W Me Forum Copyright

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Westminster eForum: IP and the Future of Copyright
UK Copyright: How it compares internationally and who are the winners and losers

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  • W Me Forum Copyright

    1. 1. Westminster eForum: IP and the Future of Copyright UK Copyright: How it compares internationally and who are the winners and losers March 2008 Ray Corrigan Open University
    2. 2. Outline <ul><li>UK </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Background </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>History </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gowers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>International comparisons </li></ul><ul><ul><li>WWW </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Term, TPM, P2P </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Winners, losers and evidence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Creators </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Agents (business) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Public </li></ul></ul>
    3. 3. Background <ul><li>Types of copyright </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Literary, dramatic, artistic, musical works </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Books, music, software, films, databases, packaging, tickets, lists of rules, ads… </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Protects expression of “idea”, not idea itself </li></ul><ul><li>Creators use earlier work </li></ul>
    4. 4. UK Copyright Context <ul><li>History </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Statute of Anne (1709) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Macaulay – tax on readers to benefit writers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Berne Convention (1886… 1908… 1951… 1971…) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>UK Copyright Acts (1911 & 1956) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rome Convention (1961) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>CDPA 1988 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>TRIPS (GATT/WTO 1994/’95) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1996 WIPO Treaties </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>EU directives - IPRED, e-commerce, EUCD, databases, sw, semiconductors, cr term… </li></ul></ul>
    5. 5. Gowers Review UK 2006 <ul><li>IP enforcement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>IP crime – police and trading standards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>10 years jail </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Reform of copyright </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Balance – fair dealing & exceptions for private format shifting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Libraries, archives, education </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No term extension on sound recordings - economics </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Patent Office -> IPO </li></ul><ul><li>Advisory Board on IP Policy </li></ul>
    6. 6. WWW <ul><li>Mid 1990s WWW </li></ul><ul><li>Copyright upheaval </li></ul><ul><li>Many changes internationally </li></ul><ul><li>US DMCA, CTEA 1998 </li></ul><ul><li>EU EUCD, IPRED, ECD </li></ul><ul><li>Mexico life + 100 </li></ul><ul><li>France: 3 strikes </li></ul><ul><li>Antigua: Gambling + WTO = Infringement </li></ul>
    7. 7. Term, ISPs <ul><li>EU & US life + 70 </li></ul><ul><li>Mexico life + 100 </li></ul><ul><li>Others Berne norm life + 50 </li></ul><ul><li>US CDA s230 + DMCA s512 safe harbours </li></ul><ul><li>E-commerce directive – protect ISPs? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>UK 2002 ecommerce directive regulations s17-19 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>But +EUCD in SABAM v Tiscali/Scarlet </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Belgian court Nov. 2007 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mandate filters for CR? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>China notice and takedown law 2005 </li></ul>
    8. 8. ISPs, P2P <ul><li>Ireland: music cos. v Eircom </li></ul><ul><li>Israel court: ISPs must block torrent site </li></ul><ul><li>Canada BMG v Doe 2005: ISP can’t ID </li></ul><ul><li>Irish High Court: ISPs must ID users 2006 </li></ul><ul><li>English High Court: ISPs must ID users 2006 </li></ul><ul><li>German court: ISP can’t ID p2p users 2008 </li></ul><ul><li>France 3 strikes memorandum </li></ul>
    9. 9. Stakeholders (winners & losers) Public (Consumers) Creators Agents* * Business e.g. Music, film, software, media companies, publishers
    10. 10. Creators Z depends on i) term ii) scope iii) penalties iv) case law v)enforcement
    11. 11. Consumers <ul><li>Societal welfare equals (weighted) sum of consumers, creators & agents </li></ul>
    12. 12. Agents of creators <ul><li>Music, film, software, media companies and publishers </li></ul>Za > Zc
    13. 13. Lined up Possibly Z a > Z c > Z consumers
    14. 14. Evidence <ul><li>Optimal strength varies for creators, agents and consumers </li></ul><ul><li>Possibly Z a > Z c > Z consumers </li></ul><ul><li>We don’t know </li></ul><ul><li>Very little empirical evidence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Case study of specific firms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Surveys of creators, firms, lawyers, etc </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Data & econometrics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>National or sector trends/comparisons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sales of CDs, films, etc </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Collecting society data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Legal cases matched to firm-level data </li></ul></ul>
    15. 15. Recent proposed changes <ul><li>3 strikes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Winners - agents & creators </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Losers - agents & creators & public </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Term extension </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Winners - agents & creators </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Losers - agents & creators & public </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4% > 20 years old available </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>96% locked up </li></ul></ul>Public Creators Agents
    16. 16. When regulating technology… <ul><li>Audience 15 million </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Radio 40 years </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>TV 15 years </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>www 3 years (600 million+ in 7 years) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Law can’t keep up </li></ul><ul><li>Reed – doctrine of creative inertia </li></ul><ul><li>Empirical work/evidence needed </li></ul><ul><ul><li>On creators, agents, consumers and technology </li></ul></ul>

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