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AST 4.5 PPT
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AST 4.5 PPT

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    1. 4.5JOVIAN PLANETS<br />
    2. The OUTER PLANETS<br />All larger than Terrestrial Planets with thick atmospheres and very inhospitable.<br />No solid surfaces<br />Mostly Hydrogen and Helium<br />Strong atmospheric circulation (winds/storms)<br />Ring systems<br />Multiple moons (Regular vs. Irregular satellites)<br />
    3. jupiter<br />Largest and most massive planet of the solar system.<br />Contains almost ¾ of all planetary matter within the solar system.<br />Mostly liquid Hydrogen.<br />Most striking features visible from Earth  Multi-colored cloud belts; Great Red Spot<br />
    4. jupiter<br />Explored in detail by several space probes:<br />Pioneer 10<br />Pioneer 11<br />Voyager 1<br />Voyager 2<br />Cassini<br />Galileo<br />
    5. VOYAGER 1<br />Video data from approach to Jupiter in 1979<br />
    6. Mass of jupiter<br />Can be inferred from the radius and orbital period of Io, the innermost of the 4 Galilean moons.<br />Using NVK3L  MJupiter = 318 MEarth<br />
    7. Chemical compositionjupiter vs. saturn<br />
    8. Jupiter’s interior<br />Average density ~ 1.34 g/cm3<br />Therefore, cannot be made of mostly rock like Earth-like planets.<br />Rock has a density of 2.5  4 g/cm3.<br />
    9. Jupiter’s rotation<br />Most rapidly rotating planet in the solar system.<br />Rotation ~ 9.92 h<br />Revolution ~ 11.87 y<br />Appears slightly flattened and is 6% larger in diameter through equator than through its poles; referred to as oblateness.<br />
    10. Jupiter’s magnetic field<br />Discovered through observations of decimeter (radio) observations.<br />Created by the liquid metallic Hydrogen interior.<br />Good electrical conductor.<br />Believed to be 10 times stronger than Earth’s.<br />Very intense radiation belts.<br />Extremely high-energy particles can be trapped  radiation doses corresponding to 100 times lethal doses for humans!<br />
    11. JUPIter’s magnetic field<br />Just like on Earth, Jupiter’s magnetosphere produces aurora concentrated in the rings around the magnetic poles.<br />1000 times more powerful than the aurora on Earth.<br />
    12. Jupiter’s atmosphere<br />Liquid Hydrogen ocean has no surface.<br />Pressure and temperature higher than the critical point for Hydrogen, meaning there is no difference between gaseous and liquid Hydrogen.<br />Very thin atmosphere above cloud layers.<br />Cold outer layers; interior layers warm but pressure is immense.<br />Transition to liquid Hydrogen zone ~ 1000 km below clouds. <br />
    13. Jupiter’s atmosphere<br />
    14. Jupiter’s cloud belts<br /><ul><li>On Jupiter, the poles and equator have about the same temperature; no wave-shaped winds but rather bands called belts and zones.</li></ul>On Earth, the temperature difference b/w poles and equator drives a wave-shaped wind organizing high and low pressure areas.<br />
    15. Jupiter’s cloud belts<br />DARK BELTS<br />Lower Altitude<br />Warmer Temperatures<br />LIGHT ZONES<br />Higher Altitude<br />Cooler Temperatures<br />
    16. The Great red spot<br />Several bright and dark spots mixed in with cloud structure.<br />Cyclones/Anticyclones<br />Largest and most prominent: Great Red Spot.<br />Visible for over 300 years.<br />Formed by rising gas carrying heat from below the clouds, creating a vast, rotating storm.<br /><ul><li>For the first time, very recently, a new similar red storm system has been observed, Red Jr.</li></li></ul><li>Jupiter’s rings<br />Discovered in 1979 by Voyager 1.<br />Dark and reddish in color; rocky rather than icy (mostly microscopic particles).<br />Orbit inside the Roche Limit, the distance from a planet within which a moon cannot hold itself together by its own gravity.<br />International Space Station can orbit inside Earth’s Roche Limit; held together by bolts and welds.<br />Can’t be old  pressure of sunlight and Jupiter’s extensive magnetic field cause ring particles to spiral into cloud layers of Jupiter.<br />Frequently replenished.<br />Fainter rings known as gossamer rings, extend twice as far from Jupiter than the main ring.<br />
    17. History of jupiter<br />JUPITER<br />“King of Gods”<br />Formed from cold gas in the solar nebula, where ice particles could condense.<br />Rapid growth.<br />In the interior, Hydrogen becomes metallic due to pressure (good electrical conductor).<br />Rapid rotation  strong magnetic field.<br />Heavy materials sink to center.<br />Dust from meteorite impacts onto inner moons trapped to form rings.<br />
    18. Jupiter’s family of moons<br />Has 63 known moons; new ones still being discovered.<br />4 largest moons discovered by Galileo (Galilean Moons):<br />IO<br />EUROPA<br />GANYMEDE<br />CALLISTO<br />
    19. Io: roaring volcanoes<br />Innermost and most active of all Galilean moons.<br />No impact craters visible.<br />Hundreds of active volcanoes.<br />Activity powered by tidal interactions with Jupiter.<br />Average density ~ 3.55 g/cm3<br />Mostly rock.<br />
    20. Europa: hidden ocean<br />Almost completely free of impact craters.<br />Active surface erases craters almost as fast as they form.<br /><ul><li>Bright face tells you surface is young.
    21. Albedo of 0.69, meaning it reflects 69% of the light hitting its surface.</li></li></ul><li>Surface of europa<br />Long cracks in the icy crust and sections moving apart as if they were icebergs floating on water provide further evidence for tectonic activity.<br />
    22. Interior of europa<br />Too small to retain internal heat.<br />Heating comes from tidal interactions with Jupiter.<br />Core not molten No magnetic field.<br />Europa has a liquid water ocean ~ 15 km below the icy surface. <br />
    23. Ganymede: a hidden past<br />Largest moon in the solar system; larger than Mercury itself.<br />Average density ~ 1.9 g/cm3.<br />Underwent differentiation.<br />Rocky core, ice-rich mantle, crust of ice 500 km thick.<br /><ul><li>Bright, parallel grooves across the surface indicate an active past.
    24. Surface once flooded.
    25. Experiences 2 unusual processes due to its size and closeness to Jupiter:
    26. Tidal Heating
    27. Inward Focusing of Meteorites</li></li></ul><li>Callisto: the ancient face <br />Average density ~ 1.8 g/cm3<br />Mixture of ice and rocks.<br />Old, dark surface heavily cratered.<br />Measurements show it never fully differentiated to form a dense core and lower-density mantle.<br />Interaction with Jupiter’s magnetic field suggests is has a layer of liquid water.<br />Heat from interior through slow radioactive decay.<br /><ul><li>Impact scar shown above is one of the largest in the solar system (4000 km ~ 2500 mi).</li></li></ul><li>the galilean moons<br />Minor moons are believed to be captured asteroids.<br />Galilean moons probably formed with Jupiter.<br />Formed from a disk of material surrounding Jupiter (mini “solar nebula”).<br />Earliest moons may have spiraled into Jupiter.<br />Galilean moons are probably a 2nd generation of moons for Jupiter.<br />
    28. Saturn<br />Average density ~ 0.69 g/cm3<br />Less dense than water (1.0 g/cm3)  Would float on water!<br />Rotation ~10.66 h<br />Revolution ~ 29.46 y<br />
    29. Saturn’s atmosphere<br />Hydrogen and Helium rich with heavy element core.<br />Displays belt-zone circulation, similar patterns to Jupiter (not as distinct).<br />Actually exhibits faster wind speeds, but fewer wind zones.<br /><ul><li>Much colder atmosphere than Jupiter’s (twice as far from the Sun, receives only ¼ as much solar energy per square meter).</li></li></ul><li>Saturn’s rings<br />An astronomer once said: <br />“ The rings are made of beautiful physics.”<br />In 1609, Galileo became the first to see the rings, but didn’t recognize them as individual rings.<br />Drew Saturn as a central body with two smaller bodies surrounding it.<br />
    30. Saturn’s rings<br />Consists of 3 main segments: A, B, and C <br />Separated by empty regions called divisions (Cassini  A /B; Encke  A)<br />Rings replenished by passing comets and meteoroids.<br />Just as with Jupiter, Saturn’s rings lie inside Roche Limit.<br />Some smaller moons, known as shepherd moons, orbit close to the rings and keep the ring material confined.<br />
    31. Saturn’s rings<br />Made of billions of ice particles (microscopic specks  chunks larger than a house).<br />Voyager 1<br />Voyager 2<br />Cassini<br />Rings could not have formed when Saturn formed  once hot and ring material would have vaporized.<br />
    32. Saturn’s moon - titan<br />2nd largest moon in the solar system.<br />Rocky core; abundant ice.<br />Only natural satellite with an atmosphere; thick  hides the surface.<br />
    33. Saturn’s moon - titan<br />Explored extensively by Cassini spacecraft, which released the Huygens probe.<br />Landed on surface of Titan in 2005 and radioed back images.<br />Few craters  suggests geologic activity?<br />Most of its atmosphere is Nitrogen; smaller amounts of methane.<br />Sunlight converts methane (CH4) into the gas ethane (C2H6) plus a collection of other organic molecules.<br />Produces smog-like haze  settles into goo.<br />Methane/ethane rain?<br />
    34. Saturn’s smaller moons<br />
    35. History of saturn<br />SATURN<br />“God of Harvest”<br />Most of Saturn’s story parallels Jupiter’s.<br />Smaller with less liquid metallic Hydrogen, thus producing a weaker magnetic field.<br />Rings are not primordial, meaning the material in them now has not been in its current form since the formation of the planet.<br />Permanent or temporary?<br />
    36. uranus<br />Chance discovery made by William Herschel in 1781 while scanning the sky for nearby objects with measurable parallax.<br />Until that time, astronomers only knew of five planets aside from Earth.<br />“Luck is what happens to the people who work hard.”<br />
    37. Motion of uranus<br />Just over 19 AU’s from the Sun.<br />Rotation ~ 17.23 h<br />Revolution ~ 84.0 y<br />Rotation axis inclined 97.9° from the perpendicular to its orbit (tilted on its side  retrograde rotation).<br />Impact during planetary development?<br />Extreme seasons.<br />Rotation between eternal sunlight and extreme darkness for many years.<br />First good photographs taken in 1986 as Voyager 2 flew past.<br />97.9o<br />19.18 AU<br />
    38. Atmosphere of uranus<br />Like Jupiter and Saturn, no surface exists on Uranus.<br />Mostly Hydrogen, with 15% Helium, and about 2% methane, ammonia, and water vapor.<br />Gradual transition from gas (molecular) state to fluid-like interior.<br /><ul><li>Blue-green color comes from methane  good absorber of longer wavelength photons.
    39. Cloud structures visible after computerenhancements form optical images.</li></li></ul><li>Atmosphere of uranus<br />Only 1 layer of methane clouds, as opposed to 3 cloud layers on Jupiter and Saturn.<br />Difficult to see because of thick atmosphere.<br />Also shows belt-zone structure.<br />Result of planet’s rotation rather than sunlight incidence angle.<br />
    40. Atmosphere of uranus<br />Keck Telescope in Mauna Kea (Hawaii) show clear variability of the cloud structures.<br />Possibly due to extreme seasonal changes<br />
    41. Interior of uranus<br />Average density ~ 1.29 g/cm3<br />Larger portion of rock and ice than Jupiter and Saturn, thus higher density.<br />
    42. Uranus’ magnetic field<br />Lower mass than Jupiter; internal pressure not high enough to create liquid metallic Hydrogen.<br />No magnetic field was expected.<br />Voyager 2 detected slight magnetic field (75% of Earth’s).<br />Theorists say it is generated by a dynamo effect not from the interior like on Earth and other planets, but from surface layers of liquid water with dissolved ammonia and methane (convection currents)  good conductor of electricity, rotation coupled together = magnetic field.<br />
    43. Uranus’ magnetic field<br />Rapid rotation and large inclination deform the magnetosphere into a corkscrew shape.<br />Aurora and radiation belts detected.<br />
    44. Rings of uranus<br />Similar to Jupiter’s rather than Saturn’s.<br />Dark/faint, not easily visible, and contained by shepherd satellites.<br />Like all Jovian rings, they cannot survive for long periods; need to be replenished with material from impacts on moons.<br />
    45. Rings of uranus<br />
    46. Moons of uranus<br />5 largest moons visible from Earth.<br />Tidally locked to Uranus.<br />10 more discovered by Voyager 2.<br />Dark surfaces; probably ice darkened by dust from meteorite impacts.<br />Large rocky cores surrounded by icy mantles.<br />Titania<br />Largest moon of Uranus<br />
    47. Moons of uranus<br />Miranda is the innermost and most unique of the moons of Uranus.<br /><ul><li>Originally believed to be broken apart and accreted back together.
    48. Consists of ovoids, or oval-grooved patterns most likely associated with convection currents in the mantle, not with impacts.
    49. Old surface features suggest Miranda is no longer active.</li></li></ul><li>HISTORY OF URANUS<br />URANUS<br />“God of the Sky”<br />Difficult to study and observe.<br />Far away/peculiar in many ways.<br />Computer models suggest it probably formed closer to the Sun, along with Neptune, in the field of Jupiter and Saturn.<br />Gravitational interactions may have eventually moved them outward to their present locations.<br />Interesting hypotheses exist.<br />
    50. neptune<br />Discovered in 1846 at a position predicted from gravitational disturbances on Uranus’ orbit.<br />J.C. Adams<br />U.J. Leverrier<br />Blue-green color exists from methane gas being present; similar to Uranus.<br />30.1 AU’s from the Sun.<br />Approximately 4 times the Earth’s diameter.<br />Rotation ~ 16.05 h<br />Revolution ~ 164.8 y<br />
    51. Neptune’s atmosphere<br />Belt-zone structured clouds with high speed winds; similar to other Jovians.<br />Great Dark Spotsimilar cyclonic disturbance to Jupiter’s Great Red Spot.<br />White cloud features on the planet are methane-ice crystals.<br />
    52. Neptune’s rings<br />Voyager 2 revealed rings of Neptune, as expected.<br />Can’t be primordial they couldn’t have lasted in their present form since the formation of Neptune.<br />
    53. Moons of neptune<br />2 largest moons of Neptune visible from Earth-based telescopes; Tritonand Nereid.<br />6 more discovered by Voyager 2.<br />The orbit of Nereid is highly eccentric compared to the orbit of Triton.<br />
    54. triton<br />Only satellite in the solar system to orbit clockwise (retrograde - backwards).<br />Low surface temperature ~ 35 K<br />Surface composed of ices: Nitrogen, Methane, Carbon Monoxide, Carbon Dioxide.<br />The cycle of Nitrogen on Triton resembles in some ways the cycle of Carbon Dioxide on Mars.<br />
    55. HISTORY OF NEPTUNE<br />NEPTUNE<br />“God of the Sea”<br />Like Uranus, Neptune’s hazy atmosphere with changing cloud patterns, hides a mantle of partially frozen ices  astronomers predict dynamo effect generating a magnetic field.<br />Satellite system suggests a peculiar history:<br />Triton  retrograde rotation<br />Nereid  long-period; highly elliptical orbit.<br />
    56. pluto<br />PLUTO<br />“God of the Underworld”<br />Discovery  Clyde Thombaugh; 1930.<br />Sensed something was wrong from the first moment he saw it.<br />2.5 magnitudes too faint.<br />Not the 7-Earth mass planet as predicted.<br />Difficult to observe from Earth.<br />Average density ~ 2.0 g/cm3<br />65% the diameter of Earth’s moon.<br />Most planetary orbits are nearly circular; Pluto’s is highly eccentric.<br />1979– 1999  Pluto was actually close to the Sun than Neptune was.<br />Never collide because Pluto’s orbit is inclined 17; don’t come close.<br />
    57. Surface of pluto<br />Little surface detail is shown, even from the Hubble Space Telescope.<br />If all goes well, the New Horizons probe, due to arrive in 2015, will send the first close-up images of Pluto and its moons.<br />Cold enough to freeze most compounds you think of as gases.<br />Maximum daytime temperature ~ 55K (-360 F); enough to vaporize some of the Nitrogen and Carbon Monoxide and some Methane to form a thin atmosphere around Pluto.<br />Atmosphere first detected in 1988.<br />
    58. Pluto’s moons<br />Largest moon, Charon, was discovered in 1978.<br />Half the diameter of Pluto.<br />Believed to contain 35% ice and 65% rock material.<br />Two smaller moons, Nix and Hydra, were found in 2005 and confirmed in 2006 by the Hubble Space Telescope.<br />
    59. Origin of pluto<br />Believed to have a very different history than its neighboring four Jovian planets.<br />Pluto and its moons are now considered members of the Kuiper Belt, icy objects beyond Neptune’s orbit (similar to Asteroid Belt between Mars and Jupiter only much larger).<br /><ul><li>Because of its different origin from the planets, Pluto is now classified as a dwarf planet.</li></li></ul><li>Objects Beyond Neptune<br />In recent years, astronomers have discovered hundreds of objects beyond Neptune’s orbit and have termed them Trans-Neptunian Objects (TNO’s).<br />Most are just small chunks of ice.<br />TNO’s exist in a region known as the Kuiper Belt.<br />
    60. Family of Dwarf planets<br />In order to be considered a dwarf planet, the object must meet the following criteria:<br />Orbits the Sun<br />Is round because of its own gravity (mass-related)<br />Has not cleared the region around its orbit<br />Is not a satellite of another planet<br />CERES<br />The largest asteroid<br />Member of the Asteroid Belt<br />900 km diameter<br />ERIS<br />The “10th” planet<br />4% larger than Pluto<br />27% more massive than Pluto<br />70% further away from the Sun than Pluto<br />

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