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Westminster eForum: IP and the Future of Copyright

Westminster eForum: IP and the Future of Copyright
UK Copyright: How it compares internationally and who are the winners and losers

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W Me Forum Copyright Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Westminster eForum: IP and the Future of Copyright UK Copyright: How it compares internationally and who are the winners and losers March 2008 Ray Corrigan Open University
  • 2. Outline
    • UK
      • Background
      • History
      • Gowers
    • International comparisons
      • WWW
      • Term, TPM, P2P
    • Winners, losers and evidence
      • Creators
      • Agents (business)
      • Public
  • 3. Background
    • Types of copyright
      • Literary, dramatic, artistic, musical works
      • Books, music, software, films, databases, packaging, tickets, lists of rules, ads…
    • Protects expression of “idea”, not idea itself
    • Creators use earlier work
  • 4. UK Copyright Context
    • History
      • Statute of Anne (1709)
      • Macaulay – tax on readers to benefit writers
      • Berne Convention (1886… 1908… 1951… 1971…)
      • UK Copyright Acts (1911 & 1956)
      • Rome Convention (1961)
    • CDPA 1988
      • TRIPS (GATT/WTO 1994/’95)
      • 1996 WIPO Treaties
      • EU directives - IPRED, e-commerce, EUCD, databases, sw, semiconductors, cr term…
  • 5. Gowers Review UK 2006
    • IP enforcement
      • IP crime – police and trading standards
      • 10 years jail
    • Reform of copyright
      • Balance – fair dealing & exceptions for private format shifting
      • Libraries, archives, education
      • No term extension on sound recordings - economics
    • Patent Office -> IPO
    • Advisory Board on IP Policy
  • 6. WWW
    • Mid 1990s WWW
    • Copyright upheaval
    • Many changes internationally
    • US DMCA, CTEA 1998
    • EU EUCD, IPRED, ECD
    • Mexico life + 100
    • France: 3 strikes
    • Antigua: Gambling + WTO = Infringement
  • 7. Term, ISPs
    • EU & US life + 70
    • Mexico life + 100
    • Others Berne norm life + 50
    • US CDA s230 + DMCA s512 safe harbours
    • E-commerce directive – protect ISPs?
      • UK 2002 ecommerce directive regulations s17-19
    • But +EUCD in SABAM v Tiscali/Scarlet
      • Belgian court Nov. 2007
      • Mandate filters for CR?
    • China notice and takedown law 2005
  • 8. ISPs, P2P
    • Ireland: music cos. v Eircom
    • Israel court: ISPs must block torrent site
    • Canada BMG v Doe 2005: ISP can’t ID
    • Irish High Court: ISPs must ID users 2006
    • English High Court: ISPs must ID users 2006
    • German court: ISP can’t ID p2p users 2008
    • France 3 strikes memorandum
  • 9. Stakeholders (winners & losers) Public (Consumers) Creators Agents* * Business e.g. Music, film, software, media companies, publishers
  • 10. Creators Z depends on i) term ii) scope iii) penalties iv) case law v)enforcement
  • 11. Consumers
    • Societal welfare equals (weighted) sum of consumers, creators & agents
  • 12. Agents of creators
    • Music, film, software, media companies and publishers
    Za > Zc
  • 13. Lined up Possibly Z a > Z c > Z consumers
  • 14. Evidence
    • Optimal strength varies for creators, agents and consumers
    • Possibly Z a > Z c > Z consumers
    • We don’t know
    • Very little empirical evidence
      • Case study of specific firms
      • Surveys of creators, firms, lawyers, etc
      • Data & econometrics
      • National or sector trends/comparisons
      • Sales of CDs, films, etc
      • Collecting society data
      • Legal cases matched to firm-level data
  • 15. Recent proposed changes
    • 3 strikes
      • Winners - agents & creators
      • Losers - agents & creators & public
    • Term extension
      • Winners - agents & creators
      • Losers - agents & creators & public
      • 4% > 20 years old available
      • 96% locked up
    Public Creators Agents
  • 16. When regulating technology…
    • Audience 15 million
      • Radio 40 years
      • TV 15 years
      • www 3 years (600 million+ in 7 years)
    • Law can’t keep up
    • Reed – doctrine of creative inertia
    • Empirical work/evidence needed
      • On creators, agents, consumers and technology