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Implementing Language Competencies

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This presentation focuses on three mai component that are relevant to implement and achieve language competencies. i.e. , the acquisition of word meaning, ...

This presentation focuses on three mai component that are relevant to implement and achieve language competencies. i.e. , the acquisition of word meaning,
teh foramtion of concepts, and the undrstanding of the socio- cultural meaning of language.

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Implementing Language Competencies Implementing Language Competencies Presentation Transcript

  • Semantic Approach
    • IMPLEMENTING
    • LANGUAGE COMPETENCIES
    L IC. R ODOLFO Chaviano Universidad Americana ( UAM) SEPTEMBER 2006
  • Word-Meaning & Concept Formation “ ” ... a problem must arise that cannot be solved otherwise than through the formation of new concepts” (Vygotsky, 1962:55) Once the child realizes that everything has a name, each new object presents the child with a problem situation, and he solves the problem by naming the object. When he lacks the word for the new object, he demands it from adults. The early word-meanings thus acquired will be the embryos of concept formation . By explaining human language development and cognitive development, Vygotsky's theory serves as a strong foundation for the modern trends in applied linguistics. It lends support to less structured and more natural, communicative and experiential approaches and points to the importance of early real-world human interaction in foreign language learning . RCh. 4
  • BASIC SKILLS FOR COMMUNICATION PERCEPTION MEANING NAME DEFINITION DESCRIPTION L EXPLANATION ITEM WORD CATEGORY PERCEPTION LANGUAGE a tree a plant with leaves ...fruits ...etc. An apple tree that grows in ... RCh.
  • Competencies OUR LANGUAGE COMPETENCIES RELY MAINLY ON:  the acquisition of word-meaning.  the formation of concepts.  the understanding of the socio-cultural meaning of language. RCh.
  • meaning SPEECH COMPETENCE LEXICAL COMPETENCE WRITING COMPETENCE AUDITORY COMPETENCE LISTENING COMPETENCE SYNTAGMATIC COMPETENCE GRAMMATICAL COMPETENCE INTERCULTURAL COMPETENCE NON-VERBAL LANGUAGE COMPETENCE Etc. BEING C OMPETENT HAVING multiple Competencies RCh.
  • syn•tag•ma sin-"tag-m€ noun pl syn•tag•mas or syn•tag•ma•ta m€-t€ [Gk, fr. syntassein] (1937) : a syntactic element syn•tag•mat•ic 'sin-'tag-"ma-tik adjective   par•a•digm "par-€-'dïm also -'dim noun [LL paradigma, fr. Gk paradeigma, fr. paradeiknynai to show side by side, fr. para- + deiknynai to show — more at diction ] (15c) 1: example, pattern ; esp : an outstandingly clear or typical example or archetype ©1996 Zane Publishing, Inc. and Merriam-Webster, Incorporated. All rights reserved . Conveying meaning is syntagmatic . Grammatical competence is paradigmatic . RCh.
  • The Tip of the Iceberg – ?   The most visible part of language .       Meaning Sounds Words Utterances Multi-word units Lexical Units Syntactic Units Syntagmatic Units Paragraph Building Essay / Writing Intercultural Awareness The Social Meaning of Language   Semantic Categories RCh.
  • Using Utterances*
    • Students should get familiar with and use utterances such as
    • Good morning, See you! , Excuse me,
    • I guess so, So do I, Gee!, My Lord!
    • Of course!, What´s more!, Hush!,
    • What for?, On top of that, etc.
    • * ut•ter•ance (ut'uhr uhns) n.
    • 1. an act of uttering; vocal expression.
    • 2. something uttered, esp. a word or words.
    • 3. manner or power of speaking.
    • 4. Ling. any speech sequence consisting of one or more words preceded and
    • followed by silence or a change in speaker.
        • ©1996 Zane Publishing, Inc. and Merriam-Webster, Incorporated. All rights reserved.
    RCh.
  • Multi-word Units *
    • Students should understand and use multi-word units from the very start.
    • A computer screen, a flower vase, a pepperoni pizza, a waste paper basket, a helping hand, a ceiling fan, the state-of-the-art technology, etc.
    • * term coined by Lewis, Michael. The Lexical Approach, 1994.
    RCh.
  • The Social Meaning of Language
    • This semantic category , the most difficult to be understood and mastered, lies at the bottom of the iceberg structure. Unfortunately, it is slowly learned, and often, after dealing with language units for a long time. It´s quite hard, even for those living in the target language milieu. 
    • There are lexical units such as hot-desking , that would seldom be understood by the foreign learner. Because of their syntactical relations or their incomprehensible surface meaning.
    • The use of interjections, inflexions of the voice, idioms, mottos, proverbs, sayings, phrasal verbs, cliché, slogans, fixed phrases , and word collocations such as, a thick moustache, a distant relative, dropped the flower vase, spoil the food, etc . are among the most common.
    RCh.
  • Understanding Syntagmatic Competence RCh.
  • Performance  Competence fluency accuracy RCh. 7 MEANING WORD LANGUAGE PERFORMANCE LANGUAGE PERCEPTION LANGUAGE COMPETENCE memory
  • WORD-MEANING & FORMATION OF CONCEPTS It is a tree . It is a plant . It has leaves and a solid trunk. It’s tall and green. It provides shade and oxygen. It grows in the forest or everywhere around us. It’s a mango tree . It’s grown in tropical areas. It’s well known . It bears delicious fruit. It is usually canned during the harvest season so as to have enough fruit available throughout the year. RCh. 10
  • TEST YOUR LANGUAGE PERCEPTION . RCh. 23
  • Which animal in the group chirps ? Which animal croaks and jumps? Which animal trills and flies? Which animal crows ? Which two animals neigh and moo respectively? RCh. TEST YOUR LEXICAL COMPETENCE 17
  • Which animal(s) in the group has fins ? Which animal(s) in this group has a mane ? Which animal(s) has a beak ? Which animal(s) has horns ? Which two animals have feathers ? RCh. TEST YOUR DESCRIPTIVE COMPETENCE 24
  • Hibernates all winter and has a thick coated skin Takes part in races and is used to pull carriages Undergoes metamorphosis and lays eggs . Hatches for 21 days before cracking the shell. It’s a beast of burden and is related to poor intelligence RCh. TEST YOUR EXPOSITORY COMPETENCE 25
  • TEST YOUR MEMORY RCh. 27
  • TEST YOUR MEMORY
    • What colors did you see?
    • How many squares did you count?
    • Which was the first color you saw?
    • Which color appears more times?
    • Which was the last color you saw?
    RCh. 28
  • TEST YOUR PERCEPTION RCh. 29
  • Which row has less squares? Which row contains more squares? Where are the two yellow squares? Is there a third yellow square? Are the two yellow squares exactly the same? RCh. TEST YOUR PERCEPTION 30
  • TEST YOUR SOCIO-CULTURAL COMPETENCE RCh. 13 RCh.
  • CONCLUSIONS RCh.
  • Some Ideas to Implement Language Competencies
    • • Meaning is on top of any communicative act.
    • • English students should get familiar with, and
    • use utterances.
    • • Students should understand and use multi-
    • word units from the very start.
    • • Students should understand and derive words
    • by analogy, and by developing association
    • strategies.
    • • The formation of simple syntactic units is
    • fundamental in the understanding & building
    • up English.
    • • Extended syntagmatic units are those needed
    • to expand ideas within the same sentence.
    • • Do Writing practice from the very beginning.
    • • The Social Meaning of Language is quite hard,
    • even for those living in the target language
    • milieu. 
    • • English is a phonemic language .
    • • Students should be given theoretical
    • information on writing styles.
    • • Intercultural Awareness Skills are needed to
    • build up competence
    • • Grammatical competence is paradigmatic.
    • •   Paradigmatic Competence relies on
    • Grammar Categories.
    • • Syntagmatic Competence relies on Semantic
    • Categories.
    • • Understanding Syntagmatic Competence
    • means doing an re-doing the language
    • meaning.
    • • S yntagmatic competence is at the core of
    • language competence.
    • • Conveying meaning is syntagmatic .
    •  
    RCh.
  • S EMIOTICS: SEMIOTICS The study of signs and symbols as elements of communicative behavior; the analysis of systems of communication, as language, gestures, or clothing.  D IVIDES INTO THREE BRANCHES: PRAGMATICS: Linguistics concerned with the relationship of sentences to the environment in which they occur. Relation between linguistic expressions (signs) and their uses. SEMANTICS: A branch of semiotics dealing with the relations between signs and what they refer to, and including theories of denotations, extension, naming, and truth. The meaning or relationship of meanings of a sign or a set of signs; especially connotative meaning . SYNTACTICS : It’s a branch of semiotics that deals with the formal relation between signs or expressions in abstraction from their signification and their interpreters. RCh. 3
  • Intercultural Awareness Skills
    • These are attitudes and skills that are needed to build competence. Among them are:
    • - observing, identifying and recognizing - comparing and contrasting - negotiating meaning - dealing with or tolerating ambiguity - effectively interpreting messages - limiting the possibility of misinterpretation - defending one's own point of view while acknowledging
    • the legitimacy of others - accepting difference
    RCh.
  • Methodology ● GTM Grammar Translation Method = Learning Rules & Structures (Grammatical Rules) Grammatical Competence was a priority   Memorizing words and rules ● ALM Audio Lingual Method = Learning by Repetitive Drills ( Behaviorism ) Repeating patterns would lead into language performance ● CLT Communicative Language Teaching = Learning the functions of language . ( Communicative Acts ) Focus on fluency rather than accuracy. Claims Integrative Skills Practice  ● LA Lexical Approach = Advocates Lexical Competence (Lexical Units) The priority should be on lexis (corpus linguistics) rather than on grammar ● SA Semantic Approach = Understanding Semantic Categories ( Learning Chunks of Language) Conveying meaning is a priority regardless of accuracy or fluency RCh.
  •