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This is a powerpoint to accompany Introduction to Sociology:

This is a powerpoint to accompany Introduction to Sociology:



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    Groups Groups Presentation Transcript

    • Introduction to Sociology Groups
    • Quick Exercise
      • How comfortable would you feel going to lunch with a stranger who is:
        • another UT student
        • a Christian
        • an atheist
        • a Muslim
      • a prostitute
      • homosexual
      • a politician
      • someone from China
      • a polygamist
      • a convicted felon
      • an elderly person
      Comfort Level Thermometer 50 – somewhat comfortable 0 – very uncomfortable 100 – very comfortable
    • Groups and Categories
      • People who identify with one another and regularly interact, usually with some unified purpose
        • Examples?
      • How is a group different from a social category?
        • Why is this distinction important?
      What about tall people and short people?
    • Social Identity Theory
      • Why do people identify with and join groups?
      • Categorization:
        • We categorize objects to understand them
        • Is this true?
      • By putting people into categories/groups, what do we learn about them?
      • What do we learn about ourselves from our group memberships?
    • The Psychic Game
      • What can you tell from someone’s group memberships or social categories?
      • I need a volunteer
        • I need to know three things about your parents:
          • Professions, where they live, are they still together?
        • From this, we are going to guess, collectively, the following:
          • income, education, size of house, how many and types of cars they drive, how many kids, pets, how many and types of vacations per year, clothes they wear to work, type of music they listen to, religion, political views
      • Is this stereotyping? Is this a good thing?
      • Do you do this in your everyday life?
    • Social Identity Theory
      • Identification:
        • We identify with groups, to greater or lesser degrees
        • Group memberships are “social identity”; unique individual is “personal identity”
      • Does identifying with a group mean we are “identical” to other members of the group?
        • Not necessarily, but we tend to think of people in our outgroups as being identical
        • Ingroup vs. Outgroup
        • Why do we do this?
    • Ingroups vs. Outgroups
      • Pull out your thermometer scores...
      • How did you rate these categories:
        • another UT student
        • a Christian
        • an atheist
        • a Muslim
        • a prostitute
        • homosexual
        • a politician
        • someone from China
        • a polygamist
        • a convicted felon
        • an elderly person
    • Social Identity Theory
      • Comparison
        • We compare our groups to other groups
        • But we don't do so fairly; we tend to be biased in our comparisons
        • We either compare our group with other, less prestigious groups, which makes us feel better about our group memberships
        • Or we minimize the differences between our group and more prestigious groups, which makes us feel better about our group memberships
      • Is this true? Examples?
        • UT vs. other schools; US vs. other countries?
      • Why do this?
    • Social Identity Theory
      • So, why do we join groups?
        • Group membership gives us a sense of identity
        • Group membership makes us feel better about ourselves
    • Primary vs. Secondary Groups
      • Primary Groups – our intimate groups
        • Our first group - usually our families
        • What influence do they have on us?
          • Generally we incorporate our primary group’s attitudes, values, and beliefs (i.e., culture) through socialization
          • The family is the first looking-glass self
          • Anyone ever asked you, “Would you do that if your mom was here?”
        • Develop other intimate groups later in life
      • Secondary Groups
        • Larger, More Anonymous
        • Members Interact Based on Statuses
        • Fail to Satisfy Need for Intimate Association, though…
          • We can develop primary groups within secondary groups
    • Group Influence
      • Does group membership influence our behavior?
        • How?
          • through our roles and desire to remain a member of the group
      • So, does belonging to a group allow the group power over us in some ways?
        • How so?
      • Groups influence us in a number of other ways
    • Conformity
      • Does group membership lead to conformity?
        • Also known as “peer pressure”
      • Solomon Asch conducted a number of factual conformity experiments, like his line studies
      • Do you conform?
        • Have you ever done things in a group you wouldn't otherwise do?
    • Social Facilitation and Social Loafing
      • Working in a group can lead to enhanced behavior
        • competition can enhance performance, unless we are not good at what we are competing in
      • Working in a group can also lead to social loafing
        • People don't work as hard in groups as they would alone
        • Group projects? ;)
    • False Consensus
      • False consensus is the tendency for people to project their way of thinking onto other people.
      • So, who thinks the majority of Americans favor same sex marriage?
      • Who thinks the majority oppose it?
      • The answer...
      • What are your own views?
      "Should the federal government give legal recognition to marriages between couples of the same sex?" Yes = 46% No = 53% Unsure = 1% Source: http://www.pollingreport.com/civil.htm
    • Groupthink
      • What is groupthink?
        • Collective tunnel vision groups sometimes develop
      • Examples:
        • Bay of Pigs – botched invasion of Cuba
        • Iran rescue attempt by Carter
        • Iraq war?
      • How do you prevent it?
        • contrarian
    • Diffusion of Responsibility
      • The Larger the Group…
        • The greater the diffusion of responsibility
          • Kitty Genovese (1935-1964)
          • stabbed to death in New York City on the street
          • about 12 people saw parts of the assault, but did very little – finally one person called the police
          • Moseley attacked, left, and attacked again
        • Diffused responsibility or callousness?
      • Do you do this?
        • How often do you stop for broken down cars?
    • Social Networks
      • Social Networks
        • Social structure between actors; indicates the ways in which actors are connected through various social familiarities ranging from casual acquaintance to close familial bonds
      • Social networks are a type of “social capital”
        • Social capital is important for a lot of things, including: getting jobs, social activism, social support, etc.
      • The Small World Phenomenon
        • Do we really have six degrees of separation to anyone else on the planet?
          • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Six_Degrees_of_Kevin_Bacon
          • Probably not (hard to get messages/packages through to anyone)
          • But if it does work, it usually takes about 5 to 7 steps to get a message to anyone on the internet