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This is a powerpoint to accompany Introduction to Sociology:

This is a powerpoint to accompany Introduction to Sociology:



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    Gender Gender Presentation Transcript

    • Introduction to Sociology Gender
    • The Social Construction of Gender?
      • Sex - Biological Characteristics
        • Female (XX) and Male (XY)
        • Primary and secondary sexual characteristics
          • Penis, vagina, breasts, testicles, uterus, etc.
      • Gender - Social Characteristics
        • Masculinity and femininity
        • Appropriate behavior
      • Why distinguish between the two?
        • Gender and sex don’t always align
        • Example?
      • Gender is also a master status
        • Gender roles dictate behavior
        • Why? How?
      Gwen Araujo 2002
    • Nature vs. Nurture
      • Do men and women behave differently?
      • What percentage of that behavior is biological (nature); what percentage is sociological (nurture)?
        • We don’t actually know…
        • But it’s definitely a combination!
      • Nature vs. Nurture is a “false dichotomy”
      • It is really nature AND nurture!
    • What is gender stratification?
      • Unequal access to power, prestige, and property on the basis of sex
      • Why might this exist?
      • Does it still exist today?
        • How many of your mothers make more than your fathers?
        • Women, how many of you plan to make more than your spouse?
        • Men, how many of you plan to make more than your spouse?
        • Who should make more?
    • The Origins of Gender Stratification
      • Our best guess for the origins of patriarchy?
        • Biology!
        • Child birth and child rearing led to gendered behavior – male dominance
      • We don’t know this for sure (we weren’t there to observe it)
      • But we see similar behavior in our primate relatives
      • And it makes sense.
    • Patriarchy Continued
      • Gendered behavior probably originated with biological necessities (child care)
      • But now continues with socialization
        • How the child care takes place is not determined by biology (e.g., Jeannie)
        • Who does the child care is only partially determined by biology, and is now even less determined by it (e.g., formula)
        • And how boys and girls are socialized is not dictated by biology (though it may be influenced by it)
      • Leaving us with: gender socialization
    • Gender Typing and Occupations
      • Historical developments in gender have led to current systems of stratification
        • Is work typed by gender?
          • Can women do anything men can do?
        • Are female-typed occupations more or less prestigious than male-typed occupations?
          • Pharmacists
      • Global gap in education
        • When parents have to decide which child gets education, routinely women are not selected for that opportunity – men are
    • Inequality in Education: Percent of Men and Women who CANNOT read or write Country Women men Niger 92% 76% Pakistan 79% 40% Ethiopia 67% 56% Morocco 64% 38% Egypt 56% 33% India 55% 32% Iraq 54% 34% Haiti 52% 48% Why?
    • Egalitarian Gender Norms
      • What are egalitarian gender norms?
      • Are they realistic?
      • Should the sexes be equal?
    • Labor Force Participation
      • Why is labor force participation such an important issue?
        • Resources!
      • Is high labor force participation for women a good thing or bad thing considering:
        • The higher the rate of women’s labor force participation, the higher the rate of divorce.
        • What might explain this finding?
    • Gender Inequality in the Workplace
      • Women’s paid workforce participation has increased substantially since the 1950s
        • Why?
        • What implications does this have for other elements of society?
      • What about the classic notion that women make less money?
        • Is it true?
        • Is it true when you control for qualifications?
      • Also bigger gap at higher salaries
        • Why?
    • Source: Szafran, Robert F. Age-adjusted labor force participation rates, 1960-2045. Monthly Labor Review. September. 2002.
    • Proportion of married women with kids in labor force
    • Source: Statistical Abstracts, 2009.
    • Changes in Percentages of Professionals by Gender Dentists Physicians (MD) Lawyers Source: Statistical Abstract 2009.
    • Women as a percent of workers in selected occupations Occupation – white collar 1970 2004 Occupation – blue collar 1970 2004 Civil Engineer 2 12 Carpenter 1 2 Architect 4 24 Electrician 2 2 Marketing Manager 8 40 Truck Driver 2 5 Engineering Technician 9 20 Mechanic 3 4 Physician 10 29 Protective Service 7 22 Sales Supervisors 17 43 Bartender 21 58 Computer Programmer 24 27 Textile Machine 79 78 Accountant 25 31 Private Household 94 90 Cashiers 84 76 Elementary Teacher 84 81 Bank Teller 87 88 Registered Nurse 97 92 Secretary 98 97
    • Gender Equality
      • We’ve made some headway in moving toward equality, but how equal is society today?
      • Nearly 1/3 of all married women today are still breadservers
        • Good or bad thing?
      • Women still earn less than men when they work and are equally qualified
        • And in professions where women have jobs (e.g., waiter), they are with less lucrative companies
      • Women earn more BAs, but fewer PhDs
        • This is, of course, just in the U.S… Things are different elsewhere…
    • Source: Statistical Abstract 2009.
    • Changes in College Enrollment by Sex, 1900-2002. Source: Macionis; Statistical Abstracts.
    • Current College Students, by Sex and Race-Ethnicity (2005) Source: Macionis; Statistical Abstracts.
    • Global Perspectives on Gender Inequality
      • Global gap in politics
        • Women are under-represented in politics
      • Global gap in pay
        • In no country do women, on average, make more than men
        • Why don’t we consider housework as a contribution to the economy?
      Country % women in labor force Women’s income as % of men’s Sweden 75 83 US 70 77 UK 69 75 Netherlands 67 81 Germany 65 NA France 64 NA
    • Why wage inequality?
      • less educated in some places, so less qualified
      • but where equally qualified: child and womb penalty
      Women Men Average number of years out of labor force 3.3 .05 Average annual earnings when employed $19,000 $48,400 Women’s income gap 33%
    • Consequences
      • Who has power in society?
        • Corporate sphere - 8/500 CEOs of Fortune 500s
        • Religion - Top pastors, highest paid
        • Politics – mostly men
        • Education – administration?
        • Violence – who gets hit?
      • Glass Ceilings and Glass Escalators
        • Power translates to maintained power structure
        • Golf, water cooler, and exercise room
      • Wage penalty for women when they have children
      • Marriage penalty for women with education
    • When women do crack the glass ceiling...
      • What do we do when women do crack the glass ceiling?
      • Hillary Clinton…
        • "I'm surprised they did a portrait of Hillary. I thought maybe an ice sculpture would have been more appropriate." --Jay Leno
        • "Did you hear what the Republicans have said about Hillary Clinton? They say she's too angry to be president. Hillary Clinton, Senator Hillary Clinton, too angry to be president. When she heard this, Hillary said, 'Oh yeah? I'll rip your throats out, you bastards.'" --David Letterman
    • Gender Inequality in the Workplace
      • Sexual harassment
        • What is it?
      • Until the 1970s and 1980s, this wasn’t a controversial issue
        • Sexual harassment was an assumed part of a woman’s life in the workplace
      • Does this affect someone’s ability to function in the workplace?
        • 60% of women aged 25 to 26 report being harassed on the job
        • 62% of female college students
    • Gender and Violence
      • Violence against women
        • Rape, murder, domestic violence
        • Some evidence that women are also violent toward men (spousal abuse), but men are more violent toward women
      • 1 in 4 women in the U.S. will be a victim of sexual assault during her lifetime
      • Numbers are much higher in parts of Africa; lower in other developed countries
      • Spousal abuse is about the same – 25%
      • Child sexual abuse is mostly geared toward females: 2/1,000 girls; less than 1/1,000 boys
        • Abusers – men – Why?
    • Killers and Their Victims Source: Macionis; Statistical Abstracts.
    • Why so much violence against women?
      • Symbolic Interactionists
        • Assertions of strength, virility, and violence
        • Violent acts have symbolic power
      • Conflict Theory
        • Men losing power, reassert through violence
      • Solutions
        • What do you think?
        • Is there something we can do to stop gendered violence?
        • What about stopping gender inequality and stratification altogether?
        • Are things getting better or worse?
    • Gender and Language
      • We don’t often think about it, but there is power in language
      • What do these terms indicate:
        • Pussy, girl
        • Having balls, being a man
      • What about these:
        • Chick, stud, babe
      • Whether implicit or explicit, whether conscious or not, when you use these terms you are reinforcing both gender stereotypes and gender stratification
    • The Rise of Feminism
      • First Wave—Early 1900s
        • Suffragists
        • Goals?
          • Vote, no longer be property
      • Second Wave Began 1960s
        • Feminism most are familiar with
        • Various forms of feminism
        • Focus:
          • Birth control, abortion, violence against women
      • Third Wave Emerging Now?
        • Women staying home
        • Trying to get housework valued and changing the masculinity of the workplace
        • Changing attitudes about female sexuality
        • Focus on women in developing nations