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Economic Stratification
 

Economic Stratification

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This is a powerpoint to accompany Introduction to Sociology:

This is a powerpoint to accompany Introduction to Sociology:
http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Introduction_to_Sociology

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    Economic Stratification Economic Stratification Presentation Transcript

    • Introduction to Sociology Economic Stratification
    • Question
      • Turn to your neighbor and answer the following question: Why do some people have more wealth than others?
        • Wealth = money, property, food, etc.
      • Now, let's establish that social stratification and economic inequality exist...
    • What is social stratification?
      • A hierarchy of relative privilege based on power, property, and prestige
      Some power, property, and prestige Very little power, property, or prestige. Lots of power, property, and prestige
    • Percent of Population Living on Less than $1 per day - 2006
    • Percent of Population Living Below National Poverty Line
    • Literacy Rates
    • Gini Coefficient
    • GDP (PPP) Per Capita
    • Per Capita Income U.S. – 2000 (Census Data)
    • What was your answer to the question?
      • What did you say? Why do some people have more wealth than others?
      • Sociologists would say:
        • International stratification results from
          • 1) geographic luck, which leads to
          • 2) technological development, which leads to
          • 3) policies and efforts that maintain international stratification
        • National stratification results from
          • 1) intergenerational transmission of wealth
          • 2) unequal access to power based on wealth that maintains wealth among the wealthy
          • 3) some luck and hard work
    • Development Diagram Ultimate Factors Proximate Factors East/West Axis Many suitable wild species Ease of species spreading horses Many domesticated plant and animal species epidemic disease Food surpluses, food storage Large, dense, sedentary, stratified societies technology political organization, writing Guns, steel, swords ocean-going ships
    • Domesticable Mammals
      • Candidates for domestication:
        • Terrestrial herbivore weighing on the average over 100 pounds
      Eurasia Sub-Saharan Africa The Americas Australia Candidates 72 51 24 1 Domesticated 13 0 1 0
    • 14 Domestic Mammals Animal Wild ancestor Date (BCE) location Sheep Asiatic mouflon sheep 8000 West and Central Asia Goat Bezoar goat 8000 West Asia Cow Aurochs 6000 Eurasia and North Africa Pig Wild boar 8000 Eurasia and North Africa Horse Wild horses 4000 Southern Russia
    • 14 Domestic Mammals (minor 9) Animal Wild ancestor Date (BCE) location Arabian camel (1-hump) Wild camel 2500 Arabia Bactrian camel (2-hump) Wild camel 2500 Central Asia Llama and Alpaca Guanaco 3500 Andes Donkey African wild ass 4000 North Africa Reindeer Wild reindeer Northern Eurasia Water buffalo Wild water buffalo 4000 Southeast Asia Yak Wild yak Himalayas and Tibet Bali cattle Banteng Southeast Asia Mithan Gaur India and Burma
    • Major Crop Domesticates Area Cereals, other grasses Pulses Fiber Roots, tubers Melons Fertile Crescent Emmer wheat, einkorn wheat, barley Pea, lentil, chickpea Flax - Muskmelon China Foxtail millet, broomcorn millet Soybean, adzuki bean, mung bean Hemp - [muskmelon] Mesoamerica Corn Common bean, tepary bean, scarlet Cotton, yucca, agave Jicama Squashes Andes, Amazonia Quinoa, [corn] Lima bean, common bean, peanut Cotton Manioc, sweet potato, potato, oca Squashes West Africa and Sahel Sorghum, pearl millet, African rice Cowpea, groundnut Cotton African yams Watermelon, bottle gourd India [wheat, barley, rice, sorghum, millets] Hyacinth bean, black gram, green gram Cotton - Cucumber Ethiopia Teff, finger millet [pea, lentil] [flax] - - Eastern U.S. Maygrass, little barley, knotweed, goosefoot - - Jerusalem artichoke Squash New Guinea Sugar cane - - Yams, taro - All of these were domesticated basically by the time of the Roman empire.
    • Teosinte to Corn (Americas) From this To this.
    • Spelt to Common Wheat (Middle East) From this To this.
    • The Role of Geographic Axes
      • Jared Diamond’s argument (from Guns, Germs, and Steel):
        • Geography makes a big difference
        • People in temperate climates with specific crops, had advantages
          • Animals that could be domesticated, easy to grow crops – led to early development (surplus -> division of labor -> technology)
          • Early development led to metal-working and other technological advances
          • Those advances gave these people (predominantly white and from the Middle East and Europe) a head start in the global market
          • That head start has basically kept people from that group ahead
      • Has nothing to do with race, intelligence, gender, religion, etc. (maybe a little with religion)
      Eurasia Africa The Americas
    • How is stratification maintained?
      • Remember, there was a big luck factor to begin with – naturally occurring factors lead to early development
      • The following are explanations for stratifications after the initial advantages
      • Colonialism
        • Early developing countries exploit undeveloped countries
      • World Systems Theory
        • Core and periphery countries
        • Core countries exploit peripheral countries
      Peripheral Semi-peripheral Core
    • Maintaining Global Stratification
      • Neocolonialism
        • Continued exploitation through debt and trade
        • Trade technology for loans, future trade, and persuasion; defaulted loans translate into indebtedness which is then exploited
      • Multinational Corporations
        • Governments can use force to back multinational corporations’ interest (e.g., Panama)
        • Multinationals are then able to exploit countries – cheaper wages, control of politics, etc. (e.g., oil companies in Africa)
    • Stratification Within Nations
    • Systems of Social Stratification - Slavery
      • Causes
        • Debt
        • Crime
        • War
      • Justifications later became – race, ethnicity, religion, gender, etc. – ideological justifications
      • Conditions
        • Was, at times, temporary (to pay off debt)
        • Not necessarily inheritable
        • Not necessarily powerless
      • Slavery in the New World
        • Bonded labor; indentured servitude
      • Slavery Today
        • Does it continue today?
        • Child soldiers; sex trade
    • Systems of Social Stratification – Caste System
      • Status in the social hierarchy is determined by birth; generally life-long
      • India’s Religious Castes
        • Brahman – priests and teachers
        • Kshatriya – rulers and soldiers
        • Vaishya – Merchants and traders
        • Shudra – Peasants and laborers
        • Dalit – outcastes; degrading laborers (clean up waste)
      • Abolished in 1949, but still continues at some levels
      • South Africa - apartheid
        • Divided by “race” – blacks, whites, mixed, and Asians; determined social status in hierarchy and jobs – ended in 1990s
      • U.S. Racial Caste System
        • Informal/formal system – considered “higher status” if white; for some groups, this continues until today (hate groups)
    • Systems of Social Stratification - Other
      • Estate – feudalism: 3 estates
        • Nobility – owned everything (except, maybe, churches)
        • Clergy – kind of existed independently
        • Commoners – owned as part of the land
      • Class
        • Still a hierarchy (think of the pyramid at the beginning)
        • But more open – usually based on possessions, power, prestige
        • Allows some fluidity – movement between statuses
      • Global Stratification and Status of Females
        • Basically, women are at the bottom of each status – you can subdivide each status in two, with men at the top, women at the bottom
    • Social Class
      • Max Weber argued that class was a combination of property, prestige, and power.
      • Is this a better way of thinking about social class?
      • Why do you need all three in order to understand social class?
        • Usually, if you have one, you can get the others…
      Property Power Prestige
    • Bill Gates - Property
      • He has property - $58 billion as of 2008
      • Does he have prestige?
        • Just spoke at TED
      • What about power?
      Property Power Prestige
    • Bill Clinton - Power
      • He had power as president
      • Does he have property?
        • Made $35,000 per year as governor of Arkansas prior to running for president
        • Standard speaking fee today - $150,000; makes around $10 million per year
      • What about prestige?
      Property Power Prestige
    • Michael Phelps - Prestige
      • Gained prestige as an Olympic athlete
      • Does he have property?
        • Makes millions via endorsements
        • Net worth is somewhere around $6-$10 million
        • His contract with Speedo, which has been extended through 2009, is estimated to be worth about $9 million.
      • What about power?
      Property Power Prestige
    • Consequences of Social Class
      • Does social class matter?
        • How?
      • Physical Health
        • Poorer are less likely to have health insurance (Brian)
        • This reduces access to healthcare
        • Reduces life expectancy
        • Also tend to have poorer eating and exercising habits
      • Mental Health
        • Greater stresses in life translate into worse mental health
        • Poorer classes have worse mental health than wealthier classes
    • Consequences of Social Class
      • Family Life
        • Choices of husbands and wives is particularly important
          • Prestige, respect, and tradition matter
          • This also helps maintain money among the moneyed
        • Divorce
          • Higher odds of divorce among the poorer classes
          • Result of stresses
        • Child Rearing
          • Talked about different socialization – working class push obedience; upper classes push creativity
    • Consequences of Social Class
      • How does class affect education?
      • How are primary and secondary education funded in the U.S.?
      • What significance does this have for educational attainment and quality of education?
      • What about college and graduate school? How are they funded?
      • What significance does this have for educational attainment and quality of education?
      • Think about it in terms of a race…
    • The Runner Example If equally skilled, the student in the poorer district never catches up To catch up, the only option available to the poorer student is to run faster Student in wealthy district has a head start So, is the educational system in the US fair?
    • Consequences of Social Class
      • Religion
        • Some connection to class, but diminishing – we’ll talk more about this later
        • For now, just note that more conservative religious groups (e.g., Pentecostals, Baptists) tend to attract people from lower classes…
      • Politics
        • Higher social classes tend to vote conservative and Republican – Why?
        • Intriguing interaction – more conservative religious groups tend to attract lower socioeconomic classes, who then vote conservatively
          • Why is this not in their best interest?
          • Why do they do it?
    • Consequences of Social Class
      • Crime and the Judicial System
        • The lower your social class, the higher your odds of being arrested for a crime
      • Social Class and the Changing Economy
        • Does globalization – the spreading of a global culture and the development of a world economy – equally affect the different classes?
        • Why/Why not?
        • Who are the lower classes competing with for jobs?
        • What does this do to their wages?
        • Increasingly it isn’t the lower classes competing…
    • Structural Functionalism
      • Why is social stratification “universal”?
      • Davis and Moore’s Explanation
        • Society must make sure all necessary positions are filled (e.g., garbage collector)
        • Some positions are more important than others
          • Is this true?
        • More important positions are filled by more qualified people
          • Again, is this true? And, what is meant by “qualified”?
        • To motivate qualified people, they must be rewarded
          • Is this true? Evidence from Soviet Union
      • Tumin’s Critique of Davis and Moore
        • How do we know which positions are most important?
        • Stratification should lead to an actual meritocracy
        • Stratification should to benefit everyone
        • Do we need stratification?
    • Conflict Perspective
      • Again, why is there stratification?
      • Mosca’s Argument
        • No society can exist unless organized
        • Leadership means inequalities of power
        • Human nature is self-centered; those in power will abuse it
        • Ergo, the nature of society and the nature of humans leads to stratification
      • Marx’s Argument
        • Functionalist explanation is ideology of the elite – there should be stratification because stratification is “necessary”
        • Class consciousness will overcome – the proletariat will recognize their exploitation, rise up, and overthrow the bourgeoisie
        • Why hasn’t this happened?
    • Capitalism and Stratification
      • Does capitalism lead to stratification?
      • What checks and balances do we have on capitalism in the U.S.?
        • Regulation, anti-monopolization legislation
      • Why does capitalism seem to be winning around the world?
        • Capitalism leads to competition
        • Competition (think evolution) leads to change, generally toward more advanced technologies
        • Competition gives capitalist countries the edge over non-capitalist countries – in both money and technology
        • Capitalism (and overspending) destroyed Soviet communism
    • How do elites maintain stratification?
      • Do elites try to maintain stratification systems?
        • Why would they?
      • How do they do it?
      • Ideologies and Force
        • Religion?
          • Eternal life
        • Media?
          • Hugo Chaves in U.S. media
          • Who owns the media companies in the U.S.?
            • NBC – owned by GE; CBS – was owned by Westinghouse, now by National Amusements, Inc.; ABC – Walt Disney company; Fox – News Corporation
            • All of these companies own businesses other than news; Why?
        • Force?
          • Kill or imprison those who criticize
          • Free press – necessary?
    • Social Mobility
      • Refers to changes in class - generally changes between one generation and the next
      • Does this happen?
        • 1/3 of children end up in the same social class as their parents (that means going up and down)
        • Correlation of .4 between incomes of parents and incomes of children
      • NOTE: The U.S. – the alleged land of “rags to riches” – has less social mobility than many other developed countries (except the U.K.).
    • Income Deciles as Adults for Those Born in the Top and Bottom Deciles (born 1942-1972) Based on this, what are your odds of going from “rags to riches”?
    • What is poverty?
      • What does it mean to be poor?
        • Relative poverty
          • A sense of relative deprivation – you feel like you have less than others
        • Absolute poverty
          • You cannot afford the basic necessities of life
      • The U.S. government draws a line for poverty in the U.S…
    • Poverty Threshold – U.S. - 2005 Persons in Family Unit 48 Contiguous States and D.C. Alaska Hawaii 1 $ 9,570 $11,950 $11,010 2 12,830 16,030 14,760 3 16,090 20,110 18,510 4 19,350 24,190 22,260 5 22,610 28,270 26,010 6 25,870 32,350 29,760 7 29,130 36,430 33,510 8 32,390 40,510 37,260 For each additional person, add   3,260   4,080   3,750
    • See any overlap with high violent crime states?
    • Is poverty evenly distributed?
      • Just saw geographic dispersion…
      • What about other groups?
        • Race/Ethnicity
        • Age?
        • Gender?
        • Education? (that’s why you’re here, right?)
    •  
    •  
    • Myths about the poor
      • Most are lazy
        • Half are too old or young to work
        • What about the other half?
        • 30% work part time; many others don’t make enough working
      • Poor are trapped and few escape
        • For most, poverty (by federal definition) is short-lived
      • Most are Latino and African-American
        • Disproportionate percentage, but most are white
      • Most are single mothers and kids
        • Only about 38%
      • Most live in inner city
        • About 42%
      • Most are on welfare
        • 25% of poor people’s income comes from welfare; 25% from Social Security; the balance is from wages
    • Culture of Poverty
      • Are the poor just a bunch of welfare mothers who abuse the system?
      • Very few fit that stereotype…
      • Most want to work
      • We should be asking a different question: Why aren’t there enough jobs?
    • Why are people poor?
      • Features of society deny opportunity to certain groups
        • Education, social mobility, job market, selfishness, etc.
        • Unemployment is a necessary component of capitalism
        • We even punish and penalize the poor
          • Welfare reform in the mid 1990s limited time on welfare
      • Are all the poor “undeserving”?
      • Is there such a thing as “deserving” poor?
      • Who?
    • Poverty – final thoughts
      • Cultural element – Delayed gratification
        • Why is this important for poverty?
        • How is this important?
        • Who (which social class) teaches it to offspring?
      • Is America the land of dreams, where anyone can go from “rags to riches”, like Horatio Alger claimed?
        • How exactly would that work?
        • We can’t all exploit someone…
    • Unions
      • Triangle Shirtwaist Factory fire in New York City on March 25, 1911, was the largest industrial disaster in the history of the city of New York, causing the deaths of 148 garment workers who either died from the fire or jumped to their deaths
      • What do unions do?
      • What have unions accomplished?
        • Standard work week at the beginning of the industrial revolution was closer to 100 hours
        • No safety standards
      • Why would people join unions?
      The building's east side, with 40 bodies on the sidewalk. Two of the victims were found alive an hour after the picture was taken.
    • The Unemployed
      • Before we talk about the unemployed, take a second to write down the first three adjectives that come to mind about the unemployed…
      • What did you come up with?
      • In order to understand the unemployed, we have to first talk about the employed…
    • The Unemployed
      • So, if the unemployed are a necessary component of capitalism so capitalists can make money by keeping wages down and productivity up using fear of replacement…
      • How should we think about the unemployed?
      • If unemployment is a necessary component of capitalism, that means some people HAVE to be unemployed.
        • Should they be left to fend for themselves?
        • Or should capitalists have to pay the reserve workforce since they are the ones benefitting?
    •  
    • Sociological Models of Social Class
      • Updating Marx
      • Marx argued mostly two classes (really a third – the professional class – merchants, etc.)
      • Today, there are more classes:
        • Capitalists
        • Petty Bourgeoisie
        • Managers
        • Workers
    • Updating Weber
    • An Example of Social Class - Ford Class Examples Capitalist Class The Fords (own about 45% of stock in company) Lower Capitalist Class Ford Executives Upper Middle Owner Ford Dealership Lower Middle Class Ford Salesperson Working Class Ford Mechanics Working Poor Ford Detailer Car Lot Cleaner Underclass
    • Stratification in Tampa - Income Median household income - $39,602
    • Tampa – total income Total Household Income in 2006: $8.9 billion Keep in mind, this is only one component – property (in this case, income); Property goes hand in hand with power and prestige.
    • Global Stratification - Development
      • Can use a variety of measures for development
      • Common measure is Human Development Index – 0 to 1, measures literacy, per capita GDP, life expectancy, and standard of living
        • Developed Nations - .8 to 1
        • Developing Nations - .5 to .799
        • Undeveloped or Least Nations - .3 to .499
      • Old Model – worlds
        • First World—Industrialized Capitalist Nations
        • Second World—Communist Nations
        • Third World—Nations that Don’t Fit in First Two
        • We no longer use because it isn’t very useful
    • High development .8 to 1 Mid development .5 to .799 Low development .3 to .499
    • Comparative Social Stratification
      • Social Stratification in Great Britain
        • Slightly different from the U.S. – bigger middle and lower classes, small upper class
      • Social Stratification in Former Soviet Union
        • Membership in the communist party translated into the elite
        • Everyone else was supposed to be the same
          • But this didn’t work, either – people recognized differences and tried to compensate for them
          • However – people were pretty equal (though that mostly translated into everyone being poor), including women
    •  
    • What is social class?
      • People who rank close to one another on wealth, power, and prestige
      • Wealth
        • Distinction between wealth and income
          • Property (including cash) minus debts
        • Distribution of wealth, property, and income (following slides)
      • Power – the ability to carry out your will despite resistance
        • Who has power in the U.S.?
        • How do we know?
      • Prestige – how much respect is leveled toward an occupation
        • High prestige occupations generally:
          • pay more
          • require more education
          • entail more abstract thought
          • offer greater autonomy
    •  
    • Bill Gates vs. Average Family Income
    •  
    • Power
      • Paris Hilton arrested on DUIs
      • Jail cell description, a special section “reserved for police officers, public officials, celebrities and other high-profile inmates” in Century Regional Detention Facility, an all female jail in Lynwood, California
      • How does this reflect power?
    • Prestige Occupation Prestige Score Physician 86 Lawyer 75 College Professor 74 Airline Pilot 73 Dentist 72 High School Teacher 66 Police Officer 61 Secretary 46 Waiter or Waitress 28 Garbage Collector 28 Street Sweeper 11
    • Status Inconsistency
      • Ordinarily wealth, power, and prestige are similar
        • When they don’t match, can lead to more radical political views
        • e.g., college professors – high prestige, low power and wealth
          • One of the most radical professions in their socio-political views
        • Other examples?
    • Determinants of Social Class
      • Max Weber argued that class was a combination of property, prestige, and power…
      • How do you know who has “power”?
      • Why do you need all three in order to understand social class?
    • Determinants of Social Class
      • Karl Marx argued that the Means of Production determined class
        • Is this entirely true?