DOCTORAL THESIS By : Raul Choque (email@example.com) Supervisor : Prof. Dr. Cristobal Suarez (firstname.lastname@example.org ) Peru, 2009 “ Use of computers and Internet in classrooms and skills development in information and communication technologies of high school students” Lima, Peru UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL MAYOR DE SAN MARCOS SCHOOL OF EDUCATION
“ Mind is not a recipient to be filled, but a fire to be excited” Plutarco
In Lima, capital of Peru, 35% of houses have a computer and 23% have access to Internet (INEI, 2008). In Lima 95% of young people from 12 and 17 years of age, use Internet every day (APOYO, 2008). 89% of high school students use Internet to get information, 76% to communicate, 42% for entertainment and 19% for education (INEI 2008). In high schools of Lima, since 2002 the integration of computer and Internet has been developed in some high schools. This project was called “Huascaran” and now it is called “Aulas de Innovacion Pedagogica”, where students use the Internet more or less 150 hours during each academic year. There is no information about the effects of study with computers in high schools in Lima. How is the influence of the study with computers and Internet in the students skills of information and communication technologies? Research problem
The research was developed in the poorest district of Lima, San Juan de Lurigancho. This district has the most population in South America with 812,000 habitants. 80% of the population in this district is poor. There are 50,008 high school students in public schools in 12 educational networks.
Theoretical framework Agricultural society Industrial society Digital society 1750 1955 8000 B.C.
Pre figurative society
Abacus 3000 B.C. Mechanical calculator 1500 A.C. Compasses 1579 Electronic speech synthesizer 1937 Electro mechanical computer 1940 Computer 1950 Personal computer 1981 Wall painting Newsletter 59 B.C. Chinese Paper 105 A.C. Printing press 1450 News paper 1502 Radio Broad-casting 1918 Color TV 1968 INFORMATICS INFORMATION Smoke and fire signals Trumpets 100 B.C. Chappe Telegraph 1794 Internet 1969 Trans-atlantic Cable 1856 Telephone 1876 Cellular 1984 Electro-magnetic Telegraph 1837 COMMUNICATION TV Trans-mission 1927 Theoretical framework Source: M. Hilbert
Written information Written information Linguistic information Linguistic information Language revolution Writing revolution Printing revolution Electronic revolution Linguistic information Written information Print information Electronic information Theoretical Framework Linguistic information Print information Source: Y. Masuda
Theoretical framework for ICT skill development DISTRIBUTED COGNITION Salomon
Cognition is not just in the head, cognition is distributed over other people and tools
The learning is between a person and technology
There is a cognitive residue that is an effect of learners interacting with media
SOCIOCULTURAL APPROACH Vigotsky iBrain Gary Small
The brain´s plasticity allows that the brain can change in response to stimulus from the environment
Even using a computer for Web search for just an hour a day changes the way the brain processes information
The current explosion of digital technology not only is changing the way we live and communicate, but also is altering our brains
Cultural tools may include (1) Real tools: computers and Internet (2) Symbolic tools: numbers, maps, signs, codes, hypertext language
Higher order mental processes are mediated by psychological tools
Everything in life is derived from the environment
Cognition of the person Distributed cognition Distributed cognitions Distributed cognition
Subject: students Object: ICT skills Outcome: good perform Rules: schedules Community: teachers, parents Division of labor Tools: computer, Internet, hypertext language Activity theory Source: Engeström, 1987 Reorganization of brain function Effects With: Courses Effectos Of: Cognitive residue
Information and Communication Technologies Skills The ICT skills are the cognitive, affective and psychomotor aspects that allow students to use ICT to access, get, organize, communicate and assess information. Also these skills help students to have a better performance. Theoretical framework
Theoretical framework International Society for Technology in Education 2008 Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OCDE) 2005 Carlos Monereo Universidad Autonoma de Barcelona (UAB) 2005 Ministerio de Educacion del Peru (MINEDU) 2007
Basic operations and concepts
Social, ethical and human issues
Technology productivity tools
Technology communications tools
Technology research tools
Technology problem-solving and decision-making tools
Competences for use language, symbols ant text interactive
Competences for use knowledge and information interactive
DESIGN The research was quasi experimental with post test, nonrandomized control group, quantitative. G 1 = Experimental group G 2 = Control group X = Study with computers and Internet O 1 = Post test experimental group O 2 = Post test experimental group Methodology NR G 1 X O 1 NR G 2 - O 2
Population and sample Experimental group Control group Grade I.E. 0087 José María Arguedas I.E. 0132 Toribio de Luzuriaga y Mejía I.E. 0137 Miguel Grau Seminario Sub Total 4to. 75 91 120 286 5to. 67 106 122 295 TOTAL 142 197 242 581 Grade I.E. 100 I.E. 0119 Canto Bello I.E. 0161 Moisés Colonia Trinidad I.E. 0169 Sub Total 4to. 109 61 27 76 273 5to. 132 60 27 68 287 TOTAL 241 121 54 144 560
The instrument was validated by expert judgment and analyzed by Aiken coefficient of validity
We had a pilot group, where the Alpha Cronbach was ACCEPTABLE
Homogeneity of the groups Variables Experimental group Control group x 2 (gl) Value p N=581 N=560 % N % N Gender Male Female 45.6 54.4 265 316 47.5 52.5 266 294 x 2 (1)=0.409 0.522 Grade repetition Yes No 5.3 94.7 31 550 4.8 95.2 27 533 x 2 (1)=0.156 0.693 Socio economic level High Medium Low Very low 1.7 81.8 15.7 0.9 10 475 91 5 2.0 78.8 18.0 1.3 11 441 101 7 x 2 (3)=1.778 0.620 Educational level of household head University High school Primary school Without education 18.6 70.7 10.3 0.3 108 411 60 2 19.3 66.3 13.6 0.9 108 371 76 5 x 2 (3)=4.829 0.185
Homogeneity of the groups Variables Experimental group Control group x 2 (gl) Value p N=581 N=560 % N % N Activities after school To study To work Other 57.8 12.9 29.3 336 75 170 57.7 13.4 28.9 323 75 162 x 2 (2)=0.063 0.969 Have a computer at home Yes No 25.0 75.0 145 436 24.1 75.9 135 425 x 2 (1)=0.111 0.739 Have access to Internet at home Yes No 15.5 84.5 90 491 14.5 85.5 81 479 x 2 (1)=0.236 0.627 Average SD Average SD t(gl) Value p Age 15.34 0.9319 15.36 0.999 t(1139)=1126.30 0.748
When students use computers and Internet in classrooms, they develop more skills to get information. The significant differences were the use of educational website, the differences about the kinds of information, use advanced search and the use of information for school tasks.
When students use computers and Internet in classrooms, they develop more skills to work in teams. The significant differences were the use of e-mail, use of discussion boards, use of weblogs and use of Wikipedia.
When students use computers and Internet in classrooms, they develop more skills for learning. The significant differences were the use of power points, conceptual map, mind map, database, electronic dictionary, digital library and elaboration of texts for schools tasks.
When students use computers and Internet, they not only should get information, they should transform information in knowledge. This is an important activity especially with students.
There are several tools for communicating, but the ICT tools are used for social activities. It is very important that schools should promote the use of these tools for academic goals.
For learning skills with ICT there are a lot of resources and tools that should be used frequently. Therefore teachers should promote the use of the digital library, digital educational radio, television, etc.
“ ...[I]f a new technology extends one or more of our senses outside us into the social world, then new ratios among all of our senses will occur in that particular culture. It is comparable to what happens when a new note is added to a melody. And when the sense ratios alter in any culture then what had appeared lucid before may suddenly become opaque, and what had been vague or opaque will become translucent”. Marshall McLuhan