Published on

This is a powerpoint to accompany Introduction to Sociology:

  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide


  1. 1. Introduction to Sociology: Demography
  2. 2. Why study demography? ● Demography is the study of human population dynamics. ● It encompasses the study of the size, structure and distribution of populations, and how populations change over time due to births, deaths, migration, and aging. ● Demographic analysis can relate to whole societies or to smaller groups defined by criteria such as education, religion, or ethnicity.
  3. 3. Data and Methods ● Demography relies on large data sets that are primarily derived from censuses and registration statistics (i.e., birth, death, marriage registrations). ● Large data sets over long periods of time (e.g., the U.S. census is conducted every 10 years) are required to develop trends in demographic indicators, like birth and death rates.
  4. 4. Demographic Indicators ● demographers focus on specific indicators of change ● Two of the most important indicators are: – birth rates or fertility/fecundity – death rates or mortality ● Also look at migration
  5. 5. Fertility and Fecundity ● Fertility, in demography, refers to the ability of females to produce healthy offspring in abundance. ● Fecundity is the potential reproductive capacity of a female. ● Some of the more common demographic measures used in relation to fertility and/or fecundity include: – crude birth rate: the annual number of live births per thousand people – general fertility rate: the annual number of live births per 1000 women of childbearing age (often taken to be from 15 to 49 years old, but sometimes from 15 to 44). – age-specific fertility rate: the annual number of live births per 1000 women in particular age groups (usually age 15-19, 20-24 etc.) – total fertility rate: the number of live births per woman completing her reproductive life if her childbearing at each age reflected current age-specific fertility rates
  6. 6. Mortality ● Mortality refers to the finite nature of humanity: people die. ● Mortality in demography is interested in the number of deaths in a given time or place or the proportion of deaths in relation to a population. ● Some of the more common demographic measures of mortality include: – crude death rate: the annual number of deaths per 1000 people – infant mortality rate: the annual number of deaths of children less than 1 year old per thousand live births – life expectancy: the number of years which an individual at a given age can expect to live at present mortality rates
  7. 7. The Demographic Transition ● The demographic transition is a model and theory describing the transition from high birth rates and death rates to low birth and death rates that occurs as part of the economic development of a country. ● In most post-industrial societies, birth and death rates are both low. The transition from high rates to low rates is referred to as the demographic transition.
  8. 8. Population Growth and Overpopulation ● Overpopulation indicates a scenario in which the population of a living species exceeds the carrying capacity of its ecological niche. ● Overpopulation is not a function of the number or density of the individuals, but rather the number of individuals compared to the resources they need to survive. In other words, it is a ratio: population over resources.
  9. 9. Effects of overpopulation ● Child poverty ● High birth rates ● Lower life expectancies ● Lower levels of literacy ● Higher rates of unemployment, especially in urban ● Insufficient arable land ● Little surplus food ● Poor diet with ill health and diet-deficiency diseases (e.g. rickets) ● Low per capita GDP ● Increasingly unhygienic conditions ● Government is stretched economically ● Increased crime rates resulting from people stealing resources to survive ● Mass extinctions of plants and animals as habitat is used for farming and human settlements
  10. 10. Migration ● Migration refers to population transfers or people moving, typically from one country to another, but also within countries.
  11. 11. Urbanization ● Urbanization is the physical growth of urban areas as a result of global change. ● The United Nations projected that half of the world's population would live in urban areas at the end of 2008.
  12. 12. Effects of Urbanization ● Urbanization can increase costs for homes ● Urbanization can lead to changes in the environment, creating effects like the urban heat island ● Urbanization can change how people feel about their community