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The crusades
 

The crusades

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    The crusades The crusades Presentation Transcript

    • The Crusades In this lesson, students will be able to define the following terms: Pilgrim Crusades Students will also be able to explain one cause of the Crusades and one effect of the Crusades. E. Napp
    • Role of Church in the Middle Ages
      • Never was there a time when the Church was so powerful in Western Civilization.
      • The Church was led by popes. Priests and nuns converted, gave care to people
    • Role of Church
      • Since there were no strong empires or kingdoms the Church was one organization that had respect and power.
      • Popes were more powerful than kings!
    • Muslim Conquest
      • In the seventh century, Muslims conquered Palestine.
      • Initially, the Muslim conquerors allowed Jews and Christians to freely enter the Holy Land.
      • As time passed, some Muslim rulers were less tolerant.
      E. Napp
    • E. Napp In the seventh century, Muslims conquered Palestine.
    • E. Napp Christians wanted to visit the land where Jesus was born. When a person travels for religious purposes, he is a pilgrim.
    • Rumors and Intolerance
      • As the years passed, reports spread that Muslims had killed Christian pilgrims and destroyed churches.
      • European Christians were also increasingly intolerant of Muslims controlling the Holy Land.
      • As tensions increased, war seemed inevitable.
      E. Napp
    • E. Napp After a call For help from Byzantine Emperor, Pope Urban II called for a crusade, 1095.
    • E. Napp Thousands of Europeans joined the Crusades. Some joined for the promise of Heaven. Others joined hoping for wealth.
    • E. Napp Crusaders often wore a cross on their breastplate .
    • The Crusades
      • There were a total of 9 Crusades two were not sanctioned by the pope
      • First Crusade began in 1059; last one ends in 1272
      • Crusaders marched to Constantinople killing and looting along the way
      • Crusaders take Jerusalem in 1099
      • Need Second Crusade to hold it
      • Jerusalem falls to Muslims in 1187
      • Fourth Crusade to retake; sack Constantinople
    • E. Napp European crusaders went to the Holy Land .
    • The Crusades
      • Crusade —a “ holy war ”
      • Goals of the Crusades
      • • Pope wants to reclaim Jerusalem and reunite Christianity
      • • Kings use the Crusades to send away knights who cause trouble
      • • Younger sons hope to earn land or win glory by fighting
      • • Later, merchants join Crusades to try to gain wealth through trade
      • • Pope promises Crusaders who die a place in heaven
      • • First Crusade: capture Jerusalem and lands along coast in 1099
    • The Crusades continued
      • The Third Crusade
      • • Richard the Lion-Hearted —king of England
      • • Phillip II of France abandons Crusade after arguing with Richard
      • • Frederick I of Germany drowns during the journey
      • • In 1192 Richard and Saladin make peace after many battles
      • • Saladin keeps Jerusalem but allows Christian pilgrims to enter city
      • The Children’s Crusade
      • • In 1212 thousands of children die or are enslaved in failed crusade
      • A Spanish Crusade
      • • Most of Spain controlled by Moors, a Muslim people
      • • Christians fight Reconquista —drive Muslims from Spain, 1100 to 1492
      • • Spain has Inquisition —court to suppress heresy; expels non-Christians
      • Short Tem Effects
      • Temporary gains in land
      • show power of Church in convincing thousands to fight
      • Women more freedom
      • Inflation, peasants riot for higher wages
      • Persecution of Jews in Europe and Middle East
      • Long Term Effects
      • Failure of later crusades weakens pope
      • Rise of Nations (Countries)
      • Strengthening of power of Kings
      • End of Feudalism
      • Improved trade with East
      • Revival in learning and spread of knowledge
      • Intolerance and brutality of both sides creates lasting hate.
      Effects of the Crusades
    • E. Napp Europeans learned about Arab art, architecture, medicine, and mathematics.