The Crusades In this lesson, students will be able to define the following terms: Pilgrim Crusades Students will also be able to explain one cause of the Crusades and one effect of the Crusades. E. Napp
Role of Church in Middle Ages
Never was there a time when the Church was so powerful in Western Civilization.
The Church was led by popes. Priests and nuns converted, gave care to people
Role of Church
Since there were no strong empires or kingdoms the Church was one organization that had respect and power.
Popes were more powerful than kings!
In the seventh century, Muslims conquered Palestine.
Initially, the Muslim conquerors allowed Jews and Christians to freely enter the Holy Land.
As time passed, some Muslim rulers were less tolerant.
E. Napp In the seventh century, Muslims conquered Palestine.
E. Napp Christians wanted to visit the land where Jesus was born. When a person travels for religious purposes, he is a pilgrim.
Rumors and Intolerance
As the years passed, reports spread that Muslims had killed Christian pilgrims and destroyed churches.
European Christians were also increasingly intolerant of Muslims controlling the Holy Land.
As tensions increased, war seemed inevitable.
E. Napp After a call For help from Byzantine Emperor, Pope Urban II called for a crusade, 1095.
E. Napp Thousands of Europeans joined the Crusades. Some joined for the promise of Heaven. Others joined hoping for wealth.
E. Napp Crusaders often wore a cross on their breastplate .
There were a total of 9 Crusades two were not sanctioned by the pope
First Crusade began in 1059; last one ends in 1272
Crusaders marched to Constantinople killing and looting along the way
Crusaders take Jerusalem in 1099
Need Second Crusade to hold it
Jerusalem falls to Muslims in 1187
Fourth Crusade to retake; sack Constantinople
E. Napp European crusaders went to the Holy Land .
Crusade —a “ holy war ”
Goals of the Crusades
• Pope wants to reclaim Jerusalem and reunite Christianity
• Kings use the Crusades to send away knights who cause trouble
• Younger sons hope to earn land or win glory by fighting
• Later, merchants join Crusades to try to gain wealth through trade
• Pope promises Crusaders who die a place in heaven
• First Crusade: capture Jerusalem and lands along coast in 1099
The Crusades continued
The Third Crusade
• Richard the Lion-Hearted —king of England
• Phillip II of France abandons Crusade after arguing with Richard
• Frederick I of Germany drowns during the journey
• In 1192 Richard and Saladin make peace after many battles
• Saladin keeps Jerusalem but allows Christian pilgrims to enter city
The Children’s Crusade
• In 1212 thousands of children die or are enslaved in failed crusade
A Spanish Crusade
• Most of Spain controlled by Moors, a Muslim people
• Christians fight Reconquista —drive Muslims from Spain, 1100 to 1492
• Spain has Inquisition —court to suppress heresy; expels non-Christians
Short Tem Effects
Temporary gains in land
show power of Church in convincing thousands to fight
Women more freedom
Inflation, peasants riot for higher wages
Persecution of Jews in Europe and Middle East
Long Term Effects
Failure of later crusades weakens pope
Rise of Nations (Countries)
Strengthening of power of Kings
End of Feudalism
Improved trade with East
Revival in learning and spread of knowledge
Intolerance and brutality of both sides creates lasting hate.
Effects of the Crusades
E. Napp Europeans learned about Arab art, architecture, medicine, and mathematics.