade blocs • Climate change • Democracy Cultural Social • Social network • Migration • Diaspora
  61. 61. Concept-led globalisation
  62. 62. History-led globalisation • End of age of Empires • Post-war settlement (IMF, World Bank, roots of WTO) pre-1950s • Container shipping growth • Rise of Asian Tigers & deindustrialisation of parts of core • OPEC crisis & 'crisis of capitalism' (off-shoring begins in earnest) '60s-'80s • Financial deregulation & growth of money markets 1990s+ • Fall of Soviet Union, growth of BRIC economies • Trade bloc growth (NAFTA, EU), technology acceleration • Punctuated by further economic crises
  63. 63. Managing Change: Global Futures AS Geography
  64. 64. So far we have covered: • • • • • • • Globalisation TNCs Global Groups Global Networks and Connections Roots On the Move World Cities • All of these have presented a set of problems in terms of our global future
  65. 65. What Problems can you think of? • • • • • • Do we live beyond our means? Is our ‘Ecological footprint’ to big? Do we need to grow a global conscience? Should we develop a sustainable future? Is free trade or fair trade the way forward? Re-use, reduce and recycle
  66. 66. Living Beyond our Means • In the developed world we have what we want and anytime we want it. • Strawberries in winter • Apples from Fiji • Resources around the world are used to fuel our appetite for ‘things’ • Our global ecological footprint is rising
  67. 67. The UK • We are second only to the USA in consuming natural goods and resources • Only the USA is ahead of use • If the whole world were to consume like use we would need the equivalent of 3.1 earths’ worth of resources USA 5.3 UK 3.1 France 3.0 Germany 2.5 Russia 2.4 China 0.8
  68. 68. Ecological Footprint • Definition: • A measure of the amount of land and water that a population needs in order to produce the land and resources it consumes and to absorb it’s waste, with existing technology
  69. 69. Global Conscience • As we become more globalised we begin to look more outward across geographical boundaries • Improvements in communication means we can all witness events at the same time • 3.9 billion watched the Athens Olympics • Many millions watched the Live Earth Concert in 2007 • We are becoming more aware of worker exploitation through the media • Impacts of global debt • Environmental damage • We are developing a ‘Global conscience’
  70. 70. What woke our Global Conscience? • • • • • Events such as: 1970’s Oil crisis 1980’s debt crisis 1985 – Live Aid 1992 – Earth Summit in Rio adopted agenda 21 (Sustainable Development at various levels) • 2006 – Stern Review • 2007 Live Earth Global Concert on climate change
  71. 71. Fair trade or free trade? • Free Trade • Where we persuade countries to drop their barriers to trade. • Free trade generally means that workers and growers of commodities get less for their products • Fair Trade • Aims to give them a greater proportion
  72. 72. Ethical Shopping Issues Considerations • • • • Buying fair trade products M&S Co-op Supermarkets label food and more money goes to local producers e.g. Coffee and tea • Estimated that all food eaten in UK has a food miles of 30 billion • In the average kitchen in UK was 41,000 (twice the globe) • Producing organically uses more land and can cause deforestation • Less fertilizers etc means more land needed • Using local means reducing food miles but the increase in travel offsets bulk delivery to supermarkets • Food miles aren’t all bad. Food production is less energy intensive in Africa even if flown in • Buying local can undermine fair trade and poor countries lose out
  73. 73. Carbon Offsetting and Trading • • • • Carbon credits can be voluntary or certified Voluntary: Payments or projects which offset emissions with equivalent savings of CO2 Coldplay planted 10,000 mango trees in Karnataka India to offset the emissions from production of their ‘Rush of Blood to the Head’ album. • We can however not get the hour back we wasted listening to it • Besides which after a year most of the trees had died in the dry season and smallholders had lost land in the process
  74. 74. Certified Carbon credits • International exchanges of credits aiming to cut emissions globally • Allows high polluters to continue polluting while buying credits off those who don’t
  75. 75. Reduce, re-use, recycle • Londoners produce 3.4 million tonnes of rubbish a year • Around 80% of our rubbish can be reused, recycled or composted • 90% of what we buy becomes waste within 6 months • In London that’s a tonne/person/year • Landfill sites are running out and pose environmental risks • Incineration reduces waste by 75% in weight and 90% by volume
  76. 76. • Incineration leads to greenhouse gases • Recycling is cleaner, greener and provides new raw materials • Collection, sorting and processing still requires the use of energy more so than simply producing less waste in the first place • Composting produces humus that improves soils
  77. 77. REVISE!