V2 collapse of napoleon congressvienna09
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  • Napoleon’s retreat from Russia after defeat. Burr…cold!

Transcript

  • 1.
    • COPY and ANSWER the following questions.
      • Which would you be more likely to follow during times of trouble:
        • A democratic government that asks for you opinion but complains more than it accomplishes
    • ----OR----
        • A single leader who never asks you what you want but gets things done
        • Explain your choice
  • 2. Collapse of Napoleon and the Congress of Vienna
  • 3.
    • Metternich & Congress of Vienna
    • Preview:
      • How did Napoleon come to power?
      • What changes did Napoleon make in Europe that affected other European countries?
  • 4. Napoleon Controlled France
    • Napoleon’s control of France was supposed to be a short- term fix to restore order, BUT…
    • Desperate for strong leadership, French citizens allowed Napoleon to have as much control as he wanted, so he made himself emperor in 1804
    • The Philosophes of the Enlightenment were outraged (this is absolutism!!); but the people supported Napoleon
  • 5. Napoleon’s Changes in France
    • Used military to run country
    • Used censorship
    • Executed & Jailed critics
    • Forced men to join the French army
    • Continued European wars
    • Improved education
    • Created Bank of France ; made taxes fair (everyone paid)
    • Napoleonic Code -wrote down laws; more equal & clear
    • Increased the French empire
  • 6. Napoleon’s Empire
    • Napoleon defeated the First Coalition of European nations
    • By 1803, 2 more coalitions were formed to defeat France
    • Napoleon counter- attacked & invaded Denmark, Italy, Holland, Spain, Portugal, Austria, Prussia (Napoleon wanted a buffer zone between France & its enemies)
  • 7.  
  • 8. Napoleon’s Empire
    • By 1812, France controlled most of Europe
    • Many Europeans saw Napoleon as a liberator, bringing the ideas of the French Revolution with him, BUT…
  • 9. Napoleon’s Empire
    • Napoleon imposed French ways on the European territories he controlled:
      • Forced Europe to obey the Napoleonic Code (French laws)
      • Enforced the Continental System —a strict blockade on all British goods everywhere in Europe & a heavy tax on all European goods except French products
  • 10. End of Napoleon’s Empire
    • By 1812, the only countries outside Napoleon’s Empire were England, Sweden, Russia, & the Ottoman Empire
    • But when Russia violated the Continental System (a ban on British goods), Napoleon attacked Russia
  • 11. End of Napoleon’s Empire
    • Napoleon advanced towards Russia with a superior army
    • BUT…the Czar used a Scorched-Earth policy —attack French, then retreat while burning ground & buildings so Napoleon’s army can’t use them for food or shelter
    • This tactic & a harsh winter devastated Napoleon’s army; Napoleon lost to Russia in 1812
  • 12.  
  • 13. End of Napoleon’s Empire
    • Napoleon was exiled to Elba (an island near Italy); France brought back Bourbon king Louis XVIII
    • BUT..the people of France did not support Louis XVIII & ran him off
    • Napoleon returned & created a new army to lead France; BUT…
  • 14. End of Napoleon’s Empire
    • Coalition of European powers defeated him at Waterloo in 1815; Ended Napoleon’s reign
    • Napoleon was exiled to the South Atlantic where he died in 1821 (of stomach cancer or poison?)
  • 15. Congress of Vienna
    • The Congress of Vienna was an international conference called to remake Europe after fall of Napoleon; met in Vienna, Austria from Sept 1814 to June 1815
    • The main goal of the conference was to create a balance of power that would preserve peace in Europe
  • 16. Congress of Vienna
    • The Congress of Vienna was attended by 4 major powers: Austria, Russia, Prussia, & England; but was led by the Austrian Prince Metternich
    • Metternich disliked democracy & the new ideas of the French Revolution; he wanted Europe back “the way it was” before the Revolution & Napoleon
  • 17.  
  • 18. Congress of Vienna
    • The 4 major powers of Europe made 4 big decisions:
      • Redrew map —France gave up all conquests; Prussia, Russia, England all gained land
      • Reestablished royal monarchies in France, Spain, Portugal, Italian states
  • 19. Congress of Vienna
      • Formed a Quadruple Alliance —England, Austria, Prussia, Russia would maintain security in Europe (act as “firefighters” to put out “sparks” of revolution anywhere in Europe)
      • Reestablished peace & a balance of power in Europe; peace was maintained in Europe for almost 40 years
  • 20.