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Energy Auditing of Building Design Work (Building energy audit throughout the design and construction process)
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Energy Audit in Building A Regional Training Workshop Organized by RCREEE 1 - 5 June, 2010

Energy Audit in Building A Regional Training Workshop Organized by RCREEE 1 - 5 June, 2010

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    Energy Auditing of Building Design Work (Building energy audit throughout the design and construction process) Energy Auditing of Building Design Work (Building energy audit throughout the design and construction process) Presentation Transcript

    • RCREEE TRAINING WORKSHOP “Energy Audit in Buildings” Tunis, June 1st – June 5th, 2010 ENERGY AUDITING OF BUILDING DESIGN WORK (Building energy audit throughout the design and construction process)Mongi BIDA – Mechanical & Energy Consulting Engineer (CEESEN)
    • Building energy efficiency design context♦ Financial incentives are provided for EE and RE in buildings, and more investments are being mobilized for these type of actions♦ Architects and building design engineers are updating their knowledge in these fields, through participation in specialized workshops and training sessions♦ Need for a tool that provides a systematic approach for exploring the energy efficiency potentials of a building / corrects potential problems before it is constructed
    • Energy efficiency auditing of building design work : A new tool for promoting energy efficiency in buildings ♦ STATUS: Systematic approach, covering all building project realization phases (Mandatory for buildings with projected annual energy consumption > 200 Toe) ♦ CONSULTING TEAM: Architect + specialized Engineer ♦ OBJECTIVES:  Evaluate energy performance levels of future constructions / their compliance to applicable building energy standards,  recommend ways to improve the design prior to construction,  Insure that retained solutions are implemented
    • Energy efficiency auditing of building design work : A new tool for promoting energy efficiency in buildings Design aspects to be covered : ♦ Constructive elements (external envelope: Layout and building materials), ♦ HVAC systems / DHW systems (Design and components) ♦ Lighting and electrical systems layouts (An energy audit process for a building that does not exist yet )
    • Energy efficiency auditing of building design work : A new tool for promoting energy efficiency in buildings Systematic check lists of items to be examined for : ♦ Programming and schematic design phase ♦ Design development phase ♦ Construction and bidding documents ♦ Workshop documents ♦ Construction work inspection and commissioning FORMAL REPORTING FOR EACH PHASE: Goals to be achieved / Actual situation / Corrective actions
    • Axes For Improvements Axes for Building Energy Efficiency Design 1. Improvement of thermal quality of building construction envelope (architectural / material) 2. Proper design and sizing of Heating, Ventilating and Air Conditioning [HVAC] equipments (selection of type of system / sizing / set up) 3. Selection of most appropriate form of energy for every end-use (renewable energies where appropriate, cogeneration, etc.)
    • SAMPLE CHEKLIST ITEMSProgramming & Schematic Design (P&SD) (Programmation et APS)
    • Phase : Programming & Schematic Design ARCHITECTURAL ASPECTS Items to be considerd Observations/CommentsTHERMAL & ENERGY QUALITY OF THE BUILDING ENVELOPEThe proposed program must mention the following Requirement:aspects specifically: Seeking thermal & energy quality for the building envelope is a requirement for all projects. Organization of spaces according to thermal & energy requirements: Recommendation: o protection of the conditioned parts of the building by buffer zones  Thermal & energy quality must constitute an important component of o Location of building zones with high internal each structural and functional aspect of the project, and must result in cooling loads (meeting rooms, dining areas, clear goals that the designer is held to reach from the first outlines of the ballrooms) in the areas of the project which project. are less exposed to the summer climatic  Heat exchange of the envelope with outside can be reduced in a conditions significant way by the adoption of the following provisions: o Proximity of the technical plant rooms to the o Organize the buildings so as to protect the conditioned spaces by zones they serve buffer zones Particular requirements regarding the o Minimize the ratio: [sum of external walls surfaces external / volume compactness of the building: of the building] in order to reduce surfaces conveying heat transfers o Seek to maximize the compactness of the between the interior and the outside of the building building (to minimize the ratio: [sum of o Adopt a low level of glazing to wall ratios external walls surfaces external / volume of the building]) Particular requirements with respect to glazing to wall ratios: o Seek to minimize the glazing to wall ratio for unfavorable orientations (WEST, W-NW, W- SW, E-NE, East and E-SE) o Seek to optimize the glazing to wall ratio on favorable orientations (SE, S-SE, South, S-SO and SO) o Seek to control the glazing to wall ratio other orientations (NE, N-NE, North, N-NO & NO)
    • Phase : Programming & Schematic Design ARCHITECTURAL ASPECTS Items to be considered Observations/CommentsTHERMAL & ENERGY QUALITY OF THE ENVELOPE OF THE BUILDING Recommendation: Investigate the possibilities of adopting passive  It is recommended to resort to passive solutions (bioclimatic)as much as solutions (bioclimatic) for space conditioning : possible: The suggested solutions will have to be supported, later on, by o Passive heating strategies recognized design tools, or a dynamic thermal simulation of the project, o Passive cooling strategies using an appropriate simulation tool, in order to insure the credibility / o Rational use of natural ventilation relevance of these solutions.  Specific provisions must be made from the programming and schematic design phase to ensure an adequate day-lighting of the building spaces intended for activities requiring a good level of lighting (office spaces, class rooms, training spaces, etc.)
    • Phase : Programming & Schematic Design ARCHITECTURAL ASPECTS Items to be considered Observations/CommentsCLIMATIC CONSIDERATIONS IN DEVELOPPING THE BUILDING LAYOUT Requirement:Taking into account of the climatic data relating to The building layout must take into account the SUN COURSES and WINDSthe SUN COURSES and WINDS DIRECTIONS CHART in DIRECTIONS CHART. A specific drawing, indicating the following, must be part ofdeveloping the building layout: the project’s Programming & Schematic Design (P&SD) documents:  The mass drawing of the project building (s), indicating the distances from the building contours to the project site property boundaries  the course of the sun (indication of true north based on precise topographic map drawing), and positions /geometrical data of eventual existing masks in the immediate surroundings of the project  The WINDS DIRECTIONS CHART for each of the four seasons Recommendation: It is essential to examine all aspects related to the site climatic conditions from the very start of the Programming and Schematic Design phase. Provisions taken with respect to the SUN Recommendations: COURSES: Use vegetable masks and constructive apparatuses to:  Favor the access of the building to beneficial sun in winter (Southern orientations ± 40°)  Limit the access of unfavorable sun in the summer (Western ± 30°)  Protect the building (s) against cold winter winds  Protect the building (s) against hot summer winds  Channel fresh summer winds (breezes) towards the building (s)
    • Phase : Programming & Schematic Design HVAC SYSTEMS Items to be considered Observations/CommentsTHERMAL & ENERGY QUALITY OF HVAC SYSTEMSThe proposed program must specifically mention the Requirement:following aspects for heating (including service hot Seeking thermal & energy quality for the building HVAC systems is awater), ventilation, and air conditioning(HVAC) requirement for all projects.systems:1. What are the aspects targeted to ensure thermal and energy quality for the HVAC installations of Recommendation: the project? Energy quality must integrate energy performance targets in terms of  Equipment energy performance targets equipment selections, and identify provisions allowing systems operation  System Operating and monitoring targets optimization (Exp: Building Management Systems, etc).2. What are the primary energy sources for the project and their uses? Fossil Fuel 1: ............................ Requirement: Uses: ........................... ............................ 1. Space electrical heating using Joule effect (electrical résistance) is not Fuel 2: ............................ allowed, except for justified particular situations Uses: ........................... 2. The use of solar energy for the production of service hot water, when ............................. required, is mandatory in all publically owned facilities Electrical /Uses: ............................ ............................ ............................. Recommendation: Other (specify)........................................ 1. The use of electricity for service hot water production must be limited to Other1: ............................ some specific needs or justified applications. Uses: ........................... 2. The use of solar energy for the production of service hot water, when required, is highly recommended in all non-publically owned facilities
    • Phase : Programming & Schematic Design ELECTRICAL SYSTEMS Items to be considered Observations/CommentsENERGY QUALITY OF ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONSThe proposed program must specifically mention the Requirement:following aspects for electrical systems Seeking energy quality for the building electrical systems is a requirement for all projects.1. What are the aspects targeted to ensure energy quality for the electrical systems of the project? In terms of:  Energy consumption reduction  Energy consumption management2. What are the performance levels of the lighting Recommendation: systems considered?  Use of high efficiency lamps and lighting fixtures is highly recommended  Efficiency levels for lighting fixtures and lamps  Use of electronic ballasts is greatly recommended  Type of ballasts  Use lighting controls based on occupancy and day lighting sensors in working  Lighting controls based on presence sensing areas  Lighting controls based on presence sensing and daylight  Lighting management systems3. What are the other potential energy savings/performance opportunities for this project?  Consider the implementation of a Building Energy Management System  Implementation of a Building Energy (BEMS/GTC) Management System (BEMS/GTC)  Assess the feasibility to resort to cogeneration / tri-generation (case of large  Alternative electric sources: Cogeneration (to be hotels /hospital, etc) assessed when the building has high thermal energy needs)
    • Phase : Programming & Schematic Design PROJECT SUMMARYREMARKS & COMMENTS: 1. Include in this part all other relevant aspects relating to the architectural, electrical and mechanical systems choices of the project and their possible impacts on its future thermal and energy behavior, 2. Provide a list of aspects and elements of the project considered to be critical or requiring a special attention, with respect to its future thermal and energy behavior, 3. Formulate specific proposals concerning the architectural, electrical and mechanical systems choices that can be made to improve future thermal and energy performance of the project, which must be taken into account before starting the next design phase 4. Provide a rough estimate of over-costs that can be associated with the proposed energy performance improvement measures for the project 5. Provide a rough evaluation of energy savings associated with the proposed energy performance improvement measures for the project, and corresponding payback periods 6. Etc.
    • SAMPLE CHEKLIST ITEMSDesign Development (DD) Phase (Avant Projet Détaillé APD)
    • Phase : Design Development (DD) ARCHITECTURAL ASPECTS Items to be considered Observations/CommentsDOCUMENTS TO BE PRESENTED FOR ASSESSMENT:A complete set of the of architectural Requirement:“Design Development” documents + The presentation, for assessment, of the following technical documents is mandatory:structural formwork drawings • The Architect’s report • Calculation notes for the thermal coefficients of all external surfaces components (walls, roofs, windows, etc.) • Graphic documents including:  Topographic map drawing of the project site with an indication of true north,  Site location drawing,  Building(s) mass drawing,  floor plans of the various components of the project with indication of the zone locations, plant rooms and service shafts,  Building elevations and sections,  Structural formwork drawings,
    • Phase : Design Development (DD) ARCHITECTURAL ASPECTS Items to be considered Observations/CommentsCHECKING OF THE THERMAL & ENERGY CHARACTERISTICS OF THE COMPONENTS OF THEBUILDING ENVELOPE: Requirement: . Check values of thermal insulation [U] of the opaque vertical walls for all levels of the building  The thermal transmission coefficients [U-value (W/m²-°K)] of the various (ground level, Intermediate levels and roof level); A external walls (opaque vertical surfaces) must be clearly indicated, and justified table for each level for each level of the building (based on the detailed composition of each wall).These values must be easily verifiable. . Check values of thermal insulation [U] of external  The thermal transmission coefficients [U-value (W/m²-°K)] of the the various glazed surfaces and their optical characteristics external glazed surfaces, as well as their optical characteristics (ASHRAE-SC) [ASHRAE-SC] for all Levels of the building must be clearly indicated, and justified for each level of the building (based on (ground level, Intermediate levels and roof level); A their nature and layers components). Supplier data sheets must be provided for table for each level glazings with special features. These values must be easily verifiable. . Check values of thermal insulation [U] of exposed  The thermal transmission coefficients [U-value (W/m²-°K)] of the various roof areas for all Levels of the building (ground exposed roofs must be clearly indicated, and justified for each level of the level, Intermediate levels and roof level); A table for building (based on the detailed composition of each roof).These values must be each level easily verifiable.  Net surface areas associated with each type of external surface must also beNota: specified, for each level of the building, in a verifiable way.These checks has to be confirmed in the Final Design& Bidding phase, based on final design
    • Phase : Design Development (DD) ARCHITECTURAL ASPECTS Items to be considered Observations/CommentsLABEL LEVEL ASSESMENT FOR THE PROJECT’S BUILDING ENVELOPE: Type of building occupancy: Day-time only 24 hours Space Conditioning requirements: Heating only Heating and/or Cooling Recommendations:  It is highly recommended to optimize the Glazing to Wall Ratio according toA- Overall Glazing to wall Ratio : the functionality of the considered space, the required visual comfort and the (To be reported from the last synthesis table of energy performance goals. envelope thermal technical data)  A low Glazing to Wall Ratio allows a better management of the energy Low needs of a space, both in terms of heating and cooling. High Nota : Very High The Overall Level of Glazing to Wall Ratio is used to determine the energy performance label of the building envelope using the prescriptive approach Outside limitsB- Check conformity of envelope components Requirements: energy performance levels with respect to  The project must meet the minimum energy performance requirements stated building minimum energy standards : by the applicable thermal energy standards. Overall Thermal Transfert Coefficient of If the prescriptive approach is used, values from section A and section B of external walls; U [W/°C-m ²] ................. the left column will be used as a basis for checking conformity. Overall Thermal Transfert Coefficient of exposed Roofs; U [W/°C-m ²] .............. Nota: Overall Thermal Transfert Coefficient of external glazing; U [W/°C-m ²] .................... These checks has to be confirmed in the Final Design & Bidding phase, based Overall solar Shading Coefficient of external on final design glazing; SC [ASHRAE] .........................
    • Phase : Design Development (DD) ARCHITECTURAL ASPECTS Items to be considered Observations/CommentsOTHER ARCHITECTURAL & CONSTRUCTIVE PROVISIONS Check all provisions made for the organization Refer to recommendations and requirements stated earlier. of spaces according to thermal & energy imperatives:  Particular requirements regarding the compactness of the building:  Particular requirements with respect to glazing to wall ratios Requirement:  Provisions made for adopting passive Passive solutions to ensure thermal comfort in buildings can represent viable solutions (bioclimatic) for space conditioning alternatives to provide part, or whole, of these needs. However, it is essential that  Provisions made for Use of day-lighting theses suggested solutions be supported, by recognized design tools, or a proper dynamic thermal simulation of the building, using an appropriate simulation tool, in order to insure the credibility / relevance of these solutions. Check provisions made to take into account the Negative side effects (e.g. summer overheating due to passive heating devices) must climatic data relating to the SUN COURSES and also be taken into consideration! WINDS DIRECTIONS CHART in developing the building layout:  Provisions made with respect to the Sun courses (Solar access / Solar Shading)  Provisions made with respect to the Winds directions chart (Protection from harmful winds / access for summer breezes)Nota:These checks has to be confirmed in the FinalDesign & Bidding phase, based on final design
    • Résultats des Simulations
    • Résultats des Simulations
    • Intensité des consommations saisonnières dénergie primaire {Chauffage+Refroidissement} selon % de vitrage [Moyenne de toutes les variantes pour chaque type de Vitrage ] 190,0 DVCLE SVC SVBR DVC SVPYR 180,0 172,8Intensité Consommation Energétique [Thermie/m² par an] 170,0 160,0 150,2 153,2 150,0 148,0 140,0 133,9 127,1 139,6 130,0 129,6 120,0 114,2 123,5 110,0 102,0 111,7 100,0 88,4 93,3 106,9 108,0 90,0 90,5 97,3 83,1 88,9 80,0 81,0 86,4 80,5 70,0 76,6 72,2 60,0 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30% 35% 40% 45% 50% Pourcentage de vitrage [Surface vitrage / Surface mur extérieur]
    • Use of high performance glazing Low thermal transmission : U ≤ 2,2 W/m²-°C (Low-E)  Low transmission of solar heat gains: G ≤ 55 % Good transmission of light: T > 60 %Overcost: 50 à 75 DT / m² (with respect to single glazing)Energie savings: Up to 40% of heating and cooling loads
    • DISPOSITIFS EXTERNES DEPROTECTION SOLAIRE Protections verticales: Orientations EST / OUEST; Permet de bloquer les rayons solaires quand le soleil est bas Protections verticales: Orientations SUD Permet de bloquer les rayons solaires quand le soleil est haut
    • Résultats des Simulations
    • Résultats des Simulations
    • Phase : Design Development (DD) HVAC SYSTEMS Items to be considered Observations/CommentsDOCUMENTS TO BE PRESENTED FOR ASSESSMENT:A complete set of the “Design Development” Requirement: The presentation, for assessment, of the following technical documents isdocuments for HVAC systems mandatory: • The Technical Report • Calculation notes • Preliminary installation s cost estimate • Graphic documents including:  Schematic and PI diagrams,  Chilled, hot and service water riser diagrams,  Floor plans for installation layouts,  Plant rooms layouts drawings ,  etc
    • Phase : Design Development (DD) HVAC SYSTEMS Items to be considered Observations/CommentsHEATING INSTALLATIONS: SIZING AND BASIC CONCEPTUAL ASPECTSDesign climatic conditions (for heating systems): Requirement: The selected outdoor climatic conditions must be in conformity with theOutdoor climatic conditions: recommended values contained in the ANME design climatic conditions guide- Outside temperature: T ext. [°C]. = ......... January 2003 edition. Relative humidity: HR ext. [%].= .........Interior conditions set points: Requirement: Interior temperature: T int. [°C]. = ......... Interior conditions set points according to applicable thermal comfort standards: Relative humidity: HR int. [%]. = ......... Example: For an office space, recommended heating set points are : Tint. = 20 °C HR int = NC;Heating Plant Configuration Recommendations: Centralized heating plants are suitable for compact building architecture. Centralized Decentralization and/or use of sub-stations are recommended for other types of Decentralized configurations. MixedHeat production equipment: Requirement:  For at least 75% of the total power Space electrical heating using Joule effect (electrical résistance) is not allowed, installed: .................................... except for justified particular situations (mostly intermittent uses)  For the remainder of the total power Recommendations: installed: ....................................  The use of natural gas fired equipments is highly recommended.  The use of a heat pump can be a possible alternative for buildings with primarily diurnal occupation
    • Phase : Design Development (DD) HVAC SYSTEMS Items to be considered Observations/Comments COOLING INSTALLATIONS: SIZING AND BASIC CONCEPTUAL ASPECTSDesign climatic conditions (for ccoling systems): Requirement:Outdoor climatic conditions: The selected outdoor climatic conditions must be in conformity with the recommended values contained in the ANME design climatic conditions guide- Outside temperature: T ext. [°C]. = ......... January 2003 edition. Relative humidity: HR ext. [%].= .........Interior conditions set points: Requirement: Interior temperature: T int. [°C]. = ......... Interior conditions set points according to applicable thermal comfort standards: Relative humidity: HR int. [%]. = ......... Example: For an office space, recommended cooling set points are : Tint. = 26 °C HR int = 55%;Internal cooling loads (Equipment & occupants): Requirement:Check values used for each type of buildings space The space cooling load factors to be used shall be in conformity with the(by type of load and type of space) following:  Space occupants density (also for Outside Air  Predefined spaces: the exact number of occupants for these spaces is defined supply) as part of the project, and shall therefore be used in the design calculations. Hotel or hospital rooms (number of beds), theaters, ballrooms or restaurants Type of space: ............................ (number of seats). person/m ²: ..................  Other spaces: the number of occupants shall not exceed the following values: Lighting  1 per/10 m ²: spaces with low occupancy (hallways, circulation areas, etc.) Type of space: ............................  1 per/5 m ²: open space offices, living rooms, shops, etc. Watts/m ²: ..................  1per/3 m ²: shopping centers, and comparable spaces Office equipment  1 per/2m ²: Spaces with very high occupancy: departure lounges in airports, Type of space: ............................ exhibition fairs and comparable spaces. Watts/m ²: ..................  the contributions to be taken into account in the cooling load calculations Other thermal loads (sensible and latent) must be justified based on the nature and power rating of the heating sources, as well as the part that is actually dissipated in the room
    • Phase : Design Development (DD) HVAC SYSTEMS Items to be considered Observations/CommentsVENTILATION AND AIR HANDLING: BASIC CONCEPTUAL CHOICESOutside air requirements : Requirement:Check outside air requirements used for the project Outside air requirements are based on occupancy, except for special cases where paces pressure difference controls between spaces are required. Normal outside air requirements are: • 18 m3/h per person for non smoking areas • 25 m3/h per person for smoking areas • All other values of outside air rates must be justified Note: Smoking zones must be designated in accordance with local regulationsOutside Air Intake Modulation Requirement:Check if provisions are made for OA modulation in  Modulation of OA intake is required in the following conditions: equired zones • Minimum design OA requirement ≥ 1000 m3/h for a continuous use of the AHU more than 6 hours per day. • Minimum design OA requirement OA ≥ 2000m3/h for all other cases  Modulation of OA intake shall be automatically performed based on occupancy rates of the respective conditioned spaces (Ex.: Air quality sensor + OA Motorized damper)  If outside air modulation is required, the system shall also allow the use of free- cooling based on outdoor air conditions (Use of 100% OA when outdoor Temperature or enthalpy are favorable)Modulation of exhaust air: Requirement:Check if provisions are made for exhaust air Provisions for multiple speed exhaust fans shall be made for the followingmodulation in required zones conditions, to accommodate situations with low exhaust requirements:  Exhaust Rate ≥ 5000 m3/h, for a continuous use of more than 6 hours per day  Exhaust Rate ≥ 10000 m3/h, for all other cases
    • Phase : Design Development (DD) HVAC SYSTEMS Items to be considered Observations/CommentsVENTILATION AND AIR HANDLING: BASIC CONCEPTUAL CHOICESEnergy recovery from exhaust air: Recommendation:Check if provisions are made for energy recovery from Provisions for devices for energy recovery from exhaust air shall be made for the xhaust air in required zones following conditions:  Exhaust Rate ≥ 2000 m3/h, for a continuous use of more than 6 hours per day  Exhaust Rate ≥ 5000 m3/h, for all other casesModulation of supply air flow rates of Air Handling Requirement:Units (AHU): Use of variable speed supply fans is required for AHU with Air supply rates ≥Check if provisions were made for supply air flow rates 10000 m3/h.modulation in required zones Note: The following provisions are required where variable speed supply fans are required:  A minimum of 2 speeds are required on the supply fan  An automated control device allowing the selection of the various speeds  Air outlet grills and diffusers shall be able to accommodate the variation in air supply ratesUse of outside air for free-cooling : Requirement:Check if provisions were made for use of outside air for AHU shall allow use of outside air for space conditioning (Free cooling: 100% outside air) for the following conditions of minimum system outside air requirement:ree cooling in required zones •AHU with design minimum OA ≥1000m3/h for a continuous use of more than 6 hours per day of the AHU •AHU with design minimum OA ≥ 2000m3/h, for all other cases
    • Phase : Design Development (DD) ELECTRICAL SYSTEMS Items to be considered Observations/Comments DOCUMENTS TO BE PRESENTED FOR ASSESSMENT: A complete set of the “Design Requirement: Development” documents for Electrical The presentation, for assessment, of the following technical documents is mandatory: systems • The Technical Report • Calculation notes • Preliminary installation s cost estimate • Graphic documents including:  Single line wiring diagrams,  Lighting layouts drawings  Power distribution layouts drawings  Electrical risers diagrams  Plant rooms layouts drawings,  etc
    • Phase : Design Development (DD) ELECTRICAL SYSTEMS Items to be considered Observations/CommentsSIZING THE INTERIOR LIGHTING INSTALLATION: CHECKS ARE CARRIED OUT BY SPACE: Check calculation notes of interior lighting Requirement: systems: Sizing of the interior lighting system must be based on the calculating by point method. Check that a detailed calculation note (by point) The following assumptions must be clearly indicated: was provide, and examine all assumptions made.  number and locations of the calculation points,  calculation zone (position in space, including height of working plane),  average illumination levels and required uniformity,  maintenance factors for lighting fixtures,  reflection coefficients of the spaces interior surfaces, Project zoning Recommendation: o Check if the building zoning is compatible o It is highly recommended to carry out the project zoning in terms of with the project operating modes in the illumination requirements and operating modes of the different spaces in the various parts of the building building. o Check if large open spaces (open space o In large open spaces (open space offices, workshops, etc) it is highly offices, workshops, etc) are subdivided in recommended to subdivide the space into various zones with independent sub-zones lighting controls. Levels of Illumination: Requirement: check the level of illumination per room in  Illumination levels must be in conformity with the applicable standards, accordance with the type of activity according to the type of activity performed in the respective rooms /zones.  Maintenance factors in normal conditions for office & commercial spaces: Maintenance Factor:  0,8 for lighting fixtures with electromagnetic ballasts, Check maintenance factors for each room/zone  0,9 for lighting fixtures equipped with electronic ballasts,  For other situations, to be defined with Building Owner
    • Phase : Design Development (DD) ELECTRICAL SYSTEMS Items to be considered Observations/Comments EXTERIOR LIGHTING INSTALLATION DESIGN: Levels of Illumination: Requirements:  Illumination levels shall be in conformity with the recommended values Check the level of illumination per space in indicated in the “ ANME guide book for public lighting”. accordance with the ANME recommendations Lamps: Recommendation:  Use of lamps HPS (High Pressure Sodium) lamps for large spaces and Check if selected types of lamps are appropriate driving areas.  Use fluocompact lamps for pedestrians’ spaces and walk ways.  Use metal halide lamps for green spaces and decorative purposes Lighting fixtures upward flux factor: Requirements:  Upward flux factor for lighting fixture < 50% Check if selected types of lighting fixtures have adequate output levels. Lighting fixtures power factor: Requirements: Check if selected types of lighting fixtures have  Lighting fixtures Power factor > 0,90 adequate power factor levels Lighting fixtures control: Recommendation: Check if controls for lighting fixtures operation have  Use lighting controls associated with daylight sensors been properly defined and are appropriate.  Use different illumination levels throughout the operating time period, according to users’ schedule (Exp.: lower illumination levels after 1:00 a.m.)  Use automated programmable controls.
    • Phase : Design Development (DD) ELECTRICAL SYSTEMS Items to be considered Observations/Comments ELECTRIC POWER DISTRIBUTION NETWORKS: Recommendation: Controls and switches:  It is recommended to install energy sub-metering devices and insure  Check that each circuit is equipped with an automatic archiving of consumption metering data. independent power switch.  Use of a Building Energy Management System insuring the operating  Check that all these devices are centralized controls of the installation components and archiving of metered energy  Check if provisions were made for the installation consumption, is also recommended. of a centralized energy sub-metering system and automatic archiving of collected data. Note: In any case, allow for possible connection of energy consumption measuring devices on each circuit.
    • USE OF HIGH PERFORMANCE LIGHTING SYSTEMS 100 % 70 % 50 % 40 % 20 %
    • Phase : Design Development (DD) PROJECT SUMMARYREMARKS & COMMENTS: 1. Include in this part all other relevant aspects relating to the architectural, electrical and mechanical systems choices of the project and their possible impacts on its future thermal and energy behavior, 2. Provide a list of aspects and elements of the project considered to be critical or requiring a special attention, with respect to its future thermal and energy behavior, 3. Formulate specific proposals concerning the architectural, electrical and mechanical systems choices that can be made to improve future thermal and energy performance of the project, which must be taken into account before starting the next design phase 4. Provide a preliminary estimate of over-costs that can be associated with the proposed energy performance improvement measures for the project 5. Provide a preliminary evaluation of energy savings associated with the proposed energy performance improvement measures for the project, and corresponding payback periods 6. Etc.
    • SAMPLE CHEKLIST ITEMSFinal Design & Bidding (FD&B) Phase (Etudes définitives DAO)
    • Phase: Final Design & Bidding (FD&B) ARCHITECTURAL ASPECTS Items to be considered Observations/Comments DOCUMENTS TO BE PRESENTED FOR EXAMINATION: Requirement: Complete set of “Final Design & The presentation, for assessment, of the following technical documents is mandatory: Bidding” documents for structural • The Bill of Bidding Provisions and Conditions document and masonry works and related • The Bill of Construction Technical Specifications document • Calculation notes for the thermal coefficients of all external surfaces finishes works + Structural formwork components (walls, roofs, windows, etc.), and any other calculation notes drawings required for the thermal/energy performance evaluation of the project • Graphic documents including:  Topographic map drawing of the project site with an indication of true north,  Site location drawing,  Building(s) mass drawing,  Working drawings of floor plans of the various components of the project  Working drawings of building elevations and sections,  Structural formwork drawings,  Working detailed drawings for building envelope components including external walls composition, roof compositions, windowsills and lintels construction details, showing the position of the structure and the treatment of possible thermal bridges  Working drawings for construction details of solar protections  Schedule of fenestration details drawings
    • Phase: Final Design & Bidding (FD&B) ARCHITECTURAL ASPECTS Items to be considered Observations/CommentsOTHER ARCHITECTURAL & CONSTRUCTIVE PROVISIONS: Check construction works details for external Requirement: opaque surfaces, and position/ implementation • Implementation details for external building envelope components must be details for thermal insulation: provided in the tender documents and must specify the nature and thermal o Construction works details for external walls, characteristics of prescribed thermal insulating material, as well as precise allowing to achieve required energy performance, provisions to take for an adequate integration of this thermal insulation in the (position of thermal insulation to be checked) respective envelope component. o Construction works details for exposed roofs, allowing to achieve required energy performance (position of thermal insulation to be checked) Check integration of thermal inertia in the building Recommendation: envelope: • The thermal inertia included in the external components of the building envelope o Adequate positioning of thermal inertia in the should be located in a judicious way in accordance with the nature of the project: vertical walls  On the interior side with respect to thermal insulation for spaces that are o Adequate positioning of thermal inertia in the occupied all day (24 h); residential projects, hotel rooms, etc. horizontal components of the envelope  On the exterior side with respect to thermal insulation for spaces that are only occupied during daytime; Office buildings, etc. Check if thermal insulation is provided for exposed Recommendation: floors: • A special attention should be paid to floors that are exposed to ambient Cases to be considered; conditions. o floors exposed to ambient air conditions • A peripheral thermal insulation should be considered for ground coupled floors, o ground coupled floors o floors over unconditioned spaces
    • Phase: Final Design & Bidding (FD&B) ARCHITECTURAL ASPECTS Items to be considered Observations/Comments OTHER ARCHITECTURAL & CONSTRUCTIVE PROVISIONS: Check provisions made for dealing with thermal Recommendation: bridges at junction points between structural • Thermal bridges are important weak points of the building envelope and must elements and external building envelope be dealt with adequately in order to minimize, both their thermal and components : anesthetic problems. The impact of these weak points can be significantly  Adequate covering of vertical elements of the reduced by adopting the following provisions: structure o A structural design which integrates its external components within the  Adequate covering of the horizontal elements internal side of the building envelope, in such a manner that these elements of the structure can always have a layer of thermal insulation between them and outside air  Adequate constructive details for windowsills  Adequate constructive detail for lintels o Use prefabricated rolling shutters cases made out of insulating materials  Adequate constructive detail for rolling o Use fenestration frames designed with thermal bridge ruptures, for non- shutters cases wood fenestration materials  Adequate constructive for junctions between the fenestration frames and walls  Adequate choices of fenestration frames profiles (for materials other than wood) Check quality of prescribed fenestration Recommendation: materiel: • The type of fenestration frames material prescribed for the project will have an impact on the global thermal performance of external glazed surfaces and their influence on the thermal comfort of the occupants. The two following aspects should be considered: o The degree of built-in weather stripping of fenestration. o The thermal conductivity of the fenestration frames
    • Phase: Final Design & Bidding (FD&B) ARCHITECTURAL ASPECTS Items to be considered Observations/Comments OTHER ARCHITECTURAL & CONSTRUCTIVE PROVISIONS:  Check if outside shutters are provided for Recommendation: fenestration units, especially for spaces with Proper outside shutters can considerably contribute to lowering nighttime heat continuous occupancy (residential, hotel rooms, losses in winter, and daytime solar heat gains in summer. etc.) For large size fenestration units, it is highly recommended to use shutters with blades including injected thermal insulation.  Check if appropriate provisions are provided for Recommendation: outside air infiltration control through access The access doors to conditioned public spaces (Large halls, shopping malls, etc.) doors to public areas should be set up in such a way as to reduce outside air infiltration (revolving doors, entry locks, grooms, automated operation through user detection cell, etc.)  Check construction works details for fixed solar Requirements: protections The construction details of fixed solar protections (overhangs, etc.) must be provided in the tender documents and must specify the specific details of their implementation. These solar protections must be adapted to the orientation of the respective facades (rather vertical for west or east facing facades, and rather horizontal for south facing facades) Check construction works details for all other Refer to all applicable provisions retained for the project. provisions made
    • Phase: Final Design & Bidding (FD&B) HVAC SYSTEMS Items to be considered Observations/Comments DOCUMENTS TO BE PRESENTED FOR EXAMINATION: Complete set of “Final Design & Requirement: Bidding” documents for HVAC systems: The presentation, for assessment, of the following technical documents is mandatory: • The Bill of Bidding Provisions and Conditions document • The Bill of Works Technical Specifications document • Bill of quantities and Pricing schedule • Calculation notes • Graphic documents including:  Final Schematic and PI diagrams,  Final Chilled, hot and service water riser diagrams,  Detailed installation layouts drawings,  Detailed Plant rooms layouts drawings ,
    • Phase: Final Design & Bidding (FD&B) HVAC SYSTEMS Items to be considered Observations/Comments HEATING INSTALLATIONS: EQUIPMENT SELECTION Certification of heating equipment: Requirement: The boilers must be certified, factory equipped with safety and control Check if such provisions are made in the boards. technical specifications. Use of condensing boilers: Recommendation: Use of low water heating temperature circuits is recommended for space Check if such a provision is made, if not, suggest heating (Heating water Supply temp. ≤ 65°C). In which case, the use of at it. least one condensing boiler is highly recommended. Cascade operation of multiple boilers Requirement: Operation in cascade is mandatory if at least 2 equipments are connected on Check if such provisions are made in the the same circuit. technical specifications.
    • Phase: Final Design & Bidding (FD&B) HVAC SYSTEMS Items to be considered Observations/Comments COOLING /AIR-CONDITIONING INSTALLATIONS: EQUIPMENT SELECTION Heat recovery from chiller condenser, or other Recommendation: sources, for service hot water preheat: It is recommended to examine the feasibility of chiller condenser heat recovery for service hot water preheat. Other heat rejection sources can also be Check, if such provision is appropriate for the considered. chiller operating condition, that they are included in the final design and bidding documents. Adoption of a process or equipment Recommendation: contributing to the energy savings (Systems The use of a process or equipment contributing to energy savings is highly with variable refrigerant flow, gas fired recommended absorption chillers, tri-generation, etc.) Check, if such provisions are appropriate for the project, that they are included in the final design and bidding documents. . Cascade operation of multiple chillers Requirement: Operation in cascade is mandatory if at least 2 equipments are connected on the Check if such provisions are made in the same circuit. technical specifications.
    • Phase: Final Design & Bidding (FD&B) HVAC SYSTEMS Items to be considered Observations/Comments PROVISIONS FOR ENERGY CONSUMPTION MONITORING AND FOLLOW UP: Provisions for energy and water consumption Requirement: sub-metering: The installation of sub-meters on principal circuits: water, electricity and fuel is required. Check if such provisions are made in the final The installation of these sub-meters shall be based on objective criteria specific to design specifications. operating modes of the various components of the project: Recommendation: As an indication, one can recommend the following criteria: a- Meters for tap water and service hot water: Sub-meters shall be installed in the following cases:  Each separate block with total floor area ≥ 200 m², that is fed from general circuits serving several buildings or blocks  Each specific use requiring a consumption estimated at more than 5 m3 per day (laundry facilities & kitchen area in a hotel, etc) b- Energy sub-meters (gas/electricity): Sub-meters shall be installed in the following cases:  Each separate block with total floor area ≥ 200 m², that is fed from general circuits serving several buildings or blocks  Each specific use with a maximum daily consumption of: o 150 kWh/day for electrical energy o 400 kWh/day for fossil energy Archiving of consumption data measurements Recommendation: Check if such provisions are made in the final Automatic archiving of consumption metering data is highly recommended. design specifications. The installation of a Building Management System or an Energy Management System, insuring this archiving task and the operating controls of the installation components as well, is also recommended.
    • Phase: Final Design & Bidding (FD&B) ELECTRICAL SYSTEMS Items to be considered Observations/Comments DOCUMENTS TO BE PRESENTED FOR EXAMINATION: Complete set of “Final Design & Requirement: Bidding” documents for electrical works The presentation, for assessment, of the following technical documents is mandatory: and elevators • The Bill of Bidding Provisions and Conditions document • The Bill of Works Technical Specifications document • Bill of quantities and Pricing schedule • Calculation notes • Graphic documents including:  Single line wiring diagrams,  Lighting layouts drawings  Power distribution layouts drawings  Electrical risers diagrams  Plant rooms layouts drawings,  etc
    • Phase: Final Design & Bidding (FD&B) ELECTRICAL SYSTEMS Items to be considered Observations/Comments SIZING OF INTERIOR LIGHTING INSTALLATION: CHECKS ARE CARRIED OUT BY SPACE:Devices for light fixtures controls according to day Recommendations:lighting: In the buildings zones with good day lighting potential,Check if appropriate provisions were made to  Light fixtures having a total power rating ≥ 200W, that are at a distance ≤control light fixture, taking into account day light 4m from a source of day light (windows, etc.), must be controlled separatelycontributions from other light fixtures in the space.  Light fixtures that are close to daylight sources, shall be equipped with a control device allowing variation of their power output according day light contribution.  The circuits for lighting fixtures shall be designed to allow for arrangements indicated above.Lighting Circuits Controls and Switches: Requirements: Check if each room /space is equipped with at  A minimum of One on/Off switch per room/space least one on/off switch.  In nonresidential buildings, lighting switches for public areas and circulations shall not be accessible to the occupants (accessible only to the Check that all lighting controls are properly site manager) dispatched  Particular case of classrooms: Blackboard lighting must have a separate on/off switch  Particular case sports areas: Provide separate lighting control for adjacent Check functional organization of lighting Recommendations: controls:  Each zone of activity must have its own lighting control switch. Separate A: by zone of activity Lighting control switches shall be provided for subzones in large spaces. B: by sub-zones of activities  In spaces allowing to accommodate various types of activities, Light C: by type of activity within each zone controls shall be adapted to each type of activity.
    • Phase: Final Design & Bidding (FD&B) PROJECT SUMMARYREMARKS & COMMENTS: 1. Include in this part all other relevant aspects relating to the architectural, electrical and mechanical systems choices of the project and their possible impacts on its future thermal and energy behavior, 2. Provide a list of aspects and elements of the project considered to be critical or requiring a special attention, with respect to its future thermal and energy behavior, 3. Formulate specific proposals concerning the architectural, electrical and mechanical systems choices that can be made to improve future thermal and energy performance of the project, which must be taken into account before starting the construction phase 4. Provide a precise estimate of over-costs that can be associated with the proposed energy performance improvement measures for the project 5. Provide a precise evaluation of energy savings associated with the proposed energy performance improvement measures for the project, and corresponding payback periods 6. Etc.
    • SAMPLE CHEKLIST ITEMSConstruction / As Built Documents Phase (Realization & Recollement )
    • Phase: Construction / As Built Documents ARCHITECTURAL ASPECTS Items to be considered Observations/Comments DOCUMENTS TO BE PRESENTED BEFORE AND IN THE COURSE OF THE REALIZATION OF WORK Documents to be provided before and Requirement: during the construction works: Complete The presentation, for assessment, of the following documents is mandatory: set of contractual documents for • All contractual technical documents signed with the contractor, including structural and masonry works and bills of quantities. related finishes works: • The Bill of Construction Technical Specifications document • Calculation notes for the thermal coefficients of all external surfaces components (walls, roofs, windows, etc.), and any other calculation notes required for the thermal/energy performance evaluation of the project, that were not part of the final design set of documents • Technical data sheets for the following:  Isolation thermique  Glazing materials  Fenestration  Prefabricated materials  Other (specify) • Graphic documents including all drawings that were modified with respect to the final design set. Documents to be provided at the end of Requirement: construction works: To be presented The presentation, for assessment, of the following As Built documents is mandatory: prior to provisional acceptance • Graphic documents including all as built drawings • Data sheets of building materials that are part of the building envelope
    • Phase: Construction / As Built Documents ARCHITECTURAL ASPECTS Items to be considered Observations/Comments OTHER ARCHITECTURAL & CONSTRUCTIVE PROVISIONS: Check quality control procedures for construction Requirement: works • Quality control of construction works must be a clear and systematic procedure approved by the design and works supervision team. The procedures must include a daily documented quality control process, by a designated person from the contractor personnel. Assess quality level of building construction works: Requirement:  Were the constructive details of building envelope • The implementation of construction works details should be carried out in components carried out in a satisfactory way conformity to approved works design specifications and details. (assembling, etc)?  Was the implementation of the retained provisions to deal with thermal bridges carried out in a satisfactory way?  Was the implementation of fenestration works carried out in a satisfactory way?  Etc.
    • Phase: Construction / As Built Documents HVAC SYSTEMS Items to be considered Observations/Comments DOCUMENTS TO BE PRESENTED BEFORE AND IN THE COURSE OF THE REALIZATION OF WORK Documents to be provided before and Requirement: during the construction works: Complete The presentation, for assessment, of the following documents is mandatory: set of contractual documents for HVAC • All contractual technical documents signed with the contractor, including installations bills of quantities. • The Bill of Construction Technical Specifications document • Calculation Notes • Contractor’s detailed shop drawings (a detailed shop drawing version of the FD&B drawings + other detailed shop drawings as required) • Technical data sheets of all equipments to be installed and their instruction manuals: Boiler(s) Heat Pumps(s) Heat Exchanger(s) Pumps(s) Control Equipment Chillers / Cooling equipment Ventilation and air handling equipments Other (specify): ....................... Documents to be provided at the end of Requirement: construction works: To be presented prior The presentation, for assessment, of the following As Built documents is mandatory: to provisional acceptance • Graphic documents including all as built drawings • Data sheets and instruction manuals of all equipments that are part of the HVAC system
    • Phase: Construction / As Built Documents HVAC SYSTEMS Items to be considered Observations/Comments PERFORMANCES CHECKS OF ALL HVAC EQUIPMENTS:A-Check performances of all HVAC equipments Requirement:prior to installations and operation, based on The contractor must provide factory testing reports for chillers and heat pumps,presented documents: and independent laboratory testing reports where applicable. Check certifications of supplied equipments All verifications will be carried out with respect to bidding documents Check factory, or independent laboratory, testing specifications. reports where applicableB-Check performances of all HVAC equipments after Requirement:installations and operation, based on intended results The contractor shall provide: • A combustion analysis report for all boilers.
    • Phase: Construction / As Built Documents …ELECTRICAL SYSTEMS Items to be considered Observations/Comments DOCUMENTS TO BE PRESENTED BEFORE AND IN THE COURSE OF THE REALIZATION OF WORK Documents to be provided before and Requirement: during the construction works: Complete The presentation, for assessment, of the following documents is mandatory: set of contractual documents for electrical • All contractual technical documents signed with the contractor, including works and elevators bills of quantities. • The Bill of Construction Technical Specifications document • Calculation Notes • Contractor’s detailed shop drawings (a detailed shop drawing version of the FD&B drawings + other detailed shop drawings as required) • Technical data sheets of all equipments to be installed and their instruction manuals: Light fixtures particular Lamps Elevator (S) Electrical Cupboards Others (specify): ....................... Documents to be provided at the end of Requirement: construction works: To be presented prior The presentation, for assessment, of the following As Built documents is mandatory: to provisional acceptance • Graphic documents including all as built drawings • Data sheets and instruction manuals of all equipments that are part of the electrical works package and elevators
    • Phase: Construction / As Built Documents …ELECTRICAL SYSTEMS Items to be considered Observations/Comments CHECKING OF THE INSTALLATIONS OF LIGHTINGA- Check performances of all electrical equipments Requirement: and systems prior to installations and operation,  The technical features specified in the documents provided by the based on presented documents: contractor shall meet or exceed the requirements specified in the bidding Certification of the selected equipment, for a which documents. certification was required Upward flux factor of selected lighting fixtures Power efficiency of selected lamps Specified condenser/ballast for lighting fixtures Devices for light controls according to day lighting Lighting circuits controls; power distribution, operating modes, and retained types of controls and switches. Etc.B- Check performances of all electrical equipments Requirement and systems after installations and operation,  Variation ≤ 10% when compared to bidding documents stipulations. based on intended results
    • Phase: Construction / As Built Documents PROJECT SUMMARY RECAPITULATION AND CONCLUSIONS:A final report Is to be prepared at the end of the design works auditing mission, this report will:• Summarize the conclusions and important issues that were raised in the different project design and construction phases: Programming & Schematic Design (P&SD), Design Development (DD), Final Design & Bidding (FD&B) as well as the present phase (Construction / As Built Documents), and to include following information: o Basic Information on the project, o Energy performance improvement Measures that were proposed, and retained measures. o Results of energy analyzes that were carried out to evaluate the energy impacts of the proposed and retained measures o Results of economic analyzes that were carried out to evaluate the economic impacts of the proposed and retained measures. These results shall include:  Initial costs of the basic version of the project (without the energy savings measures)  final costs of the project that was constructed, specifying over costs due to the implementation of the energy saving measures  a summary table indicating for each energy saving measure the associated energy savings, over cost and associated money savings• Provide a qualitative evaluation of the project including the energy auditors assessment of: o The aspects that worked out very well in the project, and why? o The aspects that did not worked out well in the project: Causes of problems and possible solutions. o Lessons which can be drawn from the course of this project
    • Conclusion1. This tool promotes PREVENTIVE Measures2. PREVENTIVE Measures are much more cost effective than CURATIVE Measures3. Allows a systematic approach for optimization of equipment sizing, selection and operation
    • Thank you for your attention Eng. Mongi Bida bida.ceesen@planet.tn