Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
Sociological Research
Sociological Research
Sociological Research
Sociological Research
Sociological Research
Sociological Research
Sociological Research
Sociological Research
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

×
Saving this for later? Get the SlideShare app to save on your phone or tablet. Read anywhere, anytime – even offline.
Text the download link to your phone
Standard text messaging rates apply

Sociological Research

2,469

Published on

This is a powerpoint to accompany Introduction to Sociology: …

This is a powerpoint to accompany Introduction to Sociology:
http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Introduction_to_Sociology

Published in: Education, Technology
0 Comments
1 Like
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
2,469
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
128
Comments
0
Likes
1
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. Introduction to Sociology: Sociological Methods
  • 2. The Development of Social Science ● Ancient philosophy was the precursor to what we call “science” today – It included some data collection, but was more reliant on introspection ● What we call science today developed over thousands of years – particularly during the enlightenment – into an empirical process ● This is often referred to as “The Scientific Method”
  • 3. The Scientific Method ● Characterization (operationalization or quantification, observation and / or measurement) ● Hypothesis (a theoretical, hypothetical explanation of the observations and / or measurements) ● Prediction (logical deduction from the hypothesis or logical induction from the data) ● Experiment (test and / or discussion of all of the above; in the social sciences, true experiments are often replaced with a different form of data analysis that will be discussed in more detail below)
  • 4. Correlation and Causation
  • 5. Quantitative vs. Qualitative Sociology ● Quantitative sociology is generally a numerical approach to understanding human behavior. Surveys with large numbers of participants are aggregated into data sets and analyzed using statistics, allowing researchers to discern patterns in human behavior. ● Qualitative sociology generally opts for depth over breadth. The qualitative approach uses in-depth interviews, focus groups, or analysis of content sources (books, magazines, journals, TV shows, etc.) as the data source.
  • 6. Objective vs. Critical vs. Subjective ● While sociologists use methods that attempt objectivity, they still have biases. ● Sociologists' biases influence: – The selection of a research topic (this selection reveals something the author believes is important whether or not it is) – The selection of data (this selection reveals data the author believes is reliable whether or not it is) ● Sociologists can also be critical in their perspective, arguing for change.
  • 7. Ethics ● Since sociologists study humans, we must be extra cautious in designing our studies ● Tuskegee syphilis experiment ● Institutional Review Boards – informed consent, confidentiality, anonymity, minimized risk, limited harm, benefits outweigh costs
  • 8. What Can Sociology Tell Us? ● human behavior is complex, making prediction - especially at the individual level - difficult or even impossible ● the presence of researchers can affect the phenomenon being studied (Hawthorne Effect) ● society is constantly changing, making it difficult for sociologists to maintain current understandings; in fact, society might even change as a result of sociological investigation (for instance, sociologists testified in the Brown v. Board of Education decision to integrate schools) ● it is difficult for sociologists to strive for objectivity and handle the subjective components of scientific practice - especially when the phenomena they study is also part of their social life

×