Wind energy projects integration in electricity grids portugal and med tso experiences


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Knowledge Exchange Workshop on Wind Projects Planning
May 9, 2013
Beirut, Lebanon

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Wind energy projects integration in electricity grids portugal and med tso experiences

  1. 1. Workshopon “Experienceson Wind FarmsProjects”WindEnergyProjectsIntegrationinElectricityGrids:PortugalandMed-TSOexperiencesJoséMedeirosPintoBeirut,9May2013
  2. 2. TopicsIntroductionRES figures in the Mediterranean countriesWorld ranking for wind energyThe wind energy in Portugal - introductionThe Portuguese electric systemREN’s methodological approach for RES integrationPortuguese licensing procedures for RES promotersPlanning & Operational issues driven by RESCall for a Wind Bid – a Portuguese exampleMain issues & risk analysisFinal considerations
  3. 3. Introduction: The Mediterranean areaAlbanie - OSTAlgérie – SONELGAZ, GRTE, OSEgypte - EETCEspagne - REEFrance - RTEGrèce - ADMIEItalie - TERNAJordanie – NEPCOLybie – GECOLMaroc - ONEMonténégro - CGESPortugal - RENSlovénie - ELEKTRO-SLOVENIJATunisie - STEGTurquie - TEIASMed-TSO3
  4. 4. Introduction: ENTSO-E interconnected SystemCountries 34TSOs 414
  5. 5. Between 2010 and 2020, the installed capacity will grow* from 64 to 129 GW (+100%)while the energy production will raise from 300 to 573 TWh/yr (+91%).1402001052933518192420100200300400500600700energy 2010 energy 2020TWh573 TWh300 TWh2545194756117020406080100120140capacity 2010 capacity 2020GWRESHydroGT & DieselCombined CycleSteam & Nuclear129 GW64 GWSteam& NuclearGas Turb.RES figures in the Mediterranean countriesCCGTHydroRES* Source: Paving the way for the Mediterranean Solar Plan6
  6. 6. RES figures in the Mediterranean countries• Turkey has the target of 7000 MW in 2015• Egypt has the absolute goal of 5000 MW, mainly Wind• The largest percentage of RES is in Morocco (27%) and in Jordan (24%);• Wind seems to be more appreciated than solar (especially in Morocco and Egypt )* Source: Paving the way for the Mediterranean Solar PlanWind figures* for some Med countries at 2020The penetration of RES in these countries will reach: 13% in power (17GW)and 7% in energy (40TWh)GW %5302520151050
  7. 7. 281816.315. 5 10 15 20 25 30DenmarkPortugalSpainIrelandGermanyGreeceSwedenUKNetherlandsAustriaWind production – top 10[ % of total demand]Denmark is ranking first while Portugaland Spain are ranking 2nd and 3rd62.446.929.121.716. 10.0 20.0 30.0 40.0 50.0 60.0 70.0ChinaUnited StatesGermanySpainIndiaItalyFranceUKCanadaPortugalDenmarkTotal wind installed powertop 10 [GW]China and USA are leadingSpain is ranking 4th and Portugal 9th20112011World ranking for wind energy7
  8. 8. Demand and wind power profiles in 2011The wind in Portugal - introduction8Day of annual peak 9192 MWWind contribution 2 968 MW24 Jan9 192 MW2968 MWMaximum daily windcontribution13 Nov3702 MWMinimum daily windcontribution2 Jan70% - 81 GWh93%4,6%1,1% - 1,5 GWh
  9. 9. Wind power + other special producersOften their contribution is greater than the national consumptionGreen area – Wind generation and other special producers(solar, cogeneration, biomass, small hydro generation)Bold black line – ConsumptionBlack line – Consumption + PumpingYellow area – ImportBlue area – Hydro generation (Run-of-River)White area – Thermal generation (natural gas)Brown area – Thermal generation (coal)Blue area – Hydro generation (Reservoir)Daily load diagram. 28 Oct 2012hThe wind in Portugal - introduction9
  10. 10. Average growth in the last 15yrs: 2.5%75 % of theenergyconsumption onor close to thecoast lineArea withincrease of loaddensity duemainly to tourismLoad density distribution alongmunicipalitiesDemand dataLoad Diagram on the day of yearlyPeak Load2010201102000400060008000100000 8 16 24hLOAD DIAGRAM ON THE DAY OF THE YEARLY PEAKMW200220022011 9192 MW2010TWhThe Portuguese electric system (1/8)504030201002003 . . . 201210
  11. 11. Generation (installed power – Jan 2013)• Large Hydro 5.6 GW• from which 1.0 GW of pumping• CCGT (4) 3.8 GW• Coal (2) 1.8 GW• Gas-Oil OCGT (1) 165 MW• Renewable with Special Status : RES-PRE• Total about ~6.8 GW• Wind 4450 MW• Co-generation 1780 MW• Small hydro 417 MW• Photovoltaic 220 MWTotal in service: ~18.5 GWHydroThermal1122 MW1205 MW647 MW505 MW254 MWCCGT990 MWC1180 MWCCGT1176 MWCCGT840 MWCCGT830 MWC580 MWThe Portuguese electric system (2/8)January201311
  12. 12. Very High Voltage Transmission Network- main figures -Power lines and Transformers2011 2010 2011-10LINE LENGTH (km) 8.371 8.049 322400 kV 2.236 1.973 263220 kV 3.492 3.467 25150 kV 2.643 2.609 34TRANSFORMERS (MVA) 33.777 30.205 3.572Autotransformers(400/220/150kV) 13.410 11.925 1.485Transformers (EHV/60kV) 20.367 18.280 2.087The Portuguese electric system (3/8)12
  13. 13. Target for 2022: 9570 MWIncrement with respect to December 2010≈ 5000 MWLarge Hydro Stations [MW]Year 2010 Year 2022Total Hydro 4 578 9 570. . .with pumping 983 4 9192550 MW1240MW1585MW1160MW510MW730 MW610 MW710 MW2022 Target2010 Installed PowerInstalled HydroPower (MW)2010-202250010002000Hydro growth 2010-2022The Portuguese electric system (5/8)13
  14. 14. Wind growth 2010-2020• Installed Power in Dec 2010 ≈ 3860 MW• On-shore power target for 2020 ≈ 6800 MW• Off-shore power target for 2020 < 10 MW20102020 TargetInstalled Power(MW)Map of the current and 2020 installed power on windfarms [MW]The Portuguese electric system (6/8)14
  15. 15. • Recent drop prices on Solar Photovoltaiquetechnologies, creates potentialities, basically in the southregion.Greaterpreferenceon the SouthRegionSource: National Development Plan PDIRT 2012-2022: Version for Public ConsultationSolar RadiationCurves in PortugalSolar• More than 20 thousand of micro producters arecurrently connected to the distribution network(basically, PV instalations)The Portuguese electric system (7/8)15
  16. 16. PowerSectorRegulator for Electricity and Gas -ERSEMinistry for EconomyDirectorate for Energy & GeologyDGEGDistribution System Operator –DSO, presently in charge of EDPTransmission System Operator –TSO, presently in charge of RENTradersConsumersThe Energy Sector - organizationThe Portuguese electric system (8/8)PowerProducersSpecial RegimeProducers - SRP(RES + Somecogeneration + SUR)Ordinary StatusProducers – PRO(Thermal + Large Hydro)16
  17. 17. Year 2000 – Launch of a first identification of Wind Potential per geographical areas.(Carried out by an independent external Consultant)Year 2000/2001 - Execution of a first NDP oriented to RES incorporation for the next6 years (also with an independent external Consultant). Initial goal of 3000MW !!NDP forRES• Two time horizon targets – short and medium term• Economical trade off between grid reinforcement and new amountsof RES acceptable capacity• Make available the allocable reception capacity by large areasREN’s methodological approach for RESintegration (1/2)17
  18. 18. Year 2002/2003 - Development of an innovative methodology to calculate the nodalreception capacity for new generation by node (or in some cases by group of nodes).This Table of Reception Capacities includes a shorter time horizon (next 2 years)and a medium horizon (next 3-4 years)This Table is updated and re-published every yearThe NDP, functioning as an “umbrella” and a reference for the long term, is reviewedevery 2 or 3 years illustrating indicative amount of reception capacities by regions.REN’s methodological approach for RESintegration (2/2)18
  19. 19. Ministry + DGEG• Define the policy, including futurenational objectives for RES• Issue the permits for new generatorconnections• Capacity at network node reserved→“on queue”AcceptsContracts withTSO or DSOCapacity atNetwork nodeallocatedGives upCapacity atnetwork nodereleasedPromotersLicensing procedures for RES promoters (1/3)19
  20. 20. Key responsibilities for TSO & DSOTransmission andDistributionOperators• Reception of RES promoter requests via DGEGAs a ruleInstalled Power > 50 MW connection to TSOInstalled Power < 50 MW connection to DSOSpecial caseThe DSO may request and justify that a Generator connection < 50MW ismore appropriate to TSO’s network: if agreed, can be accepted and vice-versa.• Alternative solutions for connections are studied• Communicate to DGEG and Promoters the viable solutions• An “optimization” process can follow with Promoter.Licensing procedures for RES promoters (2/3)20
  21. 21. Connection rules: Who pays/builds what1. Wind generation, inner grid and substationsConstructed, paid by and remaining property ofthe developer2. Connection linePaid by the developer but, once built, propertyand maintenance will be in charge of TSO or DSO(a very few exceptions exist on DSO side)3. Connection BayConstructed by TSO or DSO and paid by developer4. Transmission or Distribution internalreinforcementsAll in charge of TSO or DSOLicensing procedures for RES promoters (3/3)1 - Wind Powerstation2 – Connection line3 -Transmission orDistribution connectionpoint4 – Transmission orDistribution grid21
  22. 22. April 3rd 2010Example April 3rd 2010:More than 90% load supplied by RES (Hydro+Wind)High level of intermittence and uncertaintyAllowing the secure reception of greateramounts of RESR&DD projects. New simulation toolsSSP-RESHydro Run of riverHydro ReservoirLoad curveBut how much, and where?Require new reserve marginsPlanning & Operational issues driven by RES (1/8)22
  23. 23. • How to explore the complementarities among technologies and correlations ?• Which is the actual capacity of the existing network ?• Should we follow the same planning criteria and security rules, like the classical “n-1” criteria ?• When the network reception is limited, can we deny the connection of a powerplant on node A and not in node B ?Research and deployment of new technicalskills.Transparent and auditable procedures.Planning & Operational issues driven by RES (2/8)23
  24. 24. • Predictability & correlations (risk approach ?)• Intermittency (scenario definition)• Technical performance (e.g., FRTC)• Controllability (e.g., surplus on low load)• Merit order - Priority on renewable technologies !• Why wind prior to HYDRO ?RES behaviour & requirementsNew tools.Improvement in market and probabilisticmodels.Improvement of scenarios definition and itsmethodology.Planning & Operational issues driven by RES (3/8)24
  25. 25. Example of SRP - RES surplus at night (6:15h -7:15h)71% load suppliedby RESMain topics/issues at night period• Storage capabilities usage• Invert the import/export situation• Downward Reserve needsEnergia renovável: reserva operacionalImp/Exp balanceHydro Pump “game”Planning & Operational issues driven by RES (4/8)25Daily load diagram 15 May 2011
  26. 26. December 17th 2009Upward ReserveExample of steep drop of RES-PREWindRun-of-river/dampsPlanning & Operational issues driven by RES (5/8)Need to regulate with fastresponse: other power sourcesprovide operational reserves(Hydro reserve)Wind power output dropgreater than 80% in 8 hours1226
  27. 27. • Their Characterization (scenario definition)• Correlations (scenario definition)• New Loop Flows (voltage dips)• New Loop Trends (RES growth in one area)• New market opportunities – (changes on merit order)• Technical issues, challenges, opportunities?Enhanced team building with other grid operators.New knowledge and expertise. New tools.Confidentiality for data exchangedAre there interferences with neighbouring countries?Planning & Operational issues driven by RES (6/8)27
  28. 28. Annual loop flowThe figure shows the annual loop flowbetween Portugal and Spain, with zerocommercial trading.Interconnections: Common benefits in security of supply, reserve margins andreduction of lossesGWh2008 13002009 20002010 15002011 23002012 2500Planning & Operational issues driven by RES (7/8)28
  29. 29. LEGEND:100MW100MWLEGEND:Wet and windy season - 2012 Dry and low wind – 2012Planning & Operational issues driven by RES (8/8)29
  30. 30. 1. Call for 2 blocks: 1000 and 400 MW (open to a further 20% increase each)2. Management of wind parks by clusters (“local wind power dispatch centers”)3. The local wind power dispatch centres should receive (re)active set-points fromTSO and supply its own wind forecast4. Steady state reactive power control: tg phi within [-0.2, +0.2]5. Wind curtailment (no-load periods; 50h/year, max)6. Participation in the primary frequency controlwind turbine operation at 95% of Popt in previously requested periods (by TSO)7. Define FRTC – Fault Ride Through Capability as a “minimum requirement” forsystem securityRequirements for a 2006 CallCall for a Wind Tender – a Portuguese example30
  31. 31. List of operational risks*The risks due to the difficulty for forecasting the wind productionR1 Mobilization of additional tertiary reserve is necessaryR2 Reduction of network transmission capacity or IPP wind power productionR3 Blackout or load sheddingInfluence of wind generation in the system managementR4 Generation redispatch or change of network topologies more frequentR5 Jeopardize the n-1 securityR6 Increase the reactive/voltage managements issuesR7 Tripping risk of many wind turbines facing voltage dropsInfluence of wind generation over the short and long term reservesR8 Need of more peak power to cover the peak periodsR9 Need of reanalysis of generation adequacy, favouring the storage systems* According Medelec WG “Wind Integration”, Tripoli, March 2013Main issues & risk analysis (1/5)31
  32. 32. Risk matrices for the Portuguese and Tunisian systems*:These two matrices highlight the differences between a system that already apply mitigationmethods to deal with high wind penetration and a system which don’t have that level ofpenetration and don’t apply mitigation methods up till now. The implementation of a set ofmitigation methods will drive the risks to the lower levels.R4, R7 R2 R1, R6, R8,R9R3, R5ProbabilityImpactLow Medium HighLowMediumHigh REN STEGSTEGProbabilityLow Medium HighProbabilityLow Medium HighImpactLowMediumHighImpactLowMediumHigh* According Medelec WG “Wind Integration”, Tripoli, March 2013Main issues & risk analysis (2/5)32
  33. 33. A large-scale wind penetration brings up these matters*:Market:• Reduction of the schedule timeframes• Continuous intraday• Reduction of the market pricesOperational reserves:• Increasing needs (to “cover” the errors of the wind power forecast)• Flexibles and quick-start generators• Storage• Wind power forecast tools• Wind power monitoring (real time)* According Medelec WG “Wind Integration”, Tripoli, March 2013Main issues & risk analysis (3/5)33
  34. 34. A large-scale wind penetration brings up these matters* (cont.):Curtailment• Legal basis to curtail wind power by TSOs• Wind power monitoring and controllability (real time)Network congestions• Cross-border or internal congestions management• Wind power monitoring (real time)Wind farms behavior during network disturbances• Reactive current injection during fault• Fault Ride Through (FRT) capabilityVoltage control / reactive power management• High voltage problems (lack of generating units in operation withautomatic voltage regulation)* According Medelec WG “Wind Integration”, Tripoli, March 2013Main issues & risk analysis (4/5)34
  35. 35. Relevant mitigation methods:Problems Mitigation methodsWind powerforecast errors• Forecasting tools improvement• Storage capacities• Good production mix (flexible and with quick start turbines)• Demand side responseNetworkcongestions• Dynamic ratings (transmission lines) in real time operation;• Transmission network equipment’s investments (reinforcement and useof PST / FACTS)• Redispatch• Regulatory framework (behavior of Wind Energy Conversion similar tothe conventional generation)Short and long-term reserves• Regulatory framework (incentives for the producer / agents)• No existence of cap and floor limits in the market prices* According Medelec WG “Wind Integration”, Tripoli, March 2013Main issues & risk analysis (5/5)35
  36. 36. Key issues to the “success” . . . so far !• A good identification of the problems, preparing their solutions inadvance• Launch joint projects with Portuguese Universities and R&D Centres• Present and debate the issues with the Administration and otherstakeholders• TSO and DSO have been empowered to negotiate connection solutionswith the power producer candidatesFinal Remarks36
  37. 37. Thank you very much for your attentionWorkshopon“ExperiencesonWindFarmsProjects”JoséMedeirosPintoBeirut,9May2013