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Hispanic immigration- Benson, Berry, Cooney, Stillwater

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  • 1. Should Illegal AliensShould Illegal AliensCurrently Living in theCurrently Living in theUnited States beUnited States beGranted PermanentGranted PermanentResidency Status?Residency Status?Benson, Berry, Cooney, StillwaterBenson, Berry, Cooney, Stillwater
  • 2. A Brief History of U.S. ImmigrationA Brief History of U.S. Immigration In 1790, an act was adopted establishing aIn 1790, an act was adopted establishing auniform requirement of 2 years of residencyuniform requirement of 2 years of residencyfor naturalization to the U.S.for naturalization to the U.S. In 1875, a direct federal regulation ofIn 1875, a direct federal regulation ofimmigration was established by a law thatimmigration was established by a law thatprohibited the entry of prostitutes andprohibited the entry of prostitutes andconvicts.convicts. In 1891,In 1891, the Bureau of Immigration wasthe Bureau of Immigration wasestablished under the Treasury Department toestablished under the Treasury Department tofederally administer all immigration laws.federally administer all immigration laws.
  • 3. A Brief History of U.S. ImmigrationA Brief History of U.S. Immigration The Immigration Act of 1924The Immigration Act of 1924 focused onfocused onrestricting immigration from Southern andrestricting immigration from Southern andEastern Europeans. (2% Rule)Eastern Europeans. (2% Rule) The Nationals Origins Formula of 1929The Nationals Origins Formula of 1929 mademadethe quotas of the 1924 act permanent,the quotas of the 1924 act permanent,excluding Asians.excluding Asians. The Immigration and Naturalization Act ofThe Immigration and Naturalization Act of1952 (McCarran-Walter Act)1952 (McCarran-Walter Act) combined thecombined themultiple laws which governed immigrationmultiple laws which governed immigrationand naturalization at that time into oneand naturalization at that time into onecomprehensive statute with four parts.comprehensive statute with four parts.
  • 4. A Brief History of U.S. ImmigrationA Brief History of U.S. Immigration The Immigration Act of 1965 (Hart-Cellar Act)The Immigration Act of 1965 (Hart-Cellar Act)changed the criteria for admitting immigrants fromchanged the criteria for admitting immigrants fromconcentrating on their nationality to focusing on theirconcentrating on their nationality to focusing on theirskills and profession.skills and profession. The Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986The Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986granted amnesty to illegal aliens who had been in thegranted amnesty to illegal aliens who had been in theU.S. before 1982 and made it a crime to hire anU.S. before 1982 and made it a crime to hire anillegal alien.illegal alien. The Illegal Immigration Reform and ImmigrantThe Illegal Immigration Reform and ImmigrantResponsibility Act of 1996Responsibility Act of 1996 adopted stronger penaltiesadopted stronger penaltiesagainst illegal immigration and streamlined theagainst illegal immigration and streamlined thedeportation process.deportation process.
  • 5. Legal Immigration to the U.S.Legal Immigration to the U.S. Family Immigration Program admits spouses, parents, andFamily Immigration Program admits spouses, parents, andminor children of U.S. citizens without numerical limits andminor children of U.S. citizens without numerical limits andlimited categories adult sons and daughters of citizens,limited categories adult sons and daughters of citizens,siblings of citizens, and the spouses and children of non-siblings of citizens, and the spouses and children of non-citizens.citizens. Employment based- collection of preferences ranging fromEmployment based- collection of preferences ranging from“priority workers” to unskilled, and religious workers, and“priority workers” to unskilled, and religious workers, andinvestors.investors. Humanitarian- refugees, asylees, and those receivingHumanitarian- refugees, asylees, and those receiving“cancellation of removal”“cancellation of removal” Visa lottery for people from countries other than the primaryVisa lottery for people from countries other than the primarysources of current immigration.sources of current immigration.
  • 6. What Attracts Illegal ImmigrantsWhat Attracts Illegal Immigrantsto the U.S.?to the U.S.? Many are attracted by jobs. The typicalMany are attracted by jobs. The typicalMexican worker earns 1/10th of what hisMexican worker earns 1/10th of what hisAmerican counterpart makes.American counterpart makes. Communities of recently arrived legalCommunities of recently arrived legalimmigrants help create immigration networksimmigrants help create immigration networksused by illegal aliens and serve as incubatorsused by illegal aliens and serve as incubatorsfor illegal immigration, providing jobs,for illegal immigration, providing jobs,housing, and entrance to America for illegal-housing, and entrance to America for illegal-alien relatives and fellow countrymen.alien relatives and fellow countrymen.
  • 7. Permanent Residency Status = Green CardPermanent Residency Status = Green Card Green Card recipients may travel freely to and fromGreen Card recipients may travel freely to and fromthe U.S. and are considered permanent residents.the U.S. and are considered permanent residents.They are legally entitled to work as well as health,They are legally entitled to work as well as health,education, taxation, retirement, social security, andeducation, taxation, retirement, social security, andother benefits and may also serve as sponsors forother benefits and may also serve as sponsors fortheir relatives seeking immigration Visas (Greentheir relatives seeking immigration Visas (GreenCards).Cards). A Green Card holder may later apply for U.S.A Green Card holder may later apply for U.S.Citizenship and still maintain citizenship in his/herCitizenship and still maintain citizenship in his/hercountry of origin.country of origin. Green Cards are valid for a lifetime.Green Cards are valid for a lifetime.
  • 8. Current Immigration FiguresCurrent Immigration Figures 34.24 million immigrants (legal and illegal) are now living in34.24 million immigrants (legal and illegal) are now living inthe U.S. This is the highest number of immigrants everthe U.S. This is the highest number of immigrants everrecorded in American history.recorded in American history. There areThere are 10 million10 million illegal immigrants currently living in theillegal immigrants currently living in theU.S.U.S. In the past 4 years there has been a 4.3 million increase in theIn the past 4 years there has been a 4.3 million increase in thenumber of immigrants in America, 2 million comes fromnumber of immigrants in America, 2 million comes fromillegal immigration.illegal immigration. The U.S. admits between 700,000 to 900,000 legal immigrantsThe U.S. admits between 700,000 to 900,000 legal immigrantseach year.each year. Each year there is an increase ofEach year there is an increase of 500,000500,000 illegal immigrants.illegal immigrants.
  • 9. Pro Arguments: National SecurityPro Arguments: National Security Granting current illegal immigrants permanentGranting current illegal immigrants permanentresidency status will not harm nationalresidency status will not harm nationalsecurity.security. Terrorists already enter the U.S. illegally andTerrorists already enter the U.S. illegally andthey would not take this opportunity tothey would not take this opportunity tobecome American citizens because of thebecome American citizens because of thebackground checks and screening that wouldbackground checks and screening that wouldbe involved before being given permanentbe involved before being given permanentresidency status.residency status.
  • 10. Pro Arguments: CriminalityPro Arguments: Criminality Having the strength and determination toHaving the strength and determination tocreate a better life for yourself and your familycreate a better life for yourself and your familyshould not be considered a crime.should not be considered a crime. Many illegal immigrants after coming toMany illegal immigrants after coming toAmerica become contributing members of ourAmerica become contributing members of oursociety.society.
  • 11. Pro Arguments: EconomyPro Arguments: Economy Legalization equals taxation, granting illegal immigrantsLegalization equals taxation, granting illegal immigrantsamnesty will remove the fear of deportation and encourageamnesty will remove the fear of deportation and encouragethem to participate more fully in the economy.them to participate more fully in the economy. Illegal immigration fills the gaps in the low end of the laborIllegal immigration fills the gaps in the low end of the labormarket occupying jobs not desired by American workers.market occupying jobs not desired by American workers. Low-wages for immigrants may enable threatened AmericanLow-wages for immigrants may enable threatened Americanbusinesses to survive competition from low-wage businessesbusinesses to survive competition from low-wage businessesabroad.abroad. Granting amnesty is more cost efficient than deportation.Granting amnesty is more cost efficient than deportation.
  • 12. Pro Arguments: IntegrationPro Arguments: Integration The government is responsible for allowingThe government is responsible for allowingillegal immigrants here in the first place due toillegal immigrants here in the first place due totheir lack of funding and other oversights.their lack of funding and other oversights. Illegal immigrants have become integrated intoIllegal immigrants have become integrated intothe community and should be grantedthe community and should be grantedpermanent residency status.permanent residency status.
  • 13. Con Arguments: National SecurityCon Arguments: National Security Allowing amnesty to illegal immigrants onlyAllowing amnesty to illegal immigrants onlyencourages more illegal immigration making itencourages more illegal immigration making iteasier for terrorists to enter the U.S.easier for terrorists to enter the U.S.
  • 14. Con Arguments: CriminalityCon Arguments: Criminality It is necessary to make distinctions betweenIt is necessary to make distinctions betweenthose who obey the law and those who violatethose who obey the law and those who violateit.it. Granting amnesty to illegal immigrants isGranting amnesty to illegal immigrants isrewarding lawbreakers and undermines ourrewarding lawbreakers and undermines ourability to regulate immigration. It alsoability to regulate immigration. It alsolegitimizes illegal immigration bylegitimizes illegal immigration byincorporating it into our immigration policy.incorporating it into our immigration policy.
  • 15. Con Arguments: EconomyCon Arguments: Economy It is a myth that immigration to the U.S. is largely connectedIt is a myth that immigration to the U.S. is largely connectedto the availability of employment.to the availability of employment. Illegal immigrants deplete social services, education, andIllegal immigrants deplete social services, education, andemergency medical care paid for by American citizens.emergency medical care paid for by American citizens. Based on Census Bureau data, a study found that when allBased on Census Bureau data, a study found that when allcosts are considered, illegal households created a net fiscalcosts are considered, illegal households created a net fiscaldeficit at the federal level of more than 10 billion dollars indeficit at the federal level of more than 10 billion dollars in2002. This study also estimated that if amnesty for illegal2002. This study also estimated that if amnesty for illegalaliens was granted the net fiscal deficit would grow to 29aliens was granted the net fiscal deficit would grow to 29billion dollars.billion dollars.
  • 16. ConsensusConsensusWe should not grant illegal immigrantsWe should not grant illegal immigrantspermanent residency status because:permanent residency status because: it would only encourage more illegal immigrationit would only encourage more illegal immigration the majority of illegal immigrants arethe majority of illegal immigrants areuneducated/unskilled and if granted amnesty theyuneducated/unskilled and if granted amnesty theywould create a major drain on the economywould create a major drain on the economy we should not break the promise made to thewe should not break the promise made to theAmerican people in 1986 that granting permanentAmerican people in 1986 that granting permanentresidency to illegal immigrants would only occurresidency to illegal immigrants would only occuronceonce
  • 17. SourcesSources http://uscis.gov/graphics/ihttp://uscis.gov/graphics/index.htmndex.htm http://www.cis.org/index.chttp://www.cis.org/index.cgigi http://www.us-green-card-http://www.us-green-card-lottery.orglottery.org http://uscis.gov/graphics/shttp://uscis.gov/graphics/shared/aboutus/statistics/2hared/aboutus/statistics/2003Yearbook.pdf003Yearbook.pdf http://www.whitehouse.gohttp://www.whitehouse.gov/news/releases/2002/10/v/news/releases/2002/10/print/20021016-18.htmlprint/20021016-18.html http://www.immigrationlinhttp://www.immigrationlinks.com/news/newshints0ks.com/news/newshints08.htm8.htm ImmigrationImmigration by Mary E.by Mary E.WilliamsWilliams The Immigration DebateThe Immigration DebateRemaking AmericaRemaking America bybyJohn IsbisterJohn Isbister
  • 18. AsylumAsylum A form of protection that allows individuals who are in theA form of protection that allows individuals who are in theU.S. to remain here, provided that they meet the definition of aU.S. to remain here, provided that they meet the definition of arefugee and are not barred from either applying for or beingrefugee and are not barred from either applying for or beinggranted asylum. Eventually asylees are able to adjust theirgranted asylum. Eventually asylees are able to adjust theirstatus to lawful permanent resident.status to lawful permanent resident. A refugee is a person outside of his or her country ofA refugee is a person outside of his or her country ofnationality who is unable or unwilling to return because ofnationality who is unable or unwilling to return because ofpersecution or a well-founded fear of persecution on accountpersecution or a well-founded fear of persecution on accountof race, religion, nationality, membership in a particular socialof race, religion, nationality, membership in a particular socialgroup, or political opinion.group, or political opinion.
  • 19. 02000400060008000100001200014000160001800020000AfricaE.AsiaE.EuropeFormerSovietUnionLatinAmericaNearEast/SouthAsiaUnallocatedAuthorization of Refugee Status 2003Refugees