Religious	  Studies	  GCSE	  Revision	  Guide	  Ethics	  2	  Unit	  B604	  	  	  Name___________________________________TG...
ADVICE	  ON	  REVISION	  This	  guide	  has	  been	  produced	  to	  give	  you	  all	  the	  key	  information	  you	  wi...
 THE	  EXAM	  	  In	  the	  exam	  it	  is	  important	  not	  to	  panic.	  Take	  your	  time	  to	  read	  through	  th...
Topic 1- Religion, Peace and JusticeChristian Attitudes towards WarWhat is war?• War is defined as “a period of hostile re...
How do Christians respond to beliefs                              about the treatment of criminals?                       ...
Christianity and Social InjusticeWhat is social injustice?Social injustice is the belief that some individuals orgroups in...
What is Liberation Theology?Liberation theology is a moderndevelopment in the Christian church which isparticularly concer...
Key WordsCapital	  Punishment	     Executing	  a	  criminal	  convicted	  of	  murder	  or	  other	  crimes	  Conscientiou...
Topic 2 - Religion and EqualityBiblicalTeaching aboutEqualityWhat is equality?•   Equality is a principle which basically ...
Christian Attitudes to Race and GenderHow do Christians respond to racism?• Racism is the belief that some  people are bet...
Martin Luther King                                Martin Luther King was a Christian who lived in                         ...
Women	  should	  remain	  silent	  in	  the	  churches.	  They	  are	  no	  allowed	  to	  speak,	  but	  must	  be	  in	 ...
Christian Attitudes to Other ReligionsHow do Christians respond to members of other religions?This has been a very problem...
2. What is Evangelism?Evangelism is the spreading of theteachings of Jesus from the Gospels or“good news”.The Salvation Ar...
Christian Beliefs about Forgiveness andReconciliationWhat does Christianity teach about forgiveness and reconciliation?• F...
Christians who feel that they need to be forgiven for something that they havedone can go to their priest or minister to s...
Exam questions  a)   What is meant by ‘equality’? (1 mark)  b)   What do Christians believe about reconciliation? (2 marks...
B604 Revision Booklet
B604 Revision Booklet
B604 Revision Booklet
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B604 Revision Booklet

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B604 Revision Booklet

  1. 1. Religious  Studies  GCSE  Revision  Guide  Ethics  2  Unit  B604      Name___________________________________TG________  
  2. 2. ADVICE  ON  REVISION  This  guide  has  been  produced  to  give  you  all  the  key  information  you  will  need  to  pass  your   RS   G.C.S.E.   The   information   is   laid   out   in   easy   to   read   bullet   points   with   quotations  to   support   the   information.   Each   section   contains   the   teachings   of   Christianity   on   the  units  you  have  covered  in  class.  It  is  important  to  remember  that  there  is  rarely  a  simple  teaching   accepted   by   all   believers,   especially   in   Christianity.   If   you   do   not   understand  any  of  the  words  or  information  it  is  important  that  you  look  it  up  or  ask  for  help.    HOW  TO  USE  THIS  GUIDE  The  booklet  has  been  laid  out  clearly  into  different  sections  corresponding  to  the  units  you  have  covered  and  will  answer  in  the  exam.  You   will   find   the   information   laid   out   in   bullet   points.   This   is   the   bare   bones   of   what   you  will  need.  You  must  refer  to  your  exercise  book  and  any  other  revision  guide  (GCSE  BBC  Bitesize,   the   VLE   or   revision   books   published   by   OCR)   that   you   have   access   to.   If   you   are  not  familiar  with  any  of  the  terms  used  it  is  important  that  you  ask.  At   the   end   of   each   set   of   bullet   points   you   will   find   a   series   of   quotations.   By   learning  these  you  will  develop  a  better  understanding  of  the  religious  teachings.  Failing  that,  it  is  a  good  idea  to  know  where  the  teachings  come  from,  so  try  to  learn  the  references.    HOW  TO  REMEMBER  There  are  many  different  ways  to  revise  but  the  best  way  is  to  be  active  in  what  you  are  doing.    Don’t  just  read  through  your  notes  and  the  guide  Don’t  just  pick  it  up,  do  3  minutes  and  then  put  it  down  Don’t  leave  everything  to  the  last  minute  Don’t  revise  without  breaks  Don’t  punish  yourself  if  you  get  something  wrong  Don’t  revise  where  you  know  you  will  get  disturbed  Do  make  a  plan  of  what  you  will  revise  and  when  Do  test  the  information  you  have  learned  each  time  Do  give  yourself  rewards  when  you  have  worked  hard  Do  put  up  post  it  notes  around  the  house  containing  key  terms,  dates,  concepts,  etc.  Especially  in  places  you  visit  a  lot,  e.g.  the  fridge,  toilet,  light  switches  etc  Do  play  quiet  music  if  it  helps  you  to  concentrate  Do  tell  your  friends  that  you  are  serious  about  doing  well  Do  get  other  people  to  help  you  parents,  friends  etc    Do  revise  with  friends  if  you  know  that  they  are  serious  too       2
  3. 3.  THE  EXAM    In  the  exam  it  is  important  not  to  panic.  Take  your  time  to  read  through  the  questions  and  select  the  ones  that  you  are  confident  with.  Make  sure  that  you  understand  what  every  part  of  the  paper  is  asking  you.  You  will  have  lots  of  time  to  plan  your  answers  so  don’t  just  rush  straight  in.  Set  yourself  30  minutes  for  each  question  and  make  sure  that  you  do  not  over  run.  You  can  always  add  more  at  the  end  if  you  have  time.  Try  to  ensure  you  are  not  repeating  yourself.  Always  write  in  full  sentences.  If  you  are  running  out  of  time  and  have  not  included  everything,  jot  down  in  bullet  points  what  you  wanted  to  say.  You  will  get  credit  for  this.  If  you  have  finished  before  time  is  up,  take  care  to  read  through  your  answers,  correct  any  mistakes  and  add  any  more  information  that  you  may  think  of.  You  must  choose  2  Christianity  questions  from  the  choice  of  3.  Each  question  is  in  5  parts  (a,  b,  c,  d  and  e)  which  add  up  to  24  marks.    A  –  1  mark.  This  will  ask  for  the  meaning  of  a  religious  word  related  to  the  topic.  One  sentence  will  do.    B  –  2  marks.  This  will  ask  for  2  facts  about  an  idea  related  to  the  topic  so  be  specific  and  think  in  terms  of  your  knowledge  of  Christianity.  Do  not  over  simplify.    C  –  3  marks.  This  will  ask  for  a  description  of  Christian  beliefs  about  an  issue.  Try  to  give  3  ideas.    D  –  6  marks.  More  detail  is  needed  here.  The  examiner  marks  this  answer  on  a  system  of  levels  to  assess  the  quality  of  your  answer.  They  are  looking  for  a  comprehensive  answer,  structure  and  use  of  specialist  (religious)  terms.    E  –  12  marks. (That’s  50%  of  the  marks  in  case  you  needed  that  pointing  out)  Again  this  is  marked  on  levels.  You  must  make  sure  you  are  answering  the  question.  A  top  level  answer  will  show  you  have  given  your  opinion  and  explained  your  reasons  for  it  and  included  a  range  of  other  possible  points  of  view.  You  must  also  show  you  know  what  a  possible  Christian  response  would  be.  It  is  a  discussion,  on  paper.  Write  as  much  as  you  possibly  can.  Refer  back  to  the  question  in  your  answer  to  retain  focus  and  you  will  be  fine.   3
  4. 4. Topic 1- Religion, Peace and JusticeChristian Attitudes towards WarWhat is war?• War is defined as “a period of hostile relations between countries, states or factions that leads to fighting between armed forces, especially in land, air or sea battles.”What are the Christian attitudes toward war?There are three Christian attitudes towards War. These are -• Holy War• No War• Just WarNo WarMany people, whether they are religious or not, believe that all war andfighting is wrong regardless of the purpose or eventual outcome. Thesepeople would be considered pacifists. Pacifists will never approve of fightingalthough there are some who might say that this is justified in self-defence. One of the best-known groups of pacifists is the Religious Society of Friends (Quakers). Although they will drive ambulances and provide support services under fire in the frontline of a war they will not fight under any conditions; at times of war a Quaker will adopt the stance of conscientious objector, which is recognised under law. Quakers look to the teaching of Jesus in order to justifytheir beliefs concerning war, and it is quite clear that Jesus stressed the needto peace over the use of violence: On a separate occasion towards the end of his life,Jesus also taught the need for peace-Jesus said this to one of his disciples who had attempted to prevent thesoldiers who had come to arrest Jesus apprehending him. Quakers believethat these teachings from Jesus can never be reconciled to the idea of warand this has led to the establishment of the Quaker Peace Testimony whichstates the Quaker belief that war can never be justified. 4
  5. 5. How do Christians respond to beliefs about the treatment of criminals? Although many Christians believe that criminals should be treated in line with teachings regarding justice, other Christians are concerned that the rights of the victims of crime and their needs are not always met and that criminals should be punished appropriately In response to this many Christians would saythat Jesus was preaching a true justice so that people were not judged andpunished by those who were themselves no better than the accused. Theimportance of not judging of us when we ourselvesare not perfect is also seen in the Sermon on theMount“First take the plank out of your own eye, andthen you will see clearly to remove the speckfrom your brothers eye.” (Matthew 7:5).What are the Christian attitudes towards capital punishment? Capital punishment if the state sanctioned killing or execution of a person because of a crime that they have committed. It is otherwise known as the death penalty. In the Old Testament there are many examples of crimes to which the punishment is death. Some Christians believe that this is the only way to deal with the most serious crimes such as murder. Roman Catholics believe that the use of the deathpenalty is justified in certain extreme situations where it is the only optionavailable to protect society. The last pope, John Paul II, said that the state-“Ought not to go to the extreme of executing the offender except incases of absolute necessity: in other words, when it would not bepossible otherwise to defend society.However, the majority of Christians believe that Jesus’ teachings offorgiveness and agape mean that all human life must be treated as sacredand that although criminals must be punished it can never be right to take alife as punishment-“Then Peter came to Jesus and asked, “Lord, howmany times shall I forgive my brother when he sinsagainst me? Up to seven times?” Jesus answered,“I tell you, not seven times, but seventy timesseven times.” (Matthew 18:21-22) 8
  6. 6. Christianity and Social InjusticeWhat is social injustice?Social injustice is the belief that some individuals orgroups in society are denied the rights and benefits ofthe majority of others in the society because ofpoverty or discrimination. The world we live in oftenlacks justice and many people are not treated fairly.There are many ways in which humans candiscriminate and use this as a reason to be unfair,such as reasons of race, religion, sex, sexuality,wealth or class for example.How should Christians respond to social injustice?Many Christians take positive action against social injustice by joiningorganisations designed to fight for social equality. These might include:Anti-slavery International, the Howard league, Amnesty International ororganisations Working to help disadvantaged people such as Mencap.Christians believe that God created all people-“So God created man in his own image, in the image of God he createdhim; male and female he created them.” (Genesis 1:27) Jesus’ parables stressed the idea of fairness and his personal treatment of women as well as members of other races should be an example of how to show love to different types of people. The Parable of the Good Samaritan is a good example of Jesus teaching in this respect. The Old Testament is full of the works of prophets calling for justice such as Isaiah- “If you satisfy the needs of the oppressed, then your light will rise in the darkness” (Isaiah 58:10).Great reforms in the UK such as theabolition of slavery, the introduction offree education and the development of theNational Health Service can all be tracedback to the involvement of Christiansseeking a better world due to their beliefs.Some examples of famous Christians whohave worked against social injustice areMother Theresa and Martin Luther King. 9
  7. 7. What is Liberation Theology?Liberation theology is a moderndevelopment in the Christian church which isparticularly concerned with issues of equalityfor all. It maintains that people who follow theteachings of Jesus have an obligation to takepositive action to oppose social injusticeand governmental abuse of power. Liberationtheology has supporters in both Protestantand Roman Catholic churches. The work ofliberation theologians is seen most clearly inLatin America and in some parts of Asia andAfrica. If the law of the country acts against the ordinary people in a waywhich can be seen as un-Christian then it must be opposed and, if necessary,broken. Jesus said:“He has sent me to proclaim freedom for the prisoners and recovery ofsight for the blind, to release the oppressed.”(Luke 4:18)The leaders of the movement in Latin America leave that people were beingexploited by the government and forced into poverty. They believed that thistreatment of the poor challenged Christian teachings about love and concernand also showed that Christianity was being used as a means of pacifying thepeople rather than to help them improve their condition. They decided that theonly way in which this could be challenged was by direct action against thegovernments and people concerned. One of the most famous priests of this movement in the 20th century was Archbishop Oscar Romero. Catholic leaders in Rome, including the current Pope, have criticised liberation theology as going too far. They do not approve of some of the methods used by the Liberation Theologists and consider that there are other ways of working to help the poor which do not contravene Christian teachings on peace. 10
  8. 8. Key WordsCapital  Punishment   Executing  a  criminal  convicted  of  murder  or  other  crimes  Conscientious   Someone  who  refuses  to  fight  in  a  war  based  on  their  conscience  Objector  Judge   The  Christian  idea  that  God  acting  as  judge  to  determine  whether  a   person  goes  to  heaven,  hell  or  purgatory.  Just  War  Theory   The  belief  that  wars  can  be  morally  justified  if  they  follow  certain   criteria  Justice   Fairness  in  society  and  the  world  Nuclear  Pacifism   Belief  that  nuclear  weapons  can  never  be  justified  Pacifism   The  belief  that  peace  should  be  the  most  important  value  that   people  follow  Proportionality   The  belief  that  force  can  only  be  met  with  equal  force  Quaker   A  member  of  the  Christian  denomination  also  known  as  The  Religious   Society  of  Friends.  Revenge   Seeking  to  repay  a  wrong  by  a  harmful  action.  Sin   An  act  which  goes  against  God.  Social  justice   The  belief  that  people  should  be  treated  fairly  and  with  respect   within  society  Social  injustice   Where  people  are  denied  rights  as  a  result  of  poverty  or   discrimination.  Violence   The  use  of  physical  force  with  intention  to  hurt  or  harm.   Exam questions a) What is pacifism? (1 mark) b) Give two examples of what a Christian might consider to be social injustice. (2 marks) c) Why might Christians work for peace? (3 marks) d) What are Christian attitudes towards war? (6 marks) e) ‘All people must be pacifists.’ Discuss this statement. You should include different, supported points of view and a personal viewpoint. You must refer to Christianity in your answer. (12 marks) a) What is capital punishment? (1 mark) b) Give two aims of punishment. (2 marks) c) Describe what the attitudes of Christians might be towards capital punishment. (3 marks) d) Explain what Christians might believe about the treatment of criminals (6 marks) e) ‘Putting people into prison is a waste of money.’ Discuss this statement. You should include different, supported points of view and a personal viewpoint. You must refer to Christianity in your answer. (12 marks) a) What is justice? (1 mark) b) What is meant by proportionality in war? (2 marks) c) Describe what Christians mean by ‘just war’. (3 marks) d) Explain Christian teachings about social justice. (6 marks) e) ‘Everyone should be treated the same by society.’ Discuss this statement. You should include different, supported points of view and a personal viewpoint. You must refer to Christianity in your answer. (12 marks) 11
  9. 9. Topic 2 - Religion and EqualityBiblicalTeaching aboutEqualityWhat is equality?• Equality is a principle which basically means “fairness” in that people in a society are treated equally no matter what their characteristics might be.• Prejudice means, “Judging before”. We often do this; we judge something before we have found out anything about it, we make up our minds before we know the facts.• Discrimination goes a stage further and is where people allow their prejudiced thoughts to influence their actions, which leads them to behave in unfair ways to either an individual or a specific group.What is the Biblical teaching about equality? The Bible teaches that all people are equally valuable to God, because they are made “in the image of God” (Genesis 1:27). Acts of the Apostles (which is in the New Testament straight after the gospels) teaches that God does not have favourites-“Then Peter began to speak: “I now realise how true it is that God doesnot show favouritism but accepts men from every nation who fear himand do what is right.” (Acts 10:34)Christians believe that God loves all of humanityunconditionally; it does not matter whether thepeople are men or women, black or white, rich orpoor, attractive or unattractive. They believe that it isimportant that people should show the same kind oflove for each other. They should be concernedabout other people’s welfare, whoever they are.In the letter to the Galatians, Paul teaches peoplethat they should not look for differences betweenpeople but should recognise that their Christian faithunites them-“There is neither Jew nor Greek, slave nor free, male nor female, for youare al one in Christ Jesus.” (Galatians 3:28) 12
  10. 10. Christian Attitudes to Race and GenderHow do Christians respond to racism?• Racism is the belief that some people are better than others because of the colour of their skin or their ethnic origin.• Christianity was for centuries strongest amongst white, Western people, but today there are Christians of all different colours and nationalities.• According to Christianity, because all people are made by God and are equally valued by God, they should all be treated as equally important and Christianity teaches that racism can never be right.Jesus was once asked what a man could do to inherit eternal life. He askedthe man what the Jewish law said on the subject, and the man told him-“Love the Lord your God with all your heart and with all your soul andwith all your strength and with all your mind: and love your neighbouras yourself.” (Luke 10:27) The person asking the question was still;confused; he wanted to know which people he should treat as his neighbours,and which people were not important, and which people could be ignored. Jesus answered by telling the Parable of the Good Samaritan. At the time of Jesus, Samaritans were treated as an inferior race, and no one wanted to mix with them. The Parable of the Good Samaritan teaches that people should treat each other as neighbours and look after them, even if they are strangers or from a different nationality. This does not mean that Christianity has always taken a firm stand against racism.Sometimes, people who call themselves Christians have been responsible forencouraging racist attitudes; for example, some Christians in the past havebeen slave-owners or enthusiastic supporters of apartheid in South Africa.The Dutch Reformed Church is a denomination ofChristianity in South Africa that has activelysupported apartheid and racist attitudes. But therehave also been many Christians who have devotedtheir lives to the struggle against racism, becausethey believed that helping to get rid of racism is animportant way of putting Christian beliefs into practice. 13
  11. 11. Martin Luther King Martin Luther King was a Christian who lived in America at a time when black people and white people were often kept apart and not allowed to mix (segregation). Martin Luther King was black and his Christian beliefs led him to campaign against racism by leading non-violent protests against racist rules. Trevor Huddleston and Desmond Tutu campaigned in South Africa to try and break down the system of apartheid.How do Christians respond to sexism?Sexism is another form of prejudice. It is the belief that one gender is inferiorto the other. In practice, this is nearly always the belief that women are inferiorto men.Sex discrimination is when sexist attitudes are put into practice, so thatwomen, or sometimes men, are disadvantaged because of their gender. Forexample, a woman might be overlooked for promotion and the job might begiven to a man even though the woman might be more experienced andbetter qualified. In 1975, the Sex Discrimination Act was passed, whichmade it illegal to discriminate against job applicants because of their gender.Within Christianity there are many different opinionsabout whether men and women should havedifferent roles, duties and responsibilities, orwhether they should be the same. The Bible is notcompletely consistent in its teaching about gender.In many passages, it is accepted that men havemore rights than women. Society in the Old andNew Testament times was patriarchal- men hadthe dominant role, and women were treated astheir property. 14
  12. 12. Women  should  remain  silent  in  the  churches.  They  are  no  allowed  to  speak,  but  must  be  in  submission,  as  then  Law  says.  If  they  want  to  enquire  about  something,  they  should  ask  their  own  husbands  at  home;  for  it  is  disgraceful  for  a  woman  to  speak  in  the  church.  1  Corinthians 14:34-35 In the Ten Commandments, for example, when people are told not to envy each other’s property, wives are included in a list of a man’s belongings, alongside houses and donkeys. In the New Testament too, women are sometimes expected to follow the orders of men and not express their opinions- Some Christians believe that men and women were always intended to be partners for each other, but that they have different skills and abilities, which compliment each other Other Christians, however, hold different views. They believe that God created men and women to be equal, to share the same opportunities and to use the talents that they have been given, whether they are male or female- It is quite clear from the Gospels that Jesus took notice of women as well as men. It was the women who were the first to see Jesus after the resurrection. The Roman Catholics believe that women should not be allowed to become priests. Some people have drawn attention to the fact that Jesus chose men as his apostles, but not women. They argue that this proves that men were always meant to be the leaders in a church, not women. In other churches, women have always been allowed to take leadership roles. The Salvation Army, for example, has always argued that if someone is right for the job, it doesn’t matter if they are male or female. Other denominations, such as The Church of England have changed their views during the twentieth century, perhaps because it is during the last century that women have become more equal to men in society. 15
  13. 13. Christian Attitudes to Other ReligionsHow do Christians respond to members of other religions?This has been a very problematic question for Christians over the centuries.Many Christians believe that the only way to gain salvation is to acceptJesus Christ as the saviour and follow the path that he laid down forthe benefit of everyone in the New Testament and his teachings-“Jesus answered, “I am the way and the truth and the life. No one comesto the Father except through me.” (John 14:6)Some Cardinals in the Roman Catholic Churchdo still hold the view that other religionsprovide nothing more than an obstacle tosalvation. This is a quote from Pope BenedictXVI before he became the present pope-“Religions other than Christianity areconsidered to be "gravely deficient." Theirrituals can constitute "an obstacle tosalvation" for their followers.”Some Christians interpret these quotes tomean that eternal life with God is only forChristian believers. They say that there wouldbe no point in the death and resurrection ofJesus if there were already lots of other waysto reach God, and therefore Christianity is theonly true religion.There are three typical responses to other religions by Christians-1. Missionary work2. Evangelism3. Ecumenism 1. What is a missionary? Missionary work is the act of fulfilling the teachings of Jesus through following in his footsteps. Christians used to travel to other countries as missionaries, with the aim of changing the religion of the people they met and persuading them to become Christians instead.There are still missionaries and missionary societies today, and although theystill believe that they must spread the message of Jesus wherever they go,many of them are now in more concerned with helping people in developingcountries rather than trying to convert them: they serve their mission byshowing the example of Jesus in their lives. Nevertheless, Christianityremains a religion that sees itself as having an obligation to lead other peopletowards Christianity. 16
  14. 14. 2. What is Evangelism?Evangelism is the spreading of theteachings of Jesus from the Gospels or“good news”.The Salvation Army is an example of aChristian group who believe it is theirmission to spread Jesus teachings as well isto carry out essential work to help the poorand disadvantaged.Some Christians however, believe that Godwould not be willing to punish someone whowas a devoted follower of a non-Christianreligion as that person was born in a regionwhere Christianity is not the dominantreligion and therefore was not brought Christianity.3. What is ecumenism? This is the belief that all religions and denominations within a religion should work together for the good of mankind.Within Christianity itself, there are differences and prejudices. Sometimes,Roman Catholics and Protestants have serious disagreements about issueslike the authority of the Pope, or whether women should be allowed to bepriests. There are many thousands of denominations within Christianity andmany of these groups are now working together with joint services andcommunity work because they believe that although there may be differencesbetween them they still share the same essential beliefs.Taize is a small Christian community in a village inFrance founded in 1940 during the Second World Warby a Catholic monk called Roger Schutz. The originalpurpose of Taize was to offer hospitality to refugees, inparticular Jews who were escaping from Nazi Germany.Since the late 1960s the community has been workingtowards improving relationships between Protestantsand Catholics. 17
  15. 15. Christian Beliefs about Forgiveness andReconciliationWhat does Christianity teach about forgiveness and reconciliation?• Forgiveness is when we forgive people or something they have done wrong.• Reconciliation is the ending of a dispute between people and the restoring of a good relationship.Christianity teaches that people should not hold grudges, and should not keepremembering their differences and arguments. The Lord’s Prayer, taught byJesus and used everyday by Christians around the world, reminds people thatthey should be forgiving if they expect God to forgive them-“Give us this day our daily bread,and forgive us our sins, as weforgive those who sin against us.”(Matthew 6). The Old Testament is very different in its view and teaches that it is necessary for a balance to be restored when a crime has been committed- “An eye for an eye, and a tooth for a tooth.” (Exodus 21:23)However, Jesus says he had come to replace this old attitude with an attitudeof love and forgiveness-“Do not resist an evil person. If someonestrikes you on the right cheek, turn to himthe other also.” (Matthew 5:39)Jesus showed that he was more concernedwith getting people to change than withexacting revenge. Christians try to put thisteaching of Jesus into practice when theycan, even though it is often hard to do this. 18
  16. 16. Christians who feel that they need to be forgiven for something that they havedone can go to their priest or minister to seek help. Reconciliation is the act ofattempting to make up for something as a process of seeking forgiveness.This is the case particularly in the Roman Catholic Church where there isSacrament of Reconciliation. Catholics believe that because Jesus gave thepower to forgive people their sins this has been passed on to priests. Thepriest helps them make amends for their actions through prayer andrepentance. For many Christians the central act of forgiveness and reconciliation is the Sacrament of the Eucharist. Christians believe that God sent Jesus to be sacrificed on the cross in order to reconcile God with humanity. Humans are forgiven at the death and resurrection of Jesus and this is remembered at the Eucharist. 19
  17. 17. Exam questions a) What is meant by ‘equality’? (1 mark) b) What do Christians believe about reconciliation? (2 marks) c) Describe Christian beliefs about equality. (3 marks) d) Explain Christian teaching about the role of women in society. (6 marks) Key words e) ‘Men and women are not equal.’ Discuss this statement. You should include different, supported points of view prejudicial  treatment  because  of  race,  age,  gender  or   Discrimination   Unjust  or   and a personal viewpoint. You must refer to Christianity in your answer. (12 marks) disability   Ecumenical   Different  Christian  denominations  working  together   f) What does the word ‘racist’ mean? (1 mark) Equality   Treating  people  as  equals  regardless  of  gender,  race  or  religious   g) Give two examples of prejudice (2 marks) beliefs   h) Suggest how Christians might work to stop racism. (3 marks) i) Explain Christian teachings about equality. (6 ceremony  commemorating  the  Last  Supper,  in  which   Eucharist   The  Christian   marks) j) ‘Religious people should treat bread  and  wine  are  consecrated  and  consumed   everyone equally’. Discuss this statement. You should include different, supportedto  share  of view and a Evangelism   Persuading  others   points your  faith   personal viewpoint. You must refer to Christianity inor  something  they  have  done  wrong   Forgiveness   Forgiving  someone  f your answer. (12 marks) Prejudice   Making  judgements  not  based  on  reason  or  actual  experience   Proselytising   Trying  to  convert  people  from  their  religion  to  yours   a) What is meant by ‘ecumenism’? (1 mark) discrimination  or  ill  treatment  of  someone  because  of   Racism   Prejudice,   b) What do Christians mean by ‘missionary work’? (2 marks) their  race   c) Describe Christian teachings about forgiveness. (3 marks) Reconciliation   Restoring  friendly  relations   d) Explain Christian beliefs about forgiveness and reconciliation. (6 marks) Repentance   Sincere  regret  or  remorse  from  one’s  actions   e) ‘People should always forgive.’ Discuss this statement. You should include different, supported points of view and a personaldiscrimination,  typically  against  women  on   Sexism   Prejudice,  stereotyping  or   viewpoint. You must refer to Christianity in your answer. (12 heir  sex.   the  basis  of  t marks) 20

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