The crusades
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The crusades

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The crusades The crusades Presentation Transcript

  • The Crusades In this lesson, students will be able to define the following terms: Pilgrim Crusades Students will also be able to explain one cause of the Crusades and one effect of the Crusades. E. Napp
  • Role of Church in the Middle Ages
    • Never was there a time when the Church was so powerful in Western Civilization.
    • The Church was led by popes. Priests and nuns converted, gave care to people
  • Role of Church
    • Since there were no strong empires or kingdoms the Church was one organization that had respect and power.
    • Popes were more powerful than kings!
  • Muslim Conquest
    • In the seventh century, Muslims conquered Palestine.
    • Initially, the Muslim conquerors allowed Jews and Christians to freely enter the Holy Land.
    • As time passed, some Muslim rulers were less tolerant.
    E. Napp
  • E. Napp In the seventh century, Muslims conquered Palestine.
  • E. Napp Christians wanted to visit the land where Jesus was born. When a person travels for religious purposes, he is a pilgrim.
  • Rumors and Intolerance
    • As the years passed, reports spread that Muslims had killed Christian pilgrims and destroyed churches.
    • European Christians were also increasingly intolerant of Muslims controlling the Holy Land.
    • As tensions increased, war seemed inevitable.
    E. Napp
  • E. Napp After a call For help from Byzantine Emperor, Pope Urban II called for a crusade, 1095.
  • E. Napp Thousands of Europeans joined the Crusades. Some joined for the promise of Heaven. Others joined hoping for wealth.
  • E. Napp Crusaders often wore a cross on their breastplate .
  • The Crusades
    • There were a total of 9 Crusades two were not sanctioned by the pope
    • First Crusade began in 1059; last one ends in 1272
    • Crusaders marched to Constantinople killing and looting along the way
    • Crusaders take Jerusalem in 1099
    • Need Second Crusade to hold it
    • Jerusalem falls to Muslims in 1187
    • Fourth Crusade to retake; sack Constantinople
  • E. Napp European crusaders went to the Holy Land .
  • The Crusades
    • Crusade —a “ holy war ”
    • Goals of the Crusades
    • • Pope wants to reclaim Jerusalem and reunite Christianity
    • • Kings use the Crusades to send away knights who cause trouble
    • • Younger sons hope to earn land or win glory by fighting
    • • Later, merchants join Crusades to try to gain wealth through trade
    • • Pope promises Crusaders who die a place in heaven
    • • First Crusade: capture Jerusalem and lands along coast in 1099
  • The Crusades continued
    • The Third Crusade
    • • Richard the Lion-Hearted —king of England
    • • Phillip II of France abandons Crusade after arguing with Richard
    • • Frederick I of Germany drowns during the journey
    • • In 1192 Richard and Saladin make peace after many battles
    • • Saladin keeps Jerusalem but allows Christian pilgrims to enter city
    • The Children’s Crusade
    • • In 1212 thousands of children die or are enslaved in failed crusade
    • A Spanish Crusade
    • • Most of Spain controlled by Moors, a Muslim people
    • • Christians fight Reconquista —drive Muslims from Spain, 1100 to 1492
    • • Spain has Inquisition —court to suppress heresy; expels non-Christians
    • Short Tem Effects
    • Temporary gains in land
    • show power of Church in convincing thousands to fight
    • Women more freedom
    • Inflation, peasants riot for higher wages
    • Persecution of Jews in Europe and Middle East
    • Long Term Effects
    • Failure of later crusades weakens pope
    • Rise of Nations (Countries)
    • Strengthening of power of Kings
    • End of Feudalism
    • Improved trade with East
    • Revival in learning and spread of knowledge
    • Intolerance and brutality of both sides creates lasting hate.
    Effects of the Crusades
  • E. Napp Europeans learned about Arab art, architecture, medicine, and mathematics.