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Deviance

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This is a powerpoint to accompany Introduction to Sociology: …

This is a powerpoint to accompany Introduction to Sociology:
http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Introduction_to_Sociology

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  • 1. Introduction to Sociology: Deviance and Norms
  • 2. Introduction to deviance ● Deviance is any behavior that violates cultural norms. – formal deviance – violation of formally enacted laws – informal deviance – violations of informal social norms, norms that have not been codified into law
  • 3. Theories of Deviance ● Why do people engage in deviance acts? ● Theories offer explanations.
  • 4. Psychological Explanations ● boys with conduct disorder have differences in their brain structure and that those differences exist during childhood and adolescence. ● These differences likely contribute to their deviant behavior, but whether or not these differences exist before deviant activities is widely debated.
  • 5. Structural-Functionalism ● deviant behavior plays an important role in society for several reasons – deviance helps distinguish between what is acceptable behavior, and what is not – deviant behavior can also promote social unity, but it does so at the expense of the deviant individuals – deviance is one means for society to change over time
  • 6. Conflict Theory ● Deviance and criminal behavior can also be tied to power and resource imbalances in society. ● Individuals may engage in deviant or criminal behavior because they lack the physical resources necessary to survive, committing property crimes like thefts or selling drugs in order to procure such resources. ● The criminal justice system is also structured to reflect differences in power and property.
  • 7. Labeling Theory ● individuals become deviant when two things occur: – a deviant label is applied to them – they adopt the label by exhibiting the behaviors, actions, and attitudes associated with the label
  • 8. Crime Statistics ● Crime statistics are usually data collected by governments for the reporting of incidents of criminal activity
  • 9. Race ● The criminal justice system in the U.S. has a significant impact on the life chances of racial and ethnic minorities, in particular, people of African descent. ● Serving time in prison has become a normative event for young, lower-class African-American males. ● The average African-American, male, high-school dropout born in the 1960s in the U.S. had a nearly 60% chance of serving time in prison by the end of the 1990s. ● A disproportionate percentage of African-Americans are in prison; African- Americans make up 12% of the U.S. population but nearly 46% of prison inmates.
  • 10. Social Control ● Social control refers to the various means used by a society to bring its members back into line with cultural norms. There are two general types of social control: – formal social control refers to components of society that are designed for the resocialization of individuals who break formal rules; examples would include prisons and mental health institutions – informal social control refers to elements of society that are designed to reinforce informal cultural norms; examples might include parental reminders to children not to pick their nose.