2.3   THE SOLAR SYSTEM
Formation of the Solar System• In space, a cloud of gas and interstellar dust  is known as a nebula.    – Often consists o...
Formation of the Solar System• Studies of these nebulae have led to a theory  concerning the beginning of our solar system...
Formation of the Solar System• The planets began their formation  through a process known as  accretion, where solid bits ...
Planetary Data
Terrestrial Planets
Mercury: The Innermost Planet• Innermost and smallest planet.   – NASA’s Messenger provides many images.• Absorbs most sun...
Venus: The Veiled Planet• Similar to Earth in  size, density, mass, and location  in the solar system thus  commonly refer...
Venus: The Veiled Planet• Radar-generated image of a large  volcano on the surface.   – Magellan spacecraft data.• Greenho...
Mars: The Red Planet• The most pronounced feature of  Mars is its white polar ice caps.   – Data collected from probes con...
Mars: The Red Planet• Also has several large inactive  volcanoes, including the  largest known in the solar  system, Olymp...
Mars: The Red Planet• Some areas of Mars exhibit drainage  patterns, quite similar to those created  by streams and rivers...
Jovian Planets
Jupiter: Giant Among Planets• Largest planet of our solar system.   – Mass is over 300 times Earth’s mass.• Hydrogen (H) a...
VOYAGER 1Video data from approach to Jupiter in 1979
Jupiter: Giant Among Planets• Jupiter’s most distinctive  feature is its Great Red Spot.   – Giant rotating storm, similar...
Saturn: The Elegant Planet          • Composition similar to Jupiter’s.          • Voyager 1 and 2 spacecrafts            ...
Uranus: The Sideways Planets            • Unique orientation of the              planet wasn’t discovered until           ...
Neptune: The Windy Planet• Neptune was named after the  Roman God of the sea.• Voyager 1 and 2 also provided  images of Ne...
Objects Beyond Neptune• Pluto was discovered in 1930 and up until 2006, it was considered  the 9th planet of our solar sys...
Objects Beyond Neptune• In recent years, astronomers have discovered hundreds  of objects beyond Neptune’s orbit and have ...
Satellites of Other Planets         • Until the 1600’s, astronomers           believed Earth was the only           planet...
Moons of Mars                                  Phobos• Mars has 2 known  moons, named Phobos and  Deimos.• Irregularly-sha...
Moons of Jupiter• Jupiter has 63 known moons, including the  largest 4, known as the Galilean Moons:
Io• Io is the innermost of Jupiter’s 4 major Galilean moons.• Several hundred active volcanoes exist on the surface.   – E...
Europa • Europa is about the size of   Earth’s moon and is slightly   less dense than our moon. • Crust of ice covers the ...
Ganymede• Ganymede is the largest known  moon of the solar system.   – Larger than the planet Mercury.• Much of the surfac...
Callisto• Callisto is similar to Ganymede in size, density, and composition, but  has a much rougher surface.• One of the ...
Moons of Saturn• Saturn has 31 known  moons, most of which are  small, icy bodies with  many craters.• Saturn’s largest mo...
Moons of Uranus and Neptune• Uranus has 25 known moons, the  most interesting being Miranda.   – Originally believed to be...
Pluto’s Moons • Although no longer considered a planet, Pluto does have at least   three known moons. • The largest moon, ...
Asteroids        Ceres• Asteroids are fragments of rock  orbiting the Sun; largest minor  bodies of the solar system.   – ...
Comets• Small bodies of ice, rock, and cosmic dust  following a highly elliptical orbit around  the Sun are known as comet...
Oort Cloud• Most astronomers think  comets originate in a  spherical cloud of dust  and ice surrounding out  solar system ...
Meteoroids, Meteors, and Meteorites                                • Smaller particles, possibly                          ...
ES 2.3 PPT
ES 2.3 PPT
ES 2.3 PPT
ES 2.3 PPT
ES 2.3 PPT
ES 2.3 PPT
ES 2.3 PPT
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

ES 2.3 PPT

981

Published on

Published in: Technology
1 Comment
1 Like
Statistics
Notes
  • I observe ,that person in this site download different presentations,but nothing relate with education.Professional as you are valuable piece in a puzzle of education, because with his/her talent help that the education atractive to the student...with simple word explain concept. Thank's dear friend and collegue.Sorry, my vernacle language is spanish...english as a second.
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
No Downloads
Views
Total Views
981
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
11
Comments
1
Likes
1
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

ES 2.3 PPT

  1. 1. 2.3 THE SOLAR SYSTEM
  2. 2. Formation of the Solar System• In space, a cloud of gas and interstellar dust is known as a nebula. – Often consists of 92% Hydrogen (H), 7% Helium (He), and less than 1% of remaining heavier elements.• These clouds rotate, contract gravitationally, and spin rather quickly.
  3. 3. Formation of the Solar System• Studies of these nebulae have led to a theory concerning the beginning of our solar system.• According to the Solar Nebula Theory, the Sun and planets formed from a rotating disk of dust and gases. Also known as the Solar Nebula Disk Model (SNDM). As speed increased, the center flattened out and matter became more concentrated until the Sun eventually formed.
  4. 4. Formation of the Solar System• The planets began their formation through a process known as accretion, where solid bits of matter collide and form together. – This colliding matter formed small, irregular shaped bodies known as planetesimals. – Inner planets (Terrestrial): Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars. • Relatively small, rocky, and dense. • Contain large percentages of heavy elements such as iron (Fe) and nickel (Ni). – Outer planets (Jovian): Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune. • Huge gas giants with relatively low densities. • Colder planets, having mainly light elements: hydrogen (H) and helium (He)  gases.
  5. 5. Planetary Data
  6. 6. Terrestrial Planets
  7. 7. Mercury: The Innermost Planet• Innermost and smallest planet. – NASA’s Messenger provides many images.• Absorbs most sunlight striking its surface due to the lack of an atmosphere (similar to Earth’s moon).• Exhibits cratered highlands, like our moon, and smooth terrains resembling maria of the moon.• Unlike the moon, Mercury is very dense implying it likely has a large iron core.• Greatest temperature extremes of any planet (slow rotation: 59 Earth days).
  8. 8. Venus: The Veiled Planet• Similar to Earth in size, density, mass, and location in the solar system thus commonly referred to as “Earth’s Twin”. – Covered in thick clouds, hiding the surface of the planet.• Volcanism and tectonic activity are believed to have impacted the surface (few impact craters, similar to Earth).• 80% of its surface is covered with volcanic flows.
  9. 9. Venus: The Veiled Planet• Radar-generated image of a large volcano on the surface. – Magellan spacecraft data.• Greenhouse Effect: the trapping of heat due to certain atmospheric gases. – On Venus, this effect has heated the planet to extreme temperatures; hottest planet in the solar system.• Atmosphere is 97% carbon dioxide (CO2), which is a greenhouse gas.• Lacks oceans, which could dissolve CO2, removing it from the atmosphere. – Responsible for the hot temperatures on the planet.
  10. 10. Mars: The Red Planet• The most pronounced feature of Mars is its white polar ice caps. – Data collected from probes concluded the ice caps are made of water ice, covered by frozen carbon dioxide.• Dust storms occur on the planet and much of the surface resembles a large desert.• Atmospheric composition similar to that of Venus. – Atmosphere is extremely thin and doesn’t trap heat like the atmosphere of Venus does, resulting in very cold
  11. 11. Mars: The Red Planet• Also has several large inactive volcanoes, including the largest known in the solar system, Olympus Mons. – 3 times the elevation of Mt. Everest (approx. 90,000 ft.)• Several canyons are present as well, some even larger than Earth’s Grand Canyon. – Largest is the Valles Marineris, which is more than 5000 km. long and 8 km. deep.
  12. 12. Mars: The Red Planet• Some areas of Mars exhibit drainage patterns, quite similar to those created by streams and rivers on Earth.• Evaporite minerals have been found, as well as geologic formations associated with liquid water. – Present Martian atmosphere contains only slight traces of water.• Some scientists believe the stream-like valleys were created due to melting of ice along the polar ice caps. – Others believe Mars was once covered in flowing water.• Since water is essential to life, this exploration will continue for years to come.
  13. 13. Jovian Planets
  14. 14. Jupiter: Giant Among Planets• Largest planet of our solar system. – Mass is over 300 times Earth’s mass.• Hydrogen (H) and Helium (He) make up 92% of Jupiter  much like our Sun.• “Star That Failed” – Not enough mass to allow nuclear fusion to begin in its core.• Alternating light and dark bands are gases, such as ammonia (NH3) and methane (CH4) swirling around the planet at a quick pace. – Fastest rotation period of any planet • 9 hours, 50 minutes.
  15. 15. VOYAGER 1Video data from approach to Jupiter in 1979
  16. 16. Jupiter: Giant Among Planets• Jupiter’s most distinctive feature is its Great Red Spot. – Giant rotating storm, similar to a hurricane on Earth (trace amounts of water present deep within the atmosphere). – Twice the size of Earth.• Several other smaller storms have been observed on Jupiter.• High wind speeds are caused by temperature differences from heat within the planet’s interior (liquid hydrogen  pressure).
  17. 17. Saturn: The Elegant Planet • Composition similar to Jupiter’s. • Voyager 1 and 2 spacecrafts collected various data. • Least dense (lightest) planet of the solar system. • Known for its rings, which are twice the planet’s diameter. – All the gas giants have faint rings, however, Saturn has the most complex and extensive ring system. – Made of billions of dust and ice particles. – Probably came from comets and other bodies traveling in space.
  18. 18. Uranus: The Sideways Planets • Unique orientation of the planet wasn’t discovered until 1986, when the Voyager 2 spacecraft passed by. • The planet is turned on its side. – Axis almost parallel to its plane of orbit. • Similar atmospheric composition to the other gas giants. – Blue-green color of the planet also shows a significant amount of methane (CH4) gas present.
  19. 19. Neptune: The Windy Planet• Neptune was named after the Roman God of the sea.• Voyager 1 and 2 also provided images of Neptune.• Dark blue-green planet due to its composition (H2, He, CH4).• Strongest known winds in the solar system.• The Great Dark Spot of Neptune is similar to Jupiter’s Great Red Spot, but not quite as large.
  20. 20. Objects Beyond Neptune• Pluto was discovered in 1930 and up until 2006, it was considered the 9th planet of our solar system.• It is now characterized as a dwarf planet, which is defined by meeting the following criteria: 1. An object orbiting the Sun 2. Is round because of its own gravity 3. Has not cleared the region around its orbit 4. Is not a satellite of another planet
  21. 21. Objects Beyond Neptune• In recent years, astronomers have discovered hundreds of objects beyond Neptune’s orbit and have termed them Trans-Neptunian Objects (TNO’s).• Most are just small chunks of ice.• TNO’s exist in a region known as the Kuiper Belt.
  22. 22. Satellites of Other Planets • Until the 1600’s, astronomers believed Earth was the only planet with a moon. • In 1610  Galileo discovered four major moons of the planet, Jupiter. • Since then, astronomers have discovered all planets within our solar system, with the exception of Mercury and Venus, have moons.
  23. 23. Moons of Mars Phobos• Mars has 2 known moons, named Phobos and Deimos.• Irregularly-shaped chunks of rock and are thought to be captured asteroids.• Surfaces are dark, like the maria of the moon.• Exhibit several craters, indicating possible Deimos asteroid contact and old age.
  24. 24. Moons of Jupiter• Jupiter has 63 known moons, including the largest 4, known as the Galilean Moons:
  25. 25. Io• Io is the innermost of Jupiter’s 4 major Galilean moons.• Several hundred active volcanoes exist on the surface. – Eject thousands of metric tons of material each second. – Most volcanic material is believed to be mainly sulfuric, due to the yellowish color of Io.
  26. 26. Europa • Europa is about the size of Earth’s moon and is slightly less dense than our moon. • Crust of ice covers the moon; believed to be about 100 km. in thickness. • Scientists believe a flowing ocean of liquid water may exist underneath this ice sheet. – If liquid water exists, simple life forms may exist as well. – Studies continue to this day of life potential on Europa. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6Nz9TdNVz0w
  27. 27. Ganymede• Ganymede is the largest known moon of the solar system. – Larger than the planet Mercury.• Much of the surface is covered with ridges and valleys.• A magnetic field is believed to be in existence around Ganymede. – Only moon in the solar system known to have its own magnetic field. – Surrounded by Jupiter’s much more powerful magnetic field.
  28. 28. Callisto• Callisto is similar to Ganymede in size, density, and composition, but has a much rougher surface.• One of the most densely cratered moons within our solar system. – Craters are the result of collisions from asteroids occurring early in the history of our solar system.
  29. 29. Moons of Saturn• Saturn has 31 known moons, most of which are small, icy bodies with many craters.• Saturn’s largest moon is Titan, which is the 2nd largest moon in the solar system, next to Jupiter’s Ganymede.• Titan has a thick atmosphere, composed mainly of Nitrogen (N).
  30. 30. Moons of Uranus and Neptune• Uranus has 25 known moons, the most interesting being Miranda. – Originally believed to be split apart by asteroid impact then joined back together (process of accretion). – Further studies suggest tectonic activity does exist, causing the Miranda distorted appearance.• Neptune has 13 known moons, the largest being Triton. – Revolves around Neptune in a backwards, or retrograde, orbit (clockwise). Triton
  31. 31. Pluto’s Moons • Although no longer considered a planet, Pluto does have at least three known moons. • The largest moon, Charon, is almost half the size of Pluto itself. – Exhibits synchronous rotation, just like Earth’s moon. • Pluto’s other two moon, Nix and Hydra, are much smaller. – Both were discovered in 2005 by the Hubble Space Telescope.Charon
  32. 32. Asteroids Ceres• Asteroids are fragments of rock orbiting the Sun; largest minor bodies of the solar system. – More than 300,000 have been discovered.• Largest known is Ceres. – Exists within the Asteroid Belt between Mars and Jupiter. – Also considered a dwarf planet.• Composition can vary from Carbon (C), Iron (Fe), Nickel (Ni) and Silicon (Si) materials.
  33. 33. Comets• Small bodies of ice, rock, and cosmic dust following a highly elliptical orbit around the Sun are known as comets. – Most famous is Halley’s Comet, which passes by Earth every 76 years. – Most recent 1986; Next return in 2061.• Core (Nucleus): made of rock, metals, and ice.• Coma: cloud of gas and dust surrounding the core.• Tail: electrically charged gas particles (ions) resulting from sunlight changing the comet’s ice into gas (sublimation).
  34. 34. Oort Cloud• Most astronomers think comets originate in a spherical cloud of dust and ice surrounding out solar system known as the Oort Cloud.• Believed matter within this cloud was leftover from the time the solar nebula was formed. – Contains the nuclei of billions of comets.
  35. 35. Meteoroids, Meteors, and Meteorites • Smaller particles, possibly coming from asteroids or comets, orbiting the Sun are known as meteoroids. – Most have diameter < 1 mm. • When a meteoroid enters Earth’s atmosphere, friction Meteoroid heats the surface and causes it Meteor to burn up. – As it burns it produces a bright streak of light known as a meteor, which is commonly Meteorite referred to as a “shooting star”. • Any part of a meteoroid making contact with Earth’s surface, is known as a meteorite.
  1. A particular slide catching your eye?

    Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later.

×