World Coal-to-Liquids Presentation


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Presented at the World CTL Conference 2009 in Washington, D.C.

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  • Why not leverage the existing infrastructure that we have today? Oil refineries make a variety of liquid fuels, many of which are highly valued in the global market. But, we are typically left with heaver fuels, with little external market value. Why not leverage these for power? Instead of tying to mix these heavier liquids to make a fuel suitable for power generation, why not use the heavier ends directly. Describe schematic: 1. To deal with these heavier liquid fuels, we offer a new concept …. Split or separate the heavy liquid ends from the refinery. Once split, the lighter liquids could be sent to a gas turbine … these liquids are well within current gas turbine capabilities, especially as most of the contaminants will end up in the heavier fraction. (Need emphasis here) The heavier fuel fraction can then be gasified. This is a chemical process in which the fuel is partially oxidixed and produces a hydrogen based fuel (syngas), which can be cleaned and burned in a gas turbine. This is a well known process …. GE has more than 1 million gas turbine operating hours on these types of fuels; Once example is a plant in Italy which is gasifying petrolelum (pet) coke to produce syngas which is used to fuel a set of gas turbines, producing 500 MW (net power). This slide strengthens the idea of direct firing of GT’s , as a higher performing platform than a traditional steam boiler. And the right side promotes the years of gasification experience, numbers of value streams; syngas, metals, sulfur, CO2.
  • CTL block diagram
  • Slurry/liquid feed simple, safe, versatile, efficient, Reactor design downflow, simple, good solids removal, Wide range of possible operating variables pressure, feeds, optimize overall system, Gas Cooling by either water quench or high pressure steam generation. After the gasification reaction, the gas is cooled and scrubbed free of particulates in a water scrubbing system. This generates a hot clean syngas, saturated with water, and still containing H2S. Ash settles in the water bath and is removed from the high pressure reaction area via a lockhopper. Soot or char high in carbon is concentrated in a settler and recycled to the gasifier. Low carbon ash is sold or disposed of offsite. For solid feeds, the feedstock is ground with water to form a slurry. The slurry is then pumped to the gasifier. For oil feeds, the grinding mill is eliminated and the oil is pumped to the gasifier. Because of the similarity in feed systems for both solids and oil, we have great feedstock flexibility and some commercial units have changed feedstocks as the cost of feedstock has changed.
  • Turndown issues – refineries have daytanks. These don’t can’t.
  • World Coal-to-Liquids Presentation

    1. 1. GE EnergyGasificationWorld CTL ConferenceRobert CarpenterMarketing Program Manager, Gasification 1/ GE /
    2. 2. AgendaGE leadership & experienceImportant design characteristicsProcess descriptionCritical process elementsProject complexities+/- of Illinois #6 coalKey results/dataSummary 2/ GE /
    3. 3. GE leadership & experience
    4. 4. GE Energy: gasification leadershipGE Energy’s Experience• Gasification leader since 1948• 65 facilities worldwide (+19 under construction)• ~120 gasification vessels in operation• 1966: first heavy fuel oil gasification• 27 plants today on liquid fuels• 27 turbines with syngas• 1MM+ operating hours 4/• 33 projects globally that separate CO2 GE /
    5. 5. Continuing to invest in technologyDr / etInj y W ect HPCoa F l eed InjectionBa l e ngaor Sha i ngha Technologies Operability & Controls Fuel Flexibility Dr T F na op ube ur ce Caifor l nia Conversion Heating Rate Controls Residence Time (5s)Quench FowF cil y l a it Residence Time (40s)NewY k or Proposed R r Cent eseach er Conversion Wyoming ~ 100 Mt/hr Foulinglb/hr ~ 15 Fuel Flexibility Entrainment Stability & Control Adv Technologies Quench Chamber Design Operability & Controls Fuel Flexibility 5/ GE /
    6. 6. The HPG-ATC at the U of Wyoming High Plains Gasification Advanced Technology Center: Developing the next generation of gasification technologies• PRB & other coals• Scaled facility• Commercial level gasification – Dry feed (pressure/metering) – Dry injection (spray dispersion) – Dry gasification (O/C ratio)• Complete process blocks Status – Coal feeding system • Site Selection…May ‘09 – Gasification island – Carbon capture systems • Start PreFEED…May ‘09 – Water treatment systems • COD 2012 – Data acquisition & controls 6/ GE /
    7. 7. Important configuration characteristics
    8. 8. Configuration basis for presentation• Note: GE does not own F-T technology• Gasification to support 40,000 bpd CTL plant• Choice of feedstock: Illinois #6 coal• Diesel: 28,000 bpd• Naphtha/LPG: 14,000 bpd• Plant location: US 8/ GE /
    9. 9. Process description
    10. 10. Indirect CTL with F-T  superior fuelsCoal Oxygen Power block Fischer-Tropsch synthesis Sour S yngas Cleanup Sweet Gas ification Syngas Proces s Syngas Proces s CO2 Clean Fuels Sulfur Stream • Proven, commercial process, operating in South Africa • F-T diesel  high cetane, low aromatics, near zero sulfur • Naphtha  straight chain paraffinic, near zero sulfur 10 / GE /
    11. 11. Process visual model of IGCC plant Click for visual model Today’s discussion focus is here 11 / GE /
    12. 12. 12 /GE /
    13. 13. GE’s quench systemconfiguration GRINDING AND SLURRY GASIFICATION AND GAS COOLING GAS SCRUBBING PREPARATION Oxidant Particulate Free Water Synthesis Gas PARTICULATE SCRUBBERCoal Feed GASIFIER GRINDING MILL Recycle Quenched Syngas SLURRY TANK QUENCH SLURRY CHAMBER PUMP Char Purge Water LOCKHOPPER Clarifier Slag SLAG Separator SUMP Coarse Slag to Recycle Sale/Disposal 13 / GE /
    14. 14. Critical process elements
    15. 15. Syngas quality & treatment are critical Key needs GE Energy’s Oxidant Fuel Quench Simple Entrained flow Reliable Refractory-lined High H2:CO Slurry feed Product Syngas Reactor Solids removal Quench configuration Water for shift Saturated syngas Min. compression Up to 1200 psig Fuel flexibility Fuel flexibility Water use minimization Water recycle Cost effective solution for hydrogen, CTL & chemicals 15 / GE /
    16. 16. Project complexities
    17. 17. Project complexities are massive Integration = opportunity Integration is complicated by: • Increased schedule & cost (multi party contracts) • Risk allocation for financing • Wrapping for process/performance guarantee? • No sole engineer • Multiple licensors • Multiple operation scenarios • Turndown • Off-design periods • Polygeneration Integration offers sizeable benefits: • higher efficiency • operator ownership of optimized plant performance • thermal balance (minimized waste heat) Financing  the highest hurdle: • CAPEX scale is enormous for large scale refinery equivalents • Securing financing in today’s environment • Need strong balance sheet partners 17 / GE /
    18. 18. Key results/data
    19. 19. The results/performance Overall balance• CO2 production in tons/bbl? 0.23 Tonnes/ Coal feed 18,000 Tpd bbl CTL*• Needs of water in tons/bbl? 2.3 bbl Products water/bbl CTL D ie se l 26,700 b p d Nap h th a 9,500 b p d• Can biomass be added? Up to what %? LPG 3,800 b p d Our customers have tested up to 5% … not in our current process design Total 40,000 bpd• CAPEX $ for this 40,000 BPD plant (inside Power battery limits) Recent, public estimates Gross Powe r 620 MW $60-105k/bpd capacity1 Export 45 MW •CO2 from gasification step only 1 SSEB 2005, DOE 2007, RAND 2008 19 / GE /
    20. 20. Summary
    21. 21. SummaryGE leadership & experienceImportant design characteristicsProcess descriptionCritical process elementsProject complexities+/- of Illinois #6 coalKey results/dataSummary 21 / GE /
    22. 22. GE EnergyGasificationWorld CTL Conference 22 / GE /Robert Carpenter