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Race And Ethnicity

Race And Ethnicity



This is a powerpoint to accompany Introduction to Sociology:

This is a powerpoint to accompany Introduction to Sociology:



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    Race And Ethnicity Race And Ethnicity Presentation Transcript

    • Introduction to Sociology Race & Ethnicity
    • Race: Myth and Reality
      • What is “race”?
      • How is “race” different from species?
      • Racial myths:
        • Myth 1 – Is there a superior race?
          • How do we know this?
          • Cultural controlled intelligence tests average out
        • Myth 2 – Is there a “pure” race?
          • Human characteristics flow endlessly together
          • African American Lives DNA testing – all were a mixture
          • How “black” is Oprah?
          • The fact that I am asking that question raises another –
          • Can someone be “more black” than someone else?
      • What does it mean to be “black”?
      89% (Whoopi is 92% “black”; Chris Tucker is 93% “black”)
    • Race
      • So, does race actually exist?
      • Are there biological differences between races?
        • Yes, but there is greater variation within races than between races
      • Are there characteristics that vary by groups?
        • Sure, but what does that have to do with “race”?
      • Race is a social construct
        • It is an idea created by different groups for different reasons, but primarily to discriminate.
        • The characteristics chosen aren’t quite arbitrary, but may as well be?
      George Hamilton Halle Berry
    • Race in the US, 2007 Source: Statistical Abstracts, 2009 – Table 11.
    • Race in Brazil, 2006. Source: http://www.ibge.gov.br/home/estatistica/populacao/condicaodevida/indicadoresminimos/sinteseindicsociais2006/indic_sociais2006.pdf
    • % white (Census 2000)
    • % black (Census 2000)
    • % Native American (Census 2000)
    • % Asian (Census 2000)
    • Race
      • So, is the word “race” meaningless?
        • If it is meaningless, why study it?
      • It isn’t quite meaningless because many people still endow it with meaning.
        • some people still make race a big deal by discriminating or holding prejudices
      • Additionally, differences by perceived race are still important to consider
        • There are differences in income, wealth, health, etc. based on perceived race
    • Ethnicity
      • Race refers to biological characteristics
        • (But remember, it only exists because we make the distinctions, not because we are different species or in any other ways necessarily different.)
      • Ethnicity refers to cultural characteristics
        • Common ancestry
        • Cultural heritage
        • Nations of origin
      • US Census says there are at least two “ethnic” groups in the US – Hispanic and non-Hispanic
        • Why do we consider “Hispanic” an ethnicity and not a race?
      • So, is there a “black” race in the US? Is there a “black” ethnicity in the US?
    • % Hispanic (Census 2000)
    • Civil Rights
      • Civil rights – citizens’ legally guaranteed opportunity to participate equally in the society
        • Without it, entire groups are evaluated on ascriptive qualities
      • Does every person in the U.S. have “civil rights”?
        • What about homosexuals, Muslims, and atheists?
      • Have most groups had civil right since the founding of the USA?
    • Civil Rights & Native Americans
      • Native Americans
        • The relatively untold story of discrimination in the U.S.
        • Why are Native Americans the Invisible Minority?
          • So few (less than 1%)
          • Live in rural areas
      • We literally went from treaties, to genocide, to population transfer, to colonialism, to segregation, to assimilation and are still here
        • 1950s – programs to assimilate Native Americans
      • As recent as 1970s that some were given basic civil rights
      • What about casinos and gambling – helping, hurting, reparations?
    • Prejudice and Discrimination
      • What’s the differences between prejudice and discrimination?
      • Prejudice is belief
      • Discrimination is Action
        • When you act on a prejudice, you are discriminating
        • Doesn’t have to be over race, can be over many other factors
    • Color-Blind Racism
      • Attitudes about race have changed:
        • Basically no one says they want segregated schools
        • Very few say they want segregated neighborhoods
        • Very few say they want to ban interracial marriage
      • But attitudes are not the only important part
      • Racism today in the U.S. is primarily covert – it’s hidden
        • 3% of whites object to a few blacks in school
        • But when more than half are black, the objection goes up to 59%
          • Why?
        • 66% of whites oppose busing
          • What’s the manifest reason? And what’s the practical implication?
    • Illustrations of Racial/Ethnic Stratification
      • Infant mortality rates
      • Housing segregation
      • Poverty, occupation, and income
    • Per 1,000 live births; source: http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/nvsr/nvsr50/50_12t2a.pdf
    • Per 1,000 live births; source: http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/nvsr/nvsr50/50_12t2a.pdf
    • Implication: Being black is worse for your health than smoking? Per 1,000 live births; source: http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/nvsr/nvsr50/50_12t2a.pdf
    • Residential Segregation – Urban Areas Group 1980 1990 2000 Native Americans .37 .37 .33 Asian Americans .41 .41 .41 Hispanic Americans .50 .50 .51 African Americans .73 .68 .64 % of people of same race/ethnicity in neighborhood People have varying reasons for this, and odd justifications… Time for a story (my neighbor).
    • Race/Ethnicity and Mortgages Source: Thomas 1991. Remember, it is illegal to discriminate based on race. So, how is this done?
    • Discrimination in Apartment Rentals Source: Massey and Lundy 2001. If you’re a home owner and blacks or other minorities start moving into your neighborhood, what’s going to happen to your property value? Does this justify discrimination?
    • Race/Ethnicity and SES Race / ethnic group Median Family Income Unemployment In poverty % of population whites $54,633 5.2% 10.2% 68.0% Latinos $34,185 5.2% 21.4% 13.7% blacks $33,525 10.8% 24.1% 12.2% Asians $60,984 4.0% 10.1% 4.1% Native Americans $32,866 NA 23.9% 0.8% Race / ethnic group Own Home College Degree Doctorates % of population whites 72.1% 27.0% 81.0% 68.0% Latinos 47.5% 10.5% 4.3% 13.7% blacks 47.7% 17.3% 7.2% 12.2% Asians 56.7% 43.1% 7.0% 4.1% Native Americans NA 11.5% 0.5% 0.8%
    • Racial and Ethnic Stratification Relative and absolute changes over time
    • Net Worth by Race/Ethnicity - 2002 Source: Pew Hispanic Center; The Wealth of Hispanic Households: 1996 to 2002.
    • Recent Example of Prejudice
      • Many think people came together during and after Hurricane Katrina in New Orleans
      • Not exactly…
      Disaster research usually finds that people bind together to form an “altruistic community,” putting aside their differences to foster mutu­al recovery. The New Orleans story was more complex. While there was a good deal of altruism and what disaster researchers call pro-social behavior, there was also divisiveness. These cars were stacked between the Lower Ninth Ward, which was 67 percent African American, and St. Bernard Parish, which was 90 percent white. We do not know who built the barrier, but we do know it was people in St. Bernard. Both areas were devastated by the flood. Altruistic communities are real enough, but deep-seated animosities, such as racial tensions, were not washed away by the floodwaters.
    • Sociological Theories of Prejudice
      • Functionalism
        • How might prejudice and discrimination be “functional” for a society or group?
          • Encourages strong in-group ties
      • Conflict Theory
        • Those in power use racial ideas to support their power
          • Race relations after slavery as blacks moved north
          • North was anti-slavery, but became increasingly anti-black
            • Why?
      • Symbolic Interactionism
        • Labels create and allow prejudice and discrimination
          • Labeling Indians savages
    • Race and Ethnic Relations in the US
      • Why do blacks continue to lag behind whites and other ethnic groups in income, education, etc.?
      • Complicated – both racial discrimination and class
        • Blacks do experience everyday discrimination:
          • e.g., pulled over, more likely to be arrested, etc.
          • e.g., discrimination in hiring and firing
        • But a big part of the problem is social class – blacks are more likely to be poor
          • We now know that poverty, like wealth, tends to carry on from generation to generation
          • Blacks greater representation among the poor gives blacks as a whole greater problems (when numbers are aggregated
      • William Julius Wilson’s argument:
        • Two groups of blacks, and class is now the issue.
    • White Privilege?
      • Is there such a thing as “white privilege”?
        • Do whites have advantages that they aren’t even aware of?
      • Examples:
        • When you go shopping, people don’t suspect you of nefarious motives.
        • Never pulled over because of your race.
        • Every store carries culturally relevant products (e.g., hair care, makeup, food, etc.).
    • Projected Racial Makeup of the US Source: The New Americans, Smith and Edmonston 1997.
    • Cross-National Perspective on Race/Ethnicity
      • 7.6% of UK population is minority groups (compared to 32% in the U.S.)
      • But it is still an issue
      • Table gives unemployment rates
      Men Women United States Whites 5 4 Asians 4 4 Hispanics 6 7 Blacks 12 10 United Kingdom White 5 4 Indian 7 7 Black Caribbean 14 9 Black African 15 13 Pakistani 16 16 Bangladeshi 20 24
    • Percent in U.S. Saying There Should be a Law Against Interracial Marriage
    • Discussion Questions
      • What should we do about immigration? Need we do anything?
      • What is “Affirmative Action” and should it exist?
      • Do we want a multicultural society?
      • Should we even use the word “race” any more?