Social Media: Strategic Shift or Tactical Tool?


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Overview of social and mobile media with an emphasis on how the communication paradigm we use has to change to use them most effectively. This version was presented in the course "Pass It On – Health Communication and Marketing in a New Age" and Institute 2010 on 4 October 2010 in Atlanta GA. It is based on an earlier version presented at the International Nonprofit and Social Marketing Conference in Brisbane, Australia in July 2010.

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  • The question isn’t whether they are effective – it’s what is the average effect size they achieve (how much change do they result in)?About 5 percentage points, so that a baseline level of a behavior usually in increased, for example, from 60 to 65%. Campaigns for seat belt use (r = .15), dental care (r =.13) and adult alcohol reduction (r = .11) have had the strongest effects, while youth alcohol and drug campaigns have had the least (r = .01 -.02). Family planning (r = .06)Youth smoking prevention (r = .06)Heart disease reduction (including nutrition and physical activity; r = .05)Sexual risk taking (r = .04)Mammography screening (r = .04)Adult smoking prevention (r = .04)Youth alcohol prevention and cessation (r = .04 - .07)Tobacco prevention (r = .04)Preliminary findings (smaller number of studies)International breast feeding (r = .17)Fruit and vegetable campaigns (r = .08)In-school nutrition programs aimed at 4-5th graders (r = .12)
  • Mobile phones are not the next ‘magic bullet’ – we need to think of them as part of the personalized media space our people formerly know as ‘audiences’ are creating for themselves. Ubiquity in this increasingly mobile environment will be a key factor for our future successes in public health.
  • We act in ways that are consistent with howwe think about ourselvespeople we respect and trust want us topeople we aspire to be like behavepeople we associate with behaveWe are social beings wholook for validationshare experiences with othersact at our best and worse with others
  • An important point to reiterate about the new media world is that it is a networked one, not unidirectional or linear. This reality does not just pertain to how we depict our communication processes; it also reflects people’s reality. Just a cursory look at some of the health behaviors that are the focus of social marketing programs reinforces the fact that all health behaviors are, to a greater or lesser degree, social. New media now allows people to explore these social aspects with greater freedom than ever before. Freedom from geographic and temporal boundaries, open access to sources and information, and the ability to create the digital and social contours that surround health conversations, information-seeking, decision-making and behavioral choices. Encouraging screening behaviors for conditions and diseases that presently do not bother someone has been the subject of much work since at least the 1950s when the Health Belief Model emerged as a way to conceptualize the process for tuberculosis screening. Over the years, HBM and other individual models of screening behavior have predominated much of our thinking despite the evidence that social influences are likely much more important. Whether my health care professional recommends that I get screened for high blood pressure or blood cholesterol levels; breast, cervical, skin or prostate cancer; and other potential (and silent) problems is a social communication process – not simply a perception of perceived risk and severity of the disease. Whether I know other people who have been screened for the condition, what their experiences were, whether they suggest to me that I should have it done too, are much more powerful influences on my decision-making than some theorists would have us believe. That I can sit down at with my desktop, laptop or smart phone, connect to the internet and now find like-minded others who want to share their experiences can have a tremendous impact on how social my treatment-seeking behavioral determinants become. The web is changing the weights in our models of determinants of health behavior…The same types of questions are also important when we address the cessation of addictive behaviors (where social support becomes such an important determinant of short-term and long-term success), Adoption on new behaviors – especially complex ones like dietary changes and increasing levels of physical activity, compliance with medical regimens (where friends and family care-givers play a huge role), precaution adoption - taking actions or changing behaviors to avoid or reduce the threat of intentional and unintentional injuries, health information seeking (where over 66% of online searches involve looking for other people’s opinions, reading blogs, visiting social network sites), and taking collective action and advocacy – where the rise of mobile technologies have taken these activities to a whole new level of sophistication and effectiveness (see Smart Mobs).Source: Lefebvre, RC. The new technology: The consumer as participant rather than target audience. Social Marketing Quarterly 13:31-42.
  • When we accept the fact that we are working with health behaviors that occur within the frame of a social reality, not the all-American individualistic one, the power of the new media as a social network tool – not just another channel through which to direct messages in the ‘old world’ manner – becomes clear. When we accept the world as networked, and not layered or hierarchical, the role of any individual within a social system becomes much more flexible and nuanced. Not all people will be equally comfortable in the many different roles offered by the networked world. Seekers, curators, connectors, mavens, lurkers, conveners, weavers, guides, and many other types of roles are now possible for us to take on, encourage or support in our social marketing programs. Some of the questions we should be asking ourselves as social marketers in the networked world are: How can we enhance linkages that already exist among people, organizations and communities to allow them to access, exchange, utilize and leverage the knowledge and resources of the others? How do we help develop, nurture and sustain new types of linkages that bring together like-minded people, mission-focused organizations and communities that share interests to address common problems and achieve positive health and social change? How do we identify, encourage and enable the many different types of indigenous helpers that are found in social networks so that they can be more effective in promoting health? What do we do to better engage communities in monitoring, problem analysis and problem solving; striving to health and social equity; and increasing social capital? How do we go about weaving together existing social networks of individuals, organizations and communities to create new sources of power and inspiration to address health and social issues?  How does a networked view of the world disrupt our usual ways of thinking about and engaging the people, organizations and communities we usually work with? What are the insights we can gain from this perspective?  Source: Lefebvre, RC. The new technology: The consumer as participant rather than target audience. Social Marketing Quarterly 13:31-42.
  • Unisys study – 26 hours to report a loss wallet; 68 minutes for a phone2. Replaces the wrist watch3. 80% physically take it to bed – alarm, txt, phone calls
  • 89% use their online profiles to keep up with friends 57% use their profile to make plans with friends 49% use them to make new friends Other uses: organize with other people for an event, issue or cause; flirt with someone; promote themselves or their work; make new business contacts51% of social network users have two or more online profiles (83% on other SNS)
  • “Mobile communication is seen to facilitate the combination of autonomy and safety by making the individual free to relate to the world at large, while still relying on her personal support infrastructure…Mobile communication has greatly enhanced the chances, opportunities, and reach of interpersonal sociability and shared practices. People, particularly young people but not only, build their own networks of relationship, usually on the basis of their face to face experience, interests, and projects, and then keep them constantly open by using wireless communication, more often than the fixed-line Internet…Too often the use of mobile devices has been perceived and interpreted as a function of consumerism, oriented by fashion. Evidence seems to indicate that this is a very narrow interpretation of users' behavior, once wireless communication has diffused broadly in a given social context. Mobile communication is used for all kind of purposes, many of them highly instrumental, in professional work, in the organization of the family's everyday life, in sustaining sociability networks, in commercial transactions, in gathering and forwarding information, in sharing music, in producing and diffusing images, in socio-political mobilizations, and the like.”Source: Castells, M., Fernandez-Ardevol M, LinchuanQiu, JL, and Sey, A. (2004), The Mobile Communication Society: A cross-cultural analysis of available evidence on the social uses of wireless communication technology. Research report prepared for the International Workshop on Wireless Communication Policies and Prospects: A Global Perspective, held at the Annenberg School for Communication, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, October 8th and 9th 2004. [Accessed 14 July 2008 at
  • Source: Horrigan, J. The Mobile Difference. Pew Internet and American Life Project, March 2009.
  • Focus on the relationships that social media tools facilitate, not the tools themselves. "You want to use social media as a channel to better connect with your customers, as a way for you to better understand them, and for them to better understand you."From
  • mobile communications are changing our expectations about when and how others are available to us
  • Social Media: Strategic Shift or Tactical Tool?

    1. 1. Social Media: Strategic Shift or Tactical Tool?<br />Pass It On – Health Communication and Marketing in a New Age<br />4 October 2010<br />
    2. 2.
    3. 3. How Effective are Health Communication Campaigns?<br />5%<br />
    4. 4. Breaking Through Clutter<br />
    5. 5.
    6. 6. Social Media Tools<br /><br />Twitter*/TweetDeck<br />Feedburner<br />TinyURL/SnipURL<br />Facebook*<br />MySpace*<br />YouTube*<br />Typepad/Blogger<br />PBwiki/Wetpaint<br />LinkedIn<br />Technorati<br />Flickr*<br />Google<br />StumbleUpon<br />Digg<br />FriendFeed<br />Wikipedia<br />* GSA Social Media Agreement <br />
    7. 7. Social Media Behaviors<br />Link<br />Upload<br />Retweet<br />Develop relationships<br />Work together<br />Set goals<br />Promote participation <br />Mentor novices<br />Set and uphold policies<br />Monitor<br />Read<br />Browse<br />Search<br />Share<br />Friend<br />Rate<br />Tag <br />Review<br />Post<br />
    8. 8.
    9. 9. Old World: Sources, Channels, Messages & Receivers<br />
    10. 10.
    11. 11.
    12. 12.
    13. 13. Influencers<br />Potential Employees<br />Investors<br />Employees<br />MESSAGES<br />Customers<br />Competitors<br />Prospects<br />Partners<br />Press/Analysts<br />Networked World: Engagement, Interaction & Multiplexity<br />
    14. 14.
    15. 15.
    16. 16. Using New MediaKaiser Family Foundation. New media and the future of public service advertising. April, 2006.<br />VERB (8372)<br />Centers for Disease Control and Prevention<br />Fight Mannequinism<br />The Federal Voting Assistance Program and Ad Council<br />Above the Influence<br />Office of National Drug Control Policy, Partnership for A Drug-Free America<br />National Day to Prevent Teen Pregnancy<br />National Campaign to Prevent Teen Pregnancy, Teen People<br />Small Step<br />U.S Department of Health and Human Services, Ad Council<br />Girls Go Tech<br />Girl Scouts of USA, Ad Council<br />
    17. 17. New Media Cookie Cutter<br />Set up a web site with information and/or 'cool stuff' to interact with or download<br />Convert the PSAs and print material into digital formats<br />Promote like crazy through traditional media and the web (blogs, MySpace, viral, WOM) - now it's new!<br />Use cell phones and SMS as a response channel<br />Push messages and alerts out to participants who opt-in at the web site or through SMS to receive them <br />Measure results by eyeballs and click throughs<br />Caution: Adherence to these principles will insure that you develop a program that uses new media and does not apply social technologies that fit into people’s lives and practices and help change behaviors in relevant ways.<br />
    18. 18.
    19. 19.
    20. 20. “The most frequently cited benefit of the internet was in helping people tap into [their] social networks” – Susannah Fox.<br />
    21. 21.
    22. 22. Social Networks Frame the Opportunities and Constraints for Change<br />
    23. 23. <ul><li>We act in ways that are consistent with how
    24. 24. we think about ourselves
    25. 25. people we respect and trust want us to
    26. 26. people we aspire to be like behave
    27. 27. people we associate with behave
    28. 28. We are social beings who
    29. 29. look for validation
    30. 30. share experiences with others
    31. 31. act at our best and worse with others</li></li></ul><li>What’s Social About Behavior?<br /><ul><li>Treatment adherence
    32. 32. Precaution adoption
    33. 33. Health information seeking
    34. 34. Collective action and advocacy
    35. 35. Screening behaviors
    36. 36. Quitting addictive behaviors
    37. 37. Adopting new ones</li></li></ul><li>New Technologies Expand The Scope and Capacity for Learning<br />
    38. 38. TWO-STEP FLOW MODELOF INFLUENCE<br />Source: Watts, DJ, Dodds, PS. (2007). Influentials, networks and public opinion formation. Journal of Consumer Research; 34. <br />
    39. 39. NETWORK MODEL OF INFLUENCE<br />Source: Watts, DJ, Dodds, PS. (2007). Influentials, networks and public opinion formation. Journal of Consumer Research; 34. <br />
    40. 40. Visualizing the Tipping Point<br />
    41. 41. What Does Social Media Do?<br />Becomes a collaborative platform<br />Harnesses collective intelligence <br />Enables everyone to be a content creator<br />Provides greater access to knowledge and information resources<br />Encourages media multiplexity<br />Expands and manages social networks<br />
    42. 42. Changes Our Roles<br /><ul><li> Enhance existing linkages
    43. 43. Develop new linkages
    44. 44. Enable indigenous helpers
    45. 45. Create new networks
    46. 46. Empower existing ones
    47. 47. Weave together networks
    48. 48. Engage communities in new ways</li></li></ul><li>Working inSocial Networks<br /><ul><li>‘Bridging’ and ‘bonding’ (building, strengthening and using social connections)
    49. 49. Audience Benefits: access social network resources and solves a problem
    50. 50. Focus on ‘boundary spanners’
    51. 51. Enhance salience and attractiveness of the ‘out group’ [positive deviants] – put the practitioners of ‘new’ behaviors in a light that attracts imitation or modeling.
    52. 52. Build sustainable local capacities/assets</li></li></ul><li>
    53. 53.
    54. 54. Four or five years ago, we shifted our model out of the PC-related things, because it’s pretty obvious that the PC is the past. PC’s over…[Now} it all goes to the cellphone.<br />The cellphone becomes actually the PC for entertainment, for <br />microloans, for all those other things.<br />-Samuel Palmisano, CEO of IBM,<br />The Wall Street Journal<br />14 February 2008<br />
    55. 55. The 7th Mass Media Channel<br />1 - first personal mass media<br />2 - permanently carried media<br />3 - always-on mass media<br />4 - built-in payment mechanism<br />5 - at the point of creative inspiration<br />6 - accurate audience<br />measurement<br />7 - captures the social context of media consumption<br />Tomi T Ahomen. Communities<br />Dominate Brands blog, 2 May 2008.<br />
    56. 56. Eighty percent of the world’s population now lives within range of a cellular network – <br />Sara Corbett, NYT Magazine<br />7 Apr 2008<br />
    57. 57. 89% of adults use their online profiles to keep up with friends <br />
    58. 58. …in an increasingly transitory world, the cellphone is becoming the one fixed piece of our identity – Jan Chipchase, User Anthropologist <br />NYT Magazine<br />7 Apr 2008<br />
    59. 59. FDA, CDC and HHS – The Peanut Recall 2009<br />3,800 products recalled as of 3/30/09<br />
    60. 60. Product Recall Database<br /> FDA developed a recall database that enables consumers to search for products by brand name, product description, and more. <br />
    61. 61. Blogs<br />HHS and CDC blogs provide information about the product recalls and outbreak investigations and encourage comments and conversations.<br />The HHS Peanut Product Recall blog contained posts from CDC, FDA, and HHS. <br />The CDC National Center for Zoonotic, Vector Borne, and Enteric Diseases (NCZVED) blog contained salmonella-related information and updates (over 3,000 page views between 1/25 – 2/1).<br />
    62. 62. Webinar for Bloggers<br /> On February 3rd, 35 blog writers spoke with FDA and CDC subject matter experts about the Salmonella Typhimurium outbreak and peanut-containing products recall efforts, including current and future resources for bloggers during food safety incidents.<br />Bloggers were provided with Web graphics to share with their readers.<br />
    63. 63. Online Video<br /> FDA’s video on things you should know during the peanut butter and peanut-containing product recalls was available on both the FDA and CDC YouTube channels.<br />FDA YouTube Channel:<br />CDC YouTube Channel:<br />
    64. 64. Buttons and Badges<br />Online graphics allow partner organizations and citizens to display simple images and messaging related to the recall. <br />A series of 3 buttons were shared with partner federal agencies and organizations.<br />Two badges were made available on the CDC MySpace page for individuals to use within their profile pages.<br />
    65. 65. Twitter<br />FDA Recalls.Created for product recalls, this Twitter feed is a channel for communicating news and alerts during the recall efforts -- 2837 followers<br />
    66. 66.
    67. 67. The Little Widget That Could<br />Recall Widget<br />9.6 million page views<br />Placed on 20,000<br /> external websites <br />Recalls Database of <br /> Searchable Products<br />Over 22 million page views<br />
    68. 68. Social Media in the News<br />From:<br />
    69. 69. Pew Internet and American Life ICT Segments<br />
    70. 70. Pew Internet and American Life ICT Segments<br />
    71. 71. A Language of Consumer Centricity<br />Search<br />Proximity<br />Recommendation<br />Links<br />Discovery<br />Currency of information<br />A Moore. The glittering allure of the mobile society. November 2008.<br />
    72. 72.
    73. 73. Focus on the relationships that<br />social media tools facilitate, not the tools themselves.<br />."<br />
    74. 74. Social Media and Social Marketing<br />How do I add social media features to my behavior change products, services and programs?<br />
    75. 75. Social Media and Social Marketing<br />How do I use these technologies to overcome psychological and social barriers (costs) people have to engaging in new behaviors, develop new incentives and reinforcers and create new ways of providing social support to people who are trying to change behaviors?<br />
    76. 76. Social Media and Social Marketing<br />How can I place-shift; use SNS, co-presence and virtual worlds; and add GPS to create scalable behavior change programs?<br />
    77. 77. Social Media and Social Marketing<br />How do I add social media features to my behavior change products, services and programs?<br />
    78. 78. Social Media and Social Marketing<br />How do I overcome physical, psychological and social barriers (costs) and develop new incentives and reinforcers for people who are trying to change behaviors?<br />
    79. 79. Social Media and Social Marketing<br />How can I place-shift; use SNS, co-presence and virtual worlds; and add GPS to create scalable behavior change programs?<br />
    80. 80. Social Media and Social Marketing<br />How do I facilitate conversations among people, not aim messages at them? <br />
    81. 81. Are we available when, where and how people want us to be?<br />
    82. 82. Communication and Marketing Choices<br />
    83. 83. Ask not what tools you want to use, ask how you want to change how you talk to people. All evolutions in marketing are evolutions in language. Those who can raise the level of conversation in any market, win. -Hugh MacLeod <br /><br />
    84. 84. R. Craig Lefebvre, PhD<br />University of South Florida School of Public Health, Tampa, FL<br />socialShift, Sarasota, FL<br />social|design, marketing and media<br />On Social Marketing and Social Change<br /><br /><br />