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Demography
Demography
Demography
Demography
Demography
Demography
Demography
Demography
Demography
Demography
Demography
Demography
Demography
Demography
Demography
Demography
Demography
Demography
Demography
Demography
Demography
Demography
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Demography

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This is a powerpoint to accompany Introduction to Sociology: …

This is a powerpoint to accompany Introduction to Sociology:
http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Introduction_to_Sociology

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  • 1. Introduction to Sociology: Demography
  • 2. Why study demography? ● Demography is the study of human population dynamics. ● It encompasses the study of the size, structure and distribution of populations, and how populations change over time due to births, deaths, migration, and aging. ● Demographic analysis can relate to whole societies or to smaller groups defined by criteria such as education, religion, or ethnicity.
  • 3. Data and Methods ● Demography relies on large data sets that are primarily derived from censuses and registration statistics (i.e., birth, death, marriage registrations). ● Large data sets over long periods of time (e.g., the U.S. census is conducted every 10 years) are required to develop trends in demographic indicators, like birth and death rates.
  • 4. Demographic Indicators ● demographers focus on specific indicators of change ● Two of the most important indicators are: – birth rates or fertility/fecundity – death rates or mortality ● Also look at migration
  • 5. Fertility and Fecundity ● Fertility, in demography, refers to the ability of females to produce healthy offspring in abundance. ● Fecundity is the potential reproductive capacity of a female. ● Some of the more common demographic measures used in relation to fertility and/or fecundity include: – crude birth rate: the annual number of live births per thousand people – general fertility rate: the annual number of live births per 1000 women of childbearing age (often taken to be from 15 to 49 years old, but sometimes from 15 to 44). – age-specific fertility rate: the annual number of live births per 1000 women in particular age groups (usually age 15-19, 20-24 etc.) – total fertility rate: the number of live births per woman completing her reproductive life if her childbearing at each age reflected current age-specific fertility rates
  • 6. Mortality ● Mortality refers to the finite nature of humanity: people die. ● Mortality in demography is interested in the number of deaths in a given time or place or the proportion of deaths in relation to a population. ● Some of the more common demographic measures of mortality include: – crude death rate: the annual number of deaths per 1000 people – infant mortality rate: the annual number of deaths of children less than 1 year old per thousand live births – life expectancy: the number of years which an individual at a given age can expect to live at present mortality rates
  • 7. The Demographic Transition ● The demographic transition is a model and theory describing the transition from high birth rates and death rates to low birth and death rates that occurs as part of the economic development of a country. ● In most post-industrial societies, birth and death rates are both low. The transition from high rates to low rates is referred to as the demographic transition.
  • 8. Population Growth and Overpopulation ● Overpopulation indicates a scenario in which the population of a living species exceeds the carrying capacity of its ecological niche. ● Overpopulation is not a function of the number or density of the individuals, but rather the number of individuals compared to the resources they need to survive. In other words, it is a ratio: population over resources.
  • 9. Effects of overpopulation ● Child poverty ● High birth rates ● Lower life expectancies ● Lower levels of literacy ● Higher rates of unemployment, especially in urban ● Insufficient arable land ● Little surplus food ● Poor diet with ill health and diet-deficiency diseases (e.g. rickets) ● Low per capita GDP ● Increasingly unhygienic conditions ● Government is stretched economically ● Increased crime rates resulting from people stealing resources to survive ● Mass extinctions of plants and animals as habitat is used for farming and human settlements
  • 10. Migration ● Migration refers to population transfers or people moving, typically from one country to another, but also within countries.
  • 11. Urbanization ● Urbanization is the physical growth of urban areas as a result of global change. ● The United Nations projected that half of the world's population would live in urban areas at the end of 2008.
  • 12. Effects of Urbanization ● Urbanization can increase costs for homes ● Urbanization can lead to changes in the environment, creating effects like the urban heat island ● Urbanization can change how people feel about their community

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