Climate change and electricity generation


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Capacity Building in the Field of Wind Energy 6 - 15 December, 2009

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Climate change and electricity generation

  1. 1. Climate Change & Electricity Generation Eng. Rafik Youssef GeorgyConsultant for New & Renewable Energy Authority Tel : ( )– Fax : ( )– Mobile : ( )– E-mail :
  2. 2. Definition of Climate Change►There is a growing scientific consensus that increasinglevels of greenhouse gas emissions are changing the earth’sclimate. ►The natural greenhouse gases include carbon dioxide(CO ), water vapor (H O), nitrous oxide (N O), methane(CH ) and ozone (O ), and are essential if the Earth is tosupport life.►With the exception of water vapor, carbon dioxide is themost plentiful.
  3. 3. Definition of Climate Change►Since the beginning of the Industrial Revolution in , burning fossil fuels and the increased energy needsof a growing world population have added man-made, oranthropogenic, greenhouse gas emissions into theenvironment.► Carbon dioxide constitutes a tiny fraction of the earth’satmosphere about one molecule in three thousand but is thesingle largest waste product of modern industrial society.
  4. 4. Definition of Climate Change►The concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmospherehas risen from about parts per million by volume to thecurrent level of over parts per million by volume andanthropogenically caused atmospheric concentration ofmethane has doubled.► Increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases trap moreterrestrial radiation in the lower atmosphere (troposphere),artificially enhancing the natural greenhouse effect.
  5. 5. Definition of Climate Change The CO level has increased sharply since the beginning of the Industrial Era and is already outside the bounds of natural variability seen in the climate record of the last years. Continuation of current levels of emissions are predicted to raise concentrations to over ppm by .
  6. 6. Definition of Climate Change Instrumental Temperature Record from – indicates a global warming over the past century, with many peaks and valleys suggesting the natural year-to- year variability of climate.
  7. 7. Definition of Climate Change “Developing countries face a fundamental choice. They can mimic the industrial countries, and go through a development phase that is dirty and wasteful and createsan enormous legacy of pollution. Or they can leapfrog over some of the steps followed byindustrial countries and incorporate modern efficient technologies.”
  8. 8. Climate Change Cost►Developing Countries Trade-off between:•Cost of adopting cleaner and advanced Costtechnologies, and Cost of climate change consequences►CDM as a tool for reconciliation.
  9. 9. Climate Change and Electricity Generation►Substantial, pre-industrial abundances for CH and N Oare found in the tiny bubbles of ancient air trapped in icecores. Both gases have large, natural emission rates, whichhave varied over past climatic changes but have sustained astable atmospheric abundance for the centuries prior to theIndustrial Revolution.► Emissions of CH and N O due to human activities arealso substantial and have caused large relative increases intheir respective burdens over the last century.
  10. 10. Climate Change and Electricity Generation►Industrial Revolution and increase in the worldpopulation caused large relative increase in electricitygeneration.► Increase in electricity generation needs to increase in theusing of fossil fuel.► Increase in the using of fossil fuel, increase emission ofgreenhouse gases.
  11. 11. Climate Change and Electricity Generation Cause for global warming: Carbon dioxide emissions in million tons per year over the last years.
  12. 12. Climate Change and Electricity Generation Power generation is the main Biological degradation is the source of increase main source of increase
  13. 13. Climate Change and Electricity Generation Other human activitiesGlobal trends in major long-lived greenhouse gases through theyear . These five gases account for about of the directclimate change forced by long-lived greenhouse gas increasessince . The remaining is contributed by an assortment of minor halogen gases, mainly HCFC- , CFC- and CCL
  14. 14. Climate Change and Electricity Generation All energy sectors account for more than two thirds of GHG emissions
  15. 15. Climate Change and Electricity GenerationFrom which sectors do the major greenhouse gas emissions comefrom? The picture shows the sources individually for the gases ofcarbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide, respectively
  16. 16. Climate Change and Electricity Generation Annual Greenhouse gases emission frompower station represented about % from total sectors emission . Power stations have a big share of greenhouse gases emissions It is the single largest emission source worldwide
  17. 17. Mutual Interactions Between ElectricityGeneration and Climate Change►Power generation emits large quantities of CO .►CO contributes to global warming and henceclimate change►Climate change leads to extreme environmentvariation phenomena, e.g. drought and lowerrainfall profiles.►Scarcity of cooling water needed by fossil fuel –fired power stations.
  18. 18. Climate Change and Power GenerationThe importance of using Renewable Energy No GHG emissions Clean, non polluting and environmentfriendly Available every where in the developingcountries If overcoming relatively high kWh cost, Then An Ideal Solution