B601 Revision Booklet


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B601 Revision Booklet

  1. 1. Religious  Studies  GCSE  Revision  Guide  Philosophy  1  Unit  B601      Name___________________________________TG________  
  2. 2. ADVICE  ON  REVISION  This  guide  has  been  produced  to  give  you  all  the  key  information  you  will  need  to  pass  your   RS   G.C.S.E.   The   information   is   laid   out   in   easy   to   read   bullet   points   with   quotations  to   support   the   information.   Each   section   contains   the   teachings   of   Christianity   on   the  units  you  have  covered  in  class.  It  is  important  to  remember  that  there  is  rarely  a  simple  teaching   accepted   by   all   believers,   especially   in   Christianity.   If   you   do   not   understand  any  of  the  words  or  information  it  is  important  that  you  look  it  up  or  ask  for  help.    HOW  TO  USE  THIS  GUIDE  The  booklet  has  been  laid  out  clearly  into  different  sections  corresponding  to  the  units  you  have  covered  and  will  answer  in  the  exam.  You   will   find   the   information   laid   out   in   bullet   points.   This   is   the   bare   bones   of   what   you  will  need.  You  must  refer  to  your  exercise  book  and  any  other  revision  guide  (GCSE  BBC  Bitesize,   the   VLE   or   revision   books   published   by   OCR)   that   you   have   access   to.   If   you   are  not  familiar  with  any  of  the  terms  used  it  is  important  that  you  ask.  At   the   end   of   each   set   of   bullet   points   you   will   find   a   series   of   quotations.   By   learning  these  you  will  develop  a  better  understanding  of  the  religious  teachings.  Failing  that,  it  is  a  good  idea  to  know  where  the  teachings  come  from,  so  try  to  learn  the  references.    HOW  TO  REMEMBER  There  are  many  different  ways  to  revise  but  the  best  way  is  to  be  active  in  what  you  are  doing.    Don’t  just  read  through  your  notes  and  the  guide  Don’t  just  pick  it  up,  do  3  minutes  and  then  put  it  down  Don’t  leave  everything  to  the  last  minute  Don’t  revise  without  breaks  Don’t  punish  yourself  if  you  get  something  wrong  Don’t  revise  where  you  know  you  will  get  disturbed  Do  make  a  plan  of  what  you  will  revise  and  when  Do  test  the  information  you  have  learned  each  time  Do  give  yourself  rewards  when  you  have  worked  hard  Do  put  up  post  it  notes  around  the  house  containing  key  terms,  dates,  concepts,  etc.  Especially  in  places  you  visit  a  lot,  e.g.  the  fridge,  toilet,  light  switches  etc  Do  play  quiet  music  if  it  helps  you  to  concentrate  Do  tell  your  friends  that  you  are  serious  about  doing  well  Do  get  other  people  to  help  you  parents,  friends  etc    Do  revise  with  friends  if  you  know  that  they  are  serious  too       2
  3. 3.  THE  EXAM    In  the  exam  it  is  important  not  to  panic.  Take  your  time  to  read  through  the  questions  and  select  the  ones  that  you  are  confident  with.  Make  sure  that  you  understand  what  every  part  of  the  paper  is  asking  you.  You  will  have  lots  of  time  to  plan  your  answers  so  don’t  just  rush  straight  in.  Set  yourself  30  minutes  for  each  question  and  make  sure  that  you  do  not  over  run.  You  can  always  add  more  at  the  end  if  you  have  time.  Try  to  ensure  you  are  not  repeating  yourself.  Always  write  in  full  sentences.  If  you  are  running  out  of  time  and  have  not  included  everything,  jot  down  in  bullet  points  what  you  wanted  to  say.  You  will  get  credit  for  this.  If  you  have  finished  before  time  is  up,  take  care  to  read  through  your  answers,  correct  any  mistakes  and  add  any  more  information  that  you  may  think  of.  You  must  choose  2  Christianity  questions  from  the  choice  of  3.  Each  question  is  in  5  parts  (a,  b,  c,  d  and  e)  which  add  up  to  24  marks.    A  –  1  mark.  This  will  ask  for  the  meaning  of  a  religious  word  related  to  the  topic.  One  sentence  will  do.    B  –  2  marks.  This  will  ask  for  2  facts  about  an  idea  related  to  the  topic  so  be  specific  and  think  in  terms  of  your  knowledge  of  Christianity.  Do  not  over  simplify.    C  –  3  marks.  This  will  ask  for  a  description  of  Christian  beliefs  about  an  issue.  Try  to  give  3  ideas.    D  –  6  marks.  More  detail  is  needed  here.  The  examiner  marks  this  answer  on  a  system  of  levels  to  assess  the  quality  of  your  answer.  They  are  looking  for  a  comprehensive  answer,  structure  and  use  of  specialist  (religious)  terms.    E  –  12  marks. (That’s  50%  of  the  marks  in  case  you  needed  that  pointing  out)  Again  this  is  marked  on  levels.  You  must  make  sure  you  are  answering  the  question.  A  top  level  answer  will  show  you  have  given  your  opinion  and  explained  your  reasons  for  it  and  included  a  range  of  other  possible  points  of  view.  You  must  also  show  you  know  what  a  possible  Christian  response  would  be.  It  is  a  discussion,  on  paper.  Write  as  much  as  you  possibly  can.  Refer  back  to  the  question  in  your  answer  to  retain  focus  and  you  will  be  fine.   3
  4. 4. GCSE Philosophy and Ethics B601 Revision BookletIntroductionPhilosophy is about trying to understand basic concepts such as truth,existence, reality, causes and freedom. Basically, philosophy is an attempt toanswer DEEP and MEANINGFUL questions. E.g. 1. How did we get here? 2. Why are we here? 3. Did someone put us here? 4. Why are there good and bad things in life? 5. Who is in charge of everything? 6. What happens next?There are different types of truth. This may seem confusing but answeringthese types of philosophical questions means that you cannot rely on what wemight usually think of as ‘proof’ or evidence based truth. So, here are thedifferent types of truth:• Scientific truth This means that through experiments and analysis we can work out results and find answers. We cannot do this when talking about religion.• Historical truth Evidence based from books and archaeology that show what happened in the past. Most religious books are historical, but if you do not believe in the religion then it is unlikely that the book will be believed as a historical account.• Moral truth When people believe they ‘know’ whether something is right or wrong although there is no evidence for this, only argument.• Artistic truth A film or novel or piece of music might represent reality in a way that sheds light on something or says something meaningful about the way people behave.• Spiritual truth Generally found in religion, this means that people discover the ‘truth’ through God. 4
  5. 5. Reasons Christians believe in GodThe following are some of the reason why a Christian might believe in God.1. Ontological argument. First put forward by Anselm of Canterbury in the 11th Century. A bit confusing but put simply, it means that God is the greatest being imaginable and he must exist otherwise we would not be able to describe him in this way. A bit confusing but this is all you need to know.2. Cosmological argument. Christians believe that something cannot come from nothing. Therefore the universe must have been created by something powerful. The only thing powerful enough is God – therefore, God must exist. Thomas Aquinas put this argument forward. (Some people argue that the theory of the Big Bang – a scientific theory – was really God creating the universe.)3. Teleological argument (Design argument) William Paley – a Christian philosopher, produced an argument about a Divine Watchmaker. He imagined finding a watch in a field by someone who had never seen a watch before. The fact that a watch is so complex means it could not have come into existence by chance – someone or something must have designed it! Paley argued that the world is like a complicated machine and must have been designed – much like the watch.4. Argument from experience Some argue that God can be experienced, this maybe through miracles or answers to prayer. People believe they have felt God’ presence or heard him speak to them so he must exist.5. The Moral argument This argument imply states that people have a basic understanding of ‘good’ and ‘bad’ and ‘right’ and ‘wrong’. They believe we are born with this knowledge and that it is given to us by God.6. Background and Upbringing People brought up in a Christian family may accept God exists because they have always been taught so.Arguments against the existence of God• Atheists reject all these arguments saying that they are not reliable evidence. They say the universe can be explained through the study of science and physics.• Some people argue that Darwin’s theory of Evolution shows that complex beings like humans arrived through natural selection and that there is no design process. This challenged Paley’s theory.• Some argue that the world is very imperfect and that disasters like earthquakes, famine and other natural disasters show that the world cannot have been designed.• Some argue that we do not need God to tell us how to work out right from wrong and how to make good moral decisions, we can do this ourselves.• Why does evil exist if God is all good and all-powerful?• Others argue that we should challenge our upbringing and not accept everything we are told and try to work things out for our selves. 7
  6. 6. Miracles in the Bible.A Miracle is an event that cannot be explained by science or any humanactivity. Christians say this demonstrates God’s omnipotence and power overscience and nature. They also believe that it shows God’s love for his people. One famous example is from the Old Testament when Moses asked God to part the waves of the Red Sea to allow the Israelites to escape.In the New Testament, which describes the life of Jesus, there are manyaccounts of Jesus performing miracles.• He fed 5000 people with 2 fish and 5 loaves of bread.• Jesus turned water into wine at a wedding when the wine had run out.• Jesus brought Lazarus back from the dead Most Christians would recognise the Resurrection of Jesus after his crucifixion as the greatest of all miracles. This is when Jesus came back from the dead after he was put to death on the cross and is celebrated at Easter – the most important day of the year for Christians.To Christians, these stories demonstrate the awesome power of God overnature show him intervening in the world. Christians believe this shows thatGod exists. 8
  7. 7. Miracles Today A Christian may ask God for a miracle to help them in a crisis. E.g. when a loved one is suffering an illness. This is often done through pilgrimage and prayer and many Christians believe that miracles can and do happen today. Lourdes in France is a very important pilgrimage site for Christians (especially Catholics). It is said that the Virgin Mary (mother of Jesus) appeared to a young peasant girl. A fountain appeared that is said to have healing properties and more than 5 million pilgrims visit Lourdes every year in the hope of either a cure for themselves or others. Many people are said to have recovered from serous illness after visiting Lourdes. KEY WORDSWord   Meaning  Apostles  Creed   An  early  statement  of  Christian  belief  Cosmological   The  argument  that  there  must  have  been  a  ‘first  cause’  and  that  this  argument   was  God.  Father   On  person  of  the  threefold  nature  of  God.  (trinity)  Forgiveness   A  central  teaching  of  Christianity  as  taught  by  Jesus  Heaven   A  Christian  idea  of  paradise  where  the  soul  goes  after  death.  Eternal   life  with  God.  Holy  Spirit   One  person  of  the  threefold  nature  of  God.  (trinity)  Incarnate   Jesus  as  a  man  –  God  in  human  form.  Monotheism   Belief  in  one  God.  Resurrection   Jesus  rising  from  the  dead  three  days  after  his  crucifixion.  Son   One  person  of  the  threefold  nature  of  God  (trinity).  Teleological   The  argument  that  the  world  is  so  complex  it  must  have  been  designed  argument   by  God.  Trinity   The  Christian  belief  that  God  is  separated  into  three  beings,  The  Father,   The  Son  and  The  Holy  Spirit.  Ontological   The  argument  based  on  the  idea  that  God  is  greater  than  anything  else  argument   people  can  think  of  and  this  means  he  must  exist.   9
  8. 8. Exam Questions 1. What is a God? (1 mark) 2. Name two things that Christians might believe about miracles. (2 marks) 3. Describe Christian beliefs about God. (3 marks) 4. Explain why Christians believe in God (6 marks) 5. ‘If God existed we would know it.’ Discuss this statement. You should include different, supported points of view and a personal viewpoint. You must refer to Christianity in your answer. (12 marks) 1. What is a miracle? (1mark) 2. State two Christian beliefs about the nature of God. (3 marks) 3. What do Christians believe about Jesus? (3marks) 4. Explain Christian beliefs about miracles. (6 marks) 5. ‘There is a lot of evidence to prove there is a God’. Discuss this statement. You should include different, supported points of view and a personal viewpoint. You must refer to Christianity in your answer. (12 marks) 1. What is a monotheist? (1 mark) 2. Name two words that Christians use to describe God. (2 marks) 3. Describe Christian belief in miracles. (3 marks) 4. Explain the Christian belief in the Holy Trinity (6 marks) 5. ‘A Christian upbringing is the most important reason to believe in God’. Discuss this statement. You should include different, supported points of view and a personal viewpoint. You must refer to Christianity in your answer. (12 marks) 10
  9. 9. Part2: Religious and spiritual experience • Public and private worship • Prayer and meditation • Food and fasting.It is very difficult to say exactly what a ‘religious experience’ is. Somedescribe it as a ‘tingly’ feeling, like when listening to a piece of music that isspecial to you. Some describe it as ‘sense of awe and wonder’ that makes aperson feel that they are in the presence of God. This experience is veryindividual and allows some people to be more certain in their spiritual beliefs.After a religious experience, people express their beliefs in different ways.E.g.• Through Prayer Numinous – a word to describe a religious• Through meditation experience that is mystical and unlike any• Worship with others other, which we do not have words to explain. WorshipFor many Christians worship is one of the most important ways of expressingtheir belief in God. Christians worship in a local church, as part of a localcommunity, which is part of a global community or church (there are over 2billion Christians worldwide)Through worship Christians:• Honour God• Develop a relationship with God• Show love and commitment to God• Praise God• Ask for help or guidance• Strengthen their faith• Get closer to God. Learn these reasons for worship. 11
  10. 10. Features of public worship• There are many different Christian denominations (Orthodox, Protestant, Catholic, Baptist etc) which each have a different style of worship. However most worship in a holy building called a church, cathedral or chapel usually on a Sunday.• Sing hymns or play music.• Make the sign of the cross to demonstrate their faith.• Pray together, often in front of an altar.• Readings from the Bible.• Listen to a sermon conducted by a preacher, priest or vicar.• Take part in the Eucharist (the most common form of Christian worship) The Eucharist. This is the most common form of public worship for Christians and is also called Holy Communion or Mass. This is where bread and wine are shared to remember the Last Supper that Jesus held with his 12 disciples before his death. It allows Christians to unite in their belief. Private Worship Many Christians also worship regularly throughout their daily lives. Individual prayers give Christians an opportunity to communicate with God about personal issues that might not be appropriate during public services. These prayers could be read from a prayer book or they may be spontaneous. Some might help others as a way of experiencing God putting Christian teachings into practice. 12
  11. 11. Symbolism in WorshipA symbol is an image or picture used to represent something that has deepermeaning. Symbols are often used within Christian worship. Here are someexamples: 1. The Crucifix. The most common and easily recognised symbol found in Christian religious buildings as well as worn or displayed (perhaps in the form of a tattoo) by believers.2. Alpha and Omega. The first and last letters of the Greek alphabet meaning that Jesus is the beginning and ending of all things. 3. The fish (Icthus). Originally a secret symbol used by early Christians who feared Roman persecution. The letters ICTHUS symbolise the belief in ‘Jesus Christ God’s Son Saviour’.4. Chi-Rho. The first two letters of Jesus’ name in Greek. 5. Candle. Te represent Jesus as the light of the world.6. Dove. Represents peace. Why is symbolism important?• They help convey deeper meaning• They remind Christians about their faith• They help Christians focus during worship• They are visual reminders• They help identify Christians to other people• They help Christians feel closer to God in a more personal wayArt is also used to help Christians worship. This can be in the form ofpaintings, sculptures, statues, music, poetry, stained-glass windows andvarious other ways. It helps express worship without words. It can help ‘saythe unsayable’. 13
  12. 12. PrayerPrayer is a form of communication with God that may be spoken or silent,it helps develop a relationship with God. Jesus taught Christians to pray.Meditation is a quiet form of prayer that allows the worshipper toconcentrate the mind on spiritual matters. This is the most famous Christian prayer taught by Jesus to his disciples and includes many different themes. E.g. • Confession • Thankfulness • Adoration • Concern for others • Being humble Try and work out the meanings for yourselves.What is the purpose of prayer?• Ask for help or guidance• To give thanks• To confess (own up) to sins• To feel closer to God• To meditate in worship• To follow the example set by Jesus• To bring comfort in times of need Rosary Beads These are sometimesPrayer enables Christians to deepen their faith and used when praying tois a powerful tool that allows the worshipper to help focus the mind ondemonstrate their religious commitment. It provides what is being said anda direct relationship with God and Christians believe shut out everythingit has spiritual power in providing guidance and else.direction and answers for those who seem lost. 14
  13. 13. Food and FastingFasting is when you go without food or drink for a ser amount of time. This isusually connected to ideas of purification of the body and soul. It makesthem less selfish and provides the opportunity to reflect on others rather thenthemselves. The most common time for fasting is Lent. Christians might give up their favourite food during the 40 days before Easter. This remembers the time when Jesus went to the wilderness for 40 days and nights and was tempted by the Devil. They remember his suffering as well as demonstrating their own commitment and showing self-discipline.FoodMost Christians eat all types of food, as they believe we have dominion overthe earth and that God provided us with plants, animals and fish to eat. Somemay be vegetarian as they believe we have the responsibility of stewardshipover the earth and that we should look after the animals of the world.There are some foods that are traditional within Christianity. • Bread and wine at the Eucharist (Holy Communion) service • Hot cross buns at Easter • Pancakes on Shrove Tuesday • Mince pies at Christmas.Some of these foods are now consumed by secular society as part of widernational celebrations and not necessarily for religious reasons. 15
  14. 14. KEY WORDSWord   Meaning  Crucifix   Cross  with  the  representation  of  Jesus  on  it.  A  symbol  found  in  holy   buildings  and  worn  by  many  Christians  as  a  necklace.  Denomination   A  branch  of  Christianity.  Eucharist   The  Christian  ceremony  celebrating  the  Last  Supper  –  often  known  as   Mass  or  Holy  Communion.  Fasting   To  voluntarily  go  without  something  as  a  sign  of  commitment.  Icons   Images  or  pictures  used  to  help  focus  during  prayer.  Lord’s  Prayer   The  most  important  prayer  in  Christianity.  Meditation   When  an  individual  is  occupied  in  thought  and  reflects  deeply  on   spiritual  matters.  Numinous   A  word  to  describe  a  very  personal  religious  or  spiritual  experience.  Prayer   Communication  with  God,  individually  or  as  part  of  a  group.  Ritual   A  set  approach  to  worship  where  the  same  actions  are  performed.  Secular   Non-­‐religious  Sermon   A  talk  given  by  a  minister.  Symbol   An  image  that  has  a  more  significant  meaning.  Trinity   The  Christian  belief  that  God  is  separated  into  three  beings,  The  Father,   The  Son  and  The  Holy  Spirit.  Worship   A  way  of  honouring  or  respecting  God  with  great  devotion.  Exam Questions1. What is prayer? (1 mark)2. Name two places a Christian might worship. (2 marks)3. How do Christians worship? (3 marks)4. Why do some Christians fast? (6 marks)5. ‘Everyone should thank God for their food.’ Discuss this statement. You should include different, supported points of view and a personal viewpoint. You must refer to Christianity in your answer. (12 marks)1. What is fasting? (1 mark)2. List two symbols used in worship by Christians. (2 marks)3. State three ways Christians might worship in the home. (3 marks)4. Explain how prayer deepens the faith of the believer. (6 marks)5. ‘Art helps people to worship’ Discuss this statement. You should include different, supported points of view and a personal viewpoint. You must refer to Christianity in your answer. (12 marks)1. What is fasting? (1 mark)2. List two examples of symbols used in Christian worship. (2 marks)3. How is lent sometimes remembered? (3 marks)4. Why do Christians pray? (6 marks)5. ‘Worship is only about thanking God’ Discuss this statement. You should include different, supported points of view and a personal viewpoint. You must refer to Christianity in your answer. (12 marks) 16
  15. 15. Part 3: The End of Life • Body and soul • Life after death • Funeral ritesWhat is the soul?The soul can be described s the non-physical part of a human. Christianityteaches that all have an immortal soul. This means it cannot die and lives onafter our physical bodies have passed away. Ideas about the soul include: • The part of a human that is not physical • The part of the human that lives on after the body dies • The spiritual aspect of a human that makes every person unique from each other • The part of a human that allows them to relate to God.The belief in the soul means that humans are distinct and separate from everyother creature. Christians believe that animals do not have do not have asoul. The following quotes suggest that humans have a divine spark whichanimals do not possess. • ‘God created man in his own image’. • ‘The lord God formed the man from the dust of the ground and breathed into the nostrils the breath of life, and the man became a living being’. Genesis 2:7Christians believe that the soul is immortal because: • Jesus conquered death when was resurrected and ascended to heaven. • There are references to Abraham, Moses and Elijah (former prophets) appearing with Jesus suggesting their spirits live on. • There is something infinite and inexplicable about the human mind that goes beyond the realms of physics and the material world. A non-believer would probably agree that people had a soul. However, many people link the idea of soul with the idea of a conscience that does not come from God. 17
  16. 16. Life after DeathChristians believe that death is not the end andthat there is life after death. Christians cannot fullyexplain what death will be like and refer toteachings from the Bible. They all believe that theywill be reunited with God in some form.More generally, people tend to believe that we willbe reunited with loved ones. Jesus promised therewould be a place for all who believed in him.Christians believe that the immortal soulcontinues on a journey of eternal life in Heaven,Hell or Purgatory.• Heaven – A place free from suffering where believers who have not sinned can join with God. Quote – ‘There will be no more death, mourning, crying or pain’ Revelation 21:4• Purgatory – particularly strong with Catholics, this is the belief that this is a place where souls go of people who are not ready to go to Heaven. In the Middle-Ages, rich people believed they could pay money to get out of purgatory more quickly.•• Hell – A place of eternal pain and suffering without God often associated with fire, torture and torment. It was used as a way of frightening people into following the teachings of Christianity and encouraging people to behave more morally. Some Christians believe this description of Hell is more symbolic and that it is more a ‘state of mind’. Jesus was crucified on a cross on Good Friday. Christians believe that he rose 3 days later and was resurrected. This is celebrated at Easter. Jesus sacrificed himself on the cross in order to redeem believers from the original sin of Adam and Eve. Those who believe in him can be forgiven for their sins and enter Heaven. They can gain salvation (be saved) and redemption (forgiveness) through Jesus. 18
  17. 17. God as Judge Christians believe that God is eternal and created the world from the very beginning, and that he will be there at the end of the world as the ultimate Judge. After death Christians believe God will judge each human individually according to the way they have lived their lives, their faith and their actions.Apostles Creed – according to this early Christian teaching, God will judgethe ‘living and the dead’ at the end of time. The Bible states that there aretwo books – one containing the deeds and actions people have done in theirlives, and the other containing the names of all those who have shown beliefin the life of Jesus. Those who have followed Jesus will be rewarded; thosewho haven’t will be punished.The parable of the Sheep and Goats (see page 22)This is a popular teaching from the Bible thatexplains how God will; Judge humans.When the Day of Judgement comes, humans willbe separated into two groups, those who have livedgood lives will be rewarded, and those who have notwill be damned to eternity in Hell without God. These beliefs clearly have a definite impact on the way Christians live their lives and they will try and live according to God in order to attain the desired outcome. Many Christians try and recognise when they have done something wrong and confess their sins to God in order to gain forgiveness. They put their faith in God to guide them to eternal life with him in Heaven. Teachings about judgement Acts 17:31 For he has set a day when he will judge the world with justice by the man he has appointed. He has given proof of this to all men by raising him from the dead. 19
  18. 18. Funeral RitesFuneral rites are the customs and ceremonies that happen after a person hasdied. Some people plan their own funerals so they can be remembered in aspecial way. This may involve special readings or poetry or perhaps musicthat had a special meaning for them. Christians believe that funeral rites are very important. They: • Help those left behind cope with the loss. • Provide comfort. • Provide an opportunity to say goodbye.What happens at a Christian funeral?• Christians can be either buried or cremated.• Bible readings. John 11:25-26 is a common passage which mentions eternal life with God. ‘I am the resurrection and the life. He who believes in me will live, even though he dies, and whoever lives and believes in me will never die’.• Prayers are said for both the deceased and the friends and family.• Eulogy. A eulogy is a special kind of speech about a deceased person and celebrates their lives with everyone present at the funeral.• Hymns. Hymns are sung, often chosen by the deceased before they die.• Eucharist. Some Christians, particularly Roman Catholics, celebrate the Eucharist as it remembers the death and resurrection of Jesus.• The Committal. After the service the body is then buried or cremated. When buried the phrase ‘Ashes to ashes; dust to dust; in sure and certain hope of the resurrection to eternal life’ are often used.How do funeral rites support the bereaved?• It is an acknowledgement that the person is no longer part of the physical world and is now with God.• Family and friends can come together and comfort each other.• The life of the deceased can be celebrated.• The bereaved are able to share their feelings and emotions for the deceased.• It allows the deceased to gain a sense of ‘closure’ and begin to accept life without the deceased. 20
  19. 19. Key wordsWord   Meaning  Bereaved   Those  left  living  after  someone  close  to  them  has  died  Committal   The  actions  that  take  place  when  a  body  is  cremated  Day  of  Judgment   The  day  when  God  will  judge  everybody  according  their  actions  and   faith  on  earth.  Deceased   How  a  dead  person  is  referred  to  in  a  respectful  way  Eulogy   The  speech  given  at  a  funeral  about  the  person  who  died  Funeral     The  ceremony  or  service  given  when  someone  dies  Heaven   A  Christian  idea  of  paradise  where  the  soul  goes  if  it  is  free  from  sin.  Hell   A  Christian  idea  of  punishment  after  death  for  those  souls  who  are  not   free  from  sin  Judge   God  as  someone  who  determines  whether  a  person  goes  to  heaven  or   hell  after  death  Purgatory   A  condition  or  state  where  the  soul  can  be  cleansed  or  purified  in   preparation  for  Heaven  Redemption   The  idea  that  sins  can  be  forgiven  and  a  person  redeemed  or  improved  Salvation   Jesus  came  to  earth  to  save  people  from  their  sins  Soul   Christians  believe  the  soul  is  a  non-­‐physical  and  immortal  part  of  the   body  that  continues  after  death.   Exam Questions 1. What is the meaning of ‘rites’? (1 mark) 2. Give two examples of Christian funeral rites. (2 marks) 3. Describe the relationship between the body and the soul for a Christian. (3 marks) 4. Explain how beliefs about life after death could affect a Christian’s moral behaviour. (6 marks) 5. ‘We only have one life on this earth’. Discuss this statement. You should include different, supported points of view and a personal viewpoint. You must refer to Christianity in your answer. (12 marks) 1. What is death (1 mark) 2. What is meant by soul? (2 marks) 3. What do Christians believe about life after death? (3 marks) 4. How may Christian funeral rites reflect beliefs about life after death? (6 marks) 5. ‘When people die that is the end’. Discuss this statement. You should include different, supported points of view and a personal viewpoint. You must refer to Christianity in your answer. (12 marks) 21
  20. 20. The parable of the sheep and the goats. 31 "But  when  the  Son  of  Man  comes  in  his  glory,   and  all  the  holy  angels  with  him,  then  he  will  sit   on  the  throne  of  his  glory.  32Before  him  all  the   nations  will  be  gathered,  and  he  will  separate   them  one  from  another,  as  a  shepherd  separates   the  sheep  from  the  goats.  33He  will  set  the  sheep   on  his  right  hand,  but  the  goats  on  the  left.   34 Then  the  King  will  tell  those  on  his  right  hand,   Come,  blessed  of  my  Father,  inherit  the  Kingdom  prepared  for  you  from  the   foundation  of  the  world;  35for  I  was  hungry,  and  you  gave  me  food  to  eat.  I  was   thirsty,  and  you  gave  me  drink.  I  was  a  stranger,  and  you  took  me  in.  36I  was  naked,   and  you  clothed  me.  I  was  sick,  and  you  visited  me.  I  was  in  prison,  and  you  came  to   me.     37 "Then  the  righteous  will  answer  him,  saying,  Lord,  when  did  we  see  you  hungry,   and  feed  you;  or  thirsty,  and  give  you  a  drink?  38When  did  we  see  you  as  a  stranger,   and  take  you  in;  or  naked,  and  clothe  you?  39When  did  we  see  you  sick,  or  in  prison,   and  come  to  you?   40 "The  King  will  answer  them,  Most  certainly  I  tell  you,  inasmuch  as  you  did  it  to  one   of  the  least  of  these  my  brothers,  you  did  it  to  me.  41Then  he  will  say  also  to  those   on  the  left  hand,  Depart  from  me,  you  cursed,  into  the  eternal  fire  which  is   prepared  for  the  devil  and  his  angels;  42for  I  was  hungry,  and  you  didnt  give  me  food   to  eat;  I  was  thirsty,  and  you  gave  me  no  drink;  43I  was  a  stranger,  and  you  didnt   take  me  in;  naked,  and  you  didnt  clothe  me;  sick,  and  in  prison,  and  you  didnt  visit   me.     44 "Then  they  will  also  answer,  saying,  Lord,  when  did  we  see  you  hungry,  or  thirsty,   or  a  stranger,  or  naked,  or  sick,  or  in  prison,  and  didnt  help  you?     45 "Then  he  will  answer  them,  saying,  Most  certainly  I  tell  you,  inasmuch  as  you   didnt  do  it  to  one  of  the  least  of  these,  you  didnt  do  it  to  me.  46These  will  go  away   into  eternal  punishment,  but  the  righteous  into  eternal  life."  Key Teachings• At the end of the world God will judge people on the choices they have made and how they have lived their lives• God will separate the good from the bad like a shepherd separates the sheep from the goats• On his right will be the good (the sheep). They will be with him in heaven• On his left will be the bad (the goats). They will be sent away from him to hell.• God judges us on how we treat our fellow humans. We are all created in his image. 22