Rowing: London Tideway River Thames navigation & steering for coxswains
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Rowing: London Tideway River Thames navigation & steering for coxswains

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Stephen Aitken's advice on how to steer the river Thames in London in a rowing boat. Includes crossing points, coxing advice, how to manoeuvre obstacles. ...

Stephen Aitken's advice on how to steer the river Thames in London in a rowing boat. Includes crossing points, coxing advice, how to manoeuvre obstacles.
Based on the Auriol Kensington Rowing Club self-teach training

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Rowing: London Tideway River Thames navigation & steering for coxswains Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Learning how to become an independent navigator Intelligent SatNav and independent boat master on the Tideway Skilled driver – steers/cox So you are safer on the Tideway So coaches can coach and not “herd cats”TSS & AKRC
  • 2. Self- teaching• If you are working through this presentation on your own you may like to see at the same time • Basic Principles of Tideway Navigation (a single sheet) http://www.pairshead.co.uk/Tideway%20Code%20-%20pocket%20guide.pdf • 70 page Rowing on the Tideway by PLA & TRRC 2009 (booklet) or see http://www.pla.co.uk/pdfs/maritime/THE_ROWING_CODE.pdf • PLA Upper Thames Navigation Video. Go to http://www.boatingonthethames.co.uk/ and see “Safely navigating in the upper tidal Thames”• The presentation is in two parts – Tideway Navigation (Part 1) – slides 4 - 33 – Mastering the boat in the conditions (Part 2) – slides 34 – 51
  • 3. The most important rule• Keep a good look out? Every 5 strokes, or less• In all collisions and most accidents the first finding is that those involved didn’t keep a good enough look out• Do not assert your “rights” – Assume ignorance, incompetence, distress or stupidity• Your right is to avoid collisions
  • 4. Tideway Navigation – (Part 1)• Definition and geography• Port and Starboard• Keeping to starboard side of fairway• Passing port to port• Shouting• Restricted zones, overtaking, rowing abreast• Using the inshore zone (slacks)• Crossing at 90o, pointing at 45o• Lights on bridges and boats• Dealing with washes• Priority of vessel types• Horn blasts• Summary and documentation
  • 5. Mastering the boat in the conditions• Using the stream differential to (Part 2) – Turn or not – Turn in and out of fairway• Passing spits• Boating at different states of the tide• The yellow peril, new rules at Putney• When the differential is not your friend• Steering 8+ and 4s• Outing plan – Boat speeds – Wind direction and strength
  • 6. Tideway definition & geography •Just this stretch of the river •Need to know the language and geography •Study the “Basic principles” sheet and 66 page booklet6 Lets do the geography test
  • 7. Barnes bend Chiswick Steps crossing Isleworth Ait Oliver’s Island or AitBarnes bridge Corney reach Kew [road or stone] Bridge Pink House [or Lodge]Black Buoy (Putney moorings) Crabtree reach Kew pier Putney [road] bridgeBoat Race finishing post Dove pier Kew Railway [or Iron] Bridge Putney crossingBrentford Aits Fulham football ground MAA boathouse Ship crossingBrentford dock or marina Hammersmith bend Middlesex SurreyChiswick bridge Hammersmith bridge Mile Post Syon crossingChiswick Eyot Harbourmaster’s [pontoon] Mortlake (OR Stag ) brewery Syon reachChiswick pier RNLI station Harrods [wharf] Mortlake reach UL boathouse
  • 8. Some definitions• Ebb (falling 7- 8+ hours), Flood (rising 4+ hours) – Where does the tide first change? Putney• Fairway – >1m depth at low(est) tide• Inshore zone or slacks – too shallow for big vessels• Vessel: carries persons or goods – Vessels < 20m must not impede large vessels An 8+ is 17m long• What types of vessels are on the tideway? Class 5, cruiser, rib, barge, tug, RNLI, Fire boat, PLA / Environment Agency catamaran Rowing boats, kayaks, canoes, paddle boards, dragon boats, gig, wherry, gondola. Sailing dinghy, yachts, windsurfs Coaching / umpires launch, stake boat, start boat, slipper launch
  • 9. Port and Starboard To move to starboard side of fairway pressure up with right legThe oar loom But the rowers But the rowers The oar loom has ahas a red band right hand left hand green band Port – the left hand side Starboard – the right hand of the boat and cox c side of the boat and cox Port wine is red! o x It’s the boat that has a starboard and port side - a bow and stroke side
  • 10. Sample test questions from TRRC54. Which of these is responsible for the boat duringthe outing?a) The coach of a junior crew where the cox isunder 16b) Strokec) The most experienced rower in the crewd) The cox’n or steersperson55. As a steersperson are you legally responsible forthe conduct of your craft and crew?a) Yesb) Yes, unless they’re older than youc) Not if you’re instructed by a coachd) No
  • 11. Symbols used• The stream • Boat moving to starboard• Any club boat • Boat in wrong position• Your club boat • Boat moving to port• Crossing the fairway • Motor driven boats• Boat in poor position • Parked boat Foreshore - SurreyInshore zone or slacks wrong Fairway Your club boats Poor position wrong Inshore zone or slacks Foreshore - Middlesex
  • 12. ColRegs (IRPCS) • Navigate to prevent collisions • Starboard rule – Keep to the starboard side of the fairway and pass port to port Cannot move to • Rowers use the slacks when against the tide starboard Foreshore - Surrey Inshore zone or slacks 1 m/s starboard port Fairway Class V 2 m/s port starboard Inshore zone or slacks 1 m/s Foreshore - Middlesex• Class 5 in narrow channel: you may need to move to port - early
  • 13. Sample test question from TRRC5. When travelling downriver against a flood tide on which side of thered navigation buoys should you pass?a) Middlesex Bankb) Surrey Side of the greenbuoysc) Middlesex side of the red buoysd) Surrey side of the red buoys
  • 14. Shouting to prevent collisions• When? From Where? To Who? By Who? Anybody any where• What to say when – Risk of collision – “Take a look” – Collision seems imminent – “Look ahead” “Ahead” – You should stop now – “Hold it up – lightly” – Stop or you will collide – “Hold it hard”• Assume others cannot see you – Especially scullers & rowers, Class 5 and cruisers Usually, not always, people will thank you! Apologise if you were part of the problem e.g. baulking, crossing late, in the wrong position
  • 15. Restricted Zones around bridges• Only two crews side by side (rowing in a controlled manner)• No overtaking of any kind (has caused accidents)• Inshore zone: no stopping , but can overtake, no rowing abreast• You can stop to disembark B R• No crossing I D No stopping in the inshore zone or Inshore zone G fairway but can overtake E Only two crews side by side Restricted zone No overtaking of any kind No crossing Can stop to No rowingInshore zone disembark abreast Foreshore
  • 16. Special case: Hammersmith at very low tide • If you cannot use inside arch as no water • Proceed with caution close to port side of middle arch • You have passed Starboard to Starboard! B PassEase out early to see Get in line R throughoncoming crews and with the I quickly in D the yellow Return to IZbe seen. Shout if stream beforeneeded bridge G area E Restricted zone Do not proceed B if congested R I Middlesex Foreshore D G E
  • 17. Special case: Kew rail bridge at very low tide• Restricted zone full width of river (also at Kew Road bridge) ?? No overtaking in slacks• If cannot use inside arch as no water• Turn back or proceed with caution• So if you misjudge you can turn in this restricted zone! BSpin turn back If insufficient water Ror proceed with inside buoys spin Icaution turn back D Do not proceed G E Restricted zone Oliver’s AitDo not proceedif congested Middlesex Foreshore
  • 18. Overtaking rules• In general on the outside i.e. in the faster stream• Overtaking crew does not have right of way• Overtaken crew to maintain course and speed and not baulk Unusually overtaking on the inside as overtaken crew not Foreshore close to bankOvertaking on the No overtaking ifoutside normal you will moveNo overtaking into oncoming overtaking on thetwo abreast craft outside normal Inshore zone or slacks Foreshore
  • 19. Rowing Abreast rules• Not in the slacks unless overtaking• Not if it will obstruct other traffic• In the fairway – Maintain a starboard station, can overtake one crew if safe• Can overtake crews who are rowing abreast if safeNo rowing two Maintain starboard station,abreast can overtake if safe Other crew overtaking if safe Foreshore
  • 20. Using the slacks• Rowers should use them – when going against the stream• Keep as close to the bank as practicable – 1m – if by a wall Don’t run aground – 20m say – if in shallows• Boats should overtake on the outside!• So keep close to the bank if slow or stopping• It means you have to cross the river sometimes
  • 21. Crossing at 900 , pointing at 450• River flowing at 4 knots = 2 m/s• To cross at 90 pointing at 45 boat needs to make 2 m/s against the stream so boat ? speed needs to be 2.83 m/s• This is a good light paddling or novice crew speed. (racing at 5 m/s = 6:40 2k)• A boat racing towards you on the stream 45o is travelling at 5+2 = 7 m/s so if it is 70 m away it will reach you in 10 sec Stream 2 m/sHow long does it take to cross a 50m wide fairway flowing at 4 knots if youare crossing at 90o, pointing at 45o and on a light paddle?• To cross 50 m fairway will take you 25 sec! Crews in the fairway should maintain course and speed
  • 22. Crossing Points1. Putney crossing2. Chiswick steps crossing3. Chiswick bridge crossing4. Syon crossing• Cross to get to the inside of the next bend• No stopping in crossings
  • 23. Other crossing points?Where clubs on Middlesex have to cross fairway to the slacks UL boat house TSS/KCB/QBC/MAABC •ULO/Tyrian/Team Keane Latimer/Sons of Thames •IMM/RUM/SBA/SHG/UNH AKRC/FSC •QMC/RHO/UCL •LYR
  • 24. Sample test questions from TRRC24. When crossing the river at a crossing point who has right ofway?a) The boat crossingb) Class V Passenger boatsc) The boat travelling in the fairwayd) The larger/faster boat25. Which of these pieces of guidance is not correct with regardsto crossing the river when travelling against the stream/tide?a) Keep moving to avoid interrupting your work.b) Cross as quickly as possible (aiming to cross as close to 90°as possible)c) Cross only within designated crossing zones You can cross to boat andd) Give way to boats travelling with the tide return to your club
  • 25. Lights on bridges and boats Straw open closed Headroom Reduced360o white light 360o white light Flashing 360o white light recommended now 180o If above 7 knots: 360o side white light 1m above lights side lights, 30 cm above drivers head
  • 26. Sample test questions from TRRC18. Approaching Kew Road bridge, rowing upstream against the tide,three scullers in front of you stop. Your view beyond the pier and thebridge is restricted. What should you do?a) Paddle out slowly and move round the scullers then go through the Surrey archb) Move out and paddle through the centre arch once you can see it is clearc) Wait for them to move, or ask them to move.d) Keep paddling towards them as they are obliged to get out of yourway19. You are going with the tide. You wish to take your splash-top offbefore doing a piece of work. Where would it be safe to do this?a) Under the centre arch of a bridgeb) It does not matterc) At a crossing pointd) Close to the starboard edge of the Fairway
  • 27. Dealing with washes • The cruiser going too fast • The RNLI on a rescue – blues and twos • The Class V drawdown (tsunami) before the wash Which way should you point? Foreshore - Surrey Inshore zone or slacks 1 m/s Fairway 2 m/s Class V RLNI 1 m/s Foreshore - MiddlesexEspecially 1x & 2x Especially 4x and 8+,blades in safe position
  • 28. Priority of Vessel types• Sailing – paddling - motor at sea• “a vessel must not cross or enter a fairway so as to obstruct another vessel proceeding along the fairway”• When do motor vessels have priority over rowers? – Emergency services with blues and twos – A Class V – A any vessel manoeuvring with difficulty e.g. at low tide – A coaching launch involved in a rescue – Ferry crossing the fairway? – A seaplane? • She should keep clear of other vessels
  • 29. Sample test question from TRRC40. In which four situations does a motor vessel have priority overa rowing craft?a) RNLI vessel at all times.b) Police vessel at all times.c) Any emergency vessel with blue lights flashing.d) Class V vessel in a restricted channel.e) Any emergency vessel at full speed.f) Fire vessel at all times.g) A any working vessel manoeuvring with difficulty.h) A coach launch involved in a rescue.
  • 30. One second Horn blasts• 1 short blast • I am altering course to starboard• 2 short blasts • I am altering course to port• 3 short blasts • I am operating stern propulsion• 4 + 1 short blasts • I am doing a 180 to starboard• 4 + 2 short blasts • I am doing a 180 to port• 5 short blasts • I am not clear what you are doing 4-5 seconds• 1 Long blast • I can’t see clearly but I’m proceeding• 2 long +1 short • I’m overtaking you on your starboard• 2 long + 2 short • I’m overtaking you on your port
  • 31. Basic Navigation rules summary• Going against the stream (working the slacks) – Use inshore zone, inside buoys, close to bank• Going with the stream – Stay in the fairway, on starboard side – With oncoming craft pass port to port – At low water a big vessel may take up the whole channel; then, if safe, pass starboard to starboard showing intentions early.• Paddle according to the direction of the stream not the tide• If in doubt keep to starboard• Do not stop, turn or overtake within 75m of a bridge (Restricted Zone)• Do not stop in a crossing zone• Always keep a good lookout, assume others cannot see you Every 5 strokes
  • 32. Tideway Navigation Documentation and websites to see Based on the TTRC and PLA guides with local supplements • Basic Principles of Tideway Navigation • 66 page Rowing on the Tideway by PLA & TRRC 2009 (booklet) or see http://www.pla.co.uk/pdfs/maritime/THE_ROWING_CODE.pdf • PLA Upper Thames Navigation Video http://www.boatingonthethames.co.uk/ • Furnival SC guide http://www.furnivall.org/documents/files/Tideway%20Navigation%20(FSC).pdf • Language and geography of the Tideway • TTRC Steering Certificate Test Questions • Supplementary Questions33 • Sign up to receive PLA notices at http://www.pla.co.uk/register/index.cfm/site/email
  • 33. Mastering the boat in the conditions• Using the stream differential to (Part 2) – Turn or not – Turn in and out of fairway• Passing spits• Boating at different states of the tide• The yellow peril, new rules at Putney• When the differential is not your friend• Steering 8+ and 4s• Outing plan – Boat speeds – Wind direction and strength
  • 34. Using the stream differential to turnPoint bows out and streamdifferential will turn you further Doing a fast 360? Foreshore Inshore zone or slacks In the fairway no PLA turning effect but Fairway 2 m/s you might get hitIf you haven’t turned by Or did you just mean tonow you probably can’t! cross the fairway? - badly! Foreshore
  • 35. Using the stream differential to turn into the starboard fairway and pass port to portPoint bows out and stream differentialwill turn you further as you spin turninto starboard side of fairway Foreshore Turn below buoy Inshore zone or slacks starboard port Fairway port Use a sweep turn Class 5 starboard to get to far side of fairway Passing port to port Turn below buoy Foreshore
  • 36. Beware of spits you may end up in the middle of the river ForeshoreMove out early But keep out of fairway and keep moving Fairway Inshore zone or slacks Foreshore
  • 37. Ebb tide at AKRC – boating and returnRestricted zones Sweep turn to getNo turning, no crossing, no overtaking to starboard sideno stopping in slacks of fairway StUse to assess timing your next move Pauls Restricted zoneInshore zone or slacks Dove Pier ARA AK FSC Spin turn in Sweep Parked waiting to slacks turn to cross watching Other crews Up river out get across yellow peril (Dove Up river return of fairway Pier buoy) Down river out Down river return
  • 38. Flood tide AKRC – boating against & returnRestricted zonesNo turning, no crossing, no overtakingno stopping in slacks Alternate StUse to assess timing your next move safer route for Pauls bigger boats Restricted zoneInshore zone or slacks Dove Pier ARA AK FSC Spin Parked waiting to turn cross watching yellow round Other crews peril & Dove pier yellow Up river out Up river return peril Down river out Down river return
  • 39. Flood tide at AKRC – boating with & returnRestricted zonesNo turning, no crossing, no overtaking Do not cross untilno stopping in slacks well downriver ofUse to assess timing your next move Dove pier St Pauls Alternate safer route for bigger boats Restricted zoneInshore zone or slacks Dove Pier ARA AK FSC Spin turn in Parked waiting to spin fairway well into fairway watching Other crews down stream of yellow peril & Dove Up river out Yellow peril / pier Up river return Down river out Dove pier Down river return
  • 40. Dove pier buoy – Yellow Peril – flood tide Check your position and pointing, especially if windy from SW Restricted zone ARA Dove Pier AK FSC Move to port to Do not go inside Dove pier is curved! get outside yellow peril! so pressure up Yellow peril You may have > 10 sec starboard (bow) side to get out again
  • 41. Putney Crossing - Ebb Tide – High Tide As close to Swan Yellow marker on bank as Drawdock wall by steps practicable Right Hand Rule Crossing Zone Restricted zone Right Hand Rule Putney Pier Not allowed Fast spin turn for Can turn Safer route for less under any But right experienced as not in experienced longer circumstances, hand rule smaller boats restricted boats in strong see low tide suspended zone stream routes ??
  • 42. Putney Crossing - Ebb Tide – Low Tide Swan Yellow As close to Do not cross Drawdock marker bank as until opposite on wall practicable the gap Right Hand Rule New Crossing Zone Restricted zone Crossing Zone? Right Hand Rule Foreshore Putney Pier Move to slacker water, Fast spin turn for Can be very Safer route for spin turn (against the experienced shallow here less experienced stream) 135o then cross, shorter boats longer boats in or go below Rail bridge strong stream and cross
  • 43. Putney Crossing - Flood Tide – High Tide On starboard side of Yellow Can use either Swan As close to fairway or as close marker Middlesex arch or Drawdock bank as to bank as on wall central arch if practicable practicable? clear?? Right Hand Rule Crossing Zone Restricted zone Right Hand Rule Putney Pier Proceed on All boats sweep turn starboard side as across fairway to per Colregsstarboard side for a U turn
  • 44. Putney Crossing - Flood Tide – Low Tide Do not use On starboard side of Yellow Swan South Middlesex As close to fairway or as close marker Drawdock or Central arch bank as to bank as on wall as not close to practicable practicable? bank? Right Hand Rule Crossing Zone Restricted zone Right Hand Rule Foreshore Putney Pier All boats sweep turn Stream can be Move to slacker across fairway to very fast here so water and proceedstarboard side for a U keep moving on starboard side turn as per Colregs
  • 45. When the stream differential is not your friend• Attraction into the slacks as you near them• Attraction to port side if you drift into the middle• Pushed to the outside of the bend• Solution: – Keep on dancing round looking – Adjust little and often
  • 46. When the stream differential is not your friend Stream may sweep Drift to port and you will you to outside of Shoal stalling be swept further to port approaching bend the stream Keeping to starboard onDifferent water speeds on your spoons a starboard bend helpscan spin you into the slacks
  • 47. Steering an 8+ or a 4+x It’s like a rear wheel steered dumper truckRudder pushes stern out, So you need tobow stays put, boat slidessideways anticipate the turn or you will go wide
  • 48. Steering an 8+ or 4+xA touch of starboardrudder to keep you inthe slacks Keeping to starboard on a starboard bend helps
  • 49. Your Outing plan and Boat speeds• Look up the tide times http://rjen.me.uk/thttp://rjen.me.uk/tides/Tides2012-ChisMall.pdfides/-ChisMall.pdf http://maabc.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/04/MAA-tide-tables-2012-PDF.pdf• & weather forecast & do a risk assessment & manage – Coach & Cox / steers job• Which way is the stream flowing – Pooh sticks, pontoon, bridge piers, buoys, stop and hold, paddling birds face the stream• Why normally go out against the stream? – drift back if exhaustion, injury, capsize, equipment failure (launches!)• When to go out with the stream? – Tide about to change or will change during the outing.
  • 50. Your 90 min Outing plan and Boat speeds • How long does it take, going out coming back, if average boat speed 4 m/s, stream 2m/s, slacks 1m/s? 4m/s is elite sculler Ability Speed (m/s) Time Distance (km) Destination (min) AKRC / TSS Elite 4-1= 3 out 60 10.8 Pink Lodge 4+2=6 back 30 10.8 Black buoy JM/JW / IMn /old 3-1=2 out 65 7.8 Brentford dock Vet 3+2=5 back 26 7.8 Pink lodge Beginners 2-1=1 out 72 4.3 Chiswick bridge 2+2=4 back 18 4.3 UL twice Faster boat classes may go further but single scullers rarely stop. Coaches usually reduce the distances
  • 51. Outing plan and wind direction Predict whether water conditions will get worse, where and when •Wind against tide makes waves bigger, especially around high water •Strong winds from SW, SE, NW, NE Rough on ebb52 Rough on flood Show rough areas
  • 52. The End The End• Unless you want to get certified!
  • 53. Certification programme• Study steering/coxing • 29 page Level 1 Certificate in Coxing / Steering Workbook • 6 page Assessment Guide • Coxing the Tideway Head http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RSl8XiXfpng • On-line coxing / steering course at RowHow http://www.rowhow.org/mdl/course/view.php?id=27• Study Navigation • 66 page Rowing on the Tideway by PLA & TRRC 2009 (booklet) http://www.pla.co.uk/pdfs/maritime/THE_ROWING_CODE.pdf • PLA Upper Thames Navigation Video http://www.boatingonthethames.co.uk/• Practise steering/coxing with mentor • record in Log book as evidence• Sit the Navigation test When ready • Tideway navigator (Basic, independent or exceptional)• Steering assessment by L2 coach - Independent54 steers/cox/navigator When ready
  • 54. Ebb tide at TSS – boating and returnRestricted zonesNo turning, no crossing, no overtakingno stopping in slacks PT Sweep turn to getUse to assess timing your next move RC to starboard side of fairway Inshore zone or slacks Restricted zone Parked waiting Spin Sweep TSS QBC MAABC to cross turn in turn to Other crews slacks get out of Finish Quintin Up river out fairway Post Up river return flagpole Down river out Down river return
  • 55. Flood tide at TSS – boating and returnRestricted zonesNo turning, no crossing, no overtaking,no stopping in slacks Sweep turn PT Don’t startUse to assess timing your next move to get out of RC your turn fairway from here Inshore zone or slacks Restricted zone Spin turn into TSS QBC Spin turn in slacks MAABC starboard side of fairway Parked Other crews waiting for Finish Quintin Down river out group to Post flagpole Down river return Up river out form Up river return
  • 56. Appendix – pictures of navigation – courtesy of Dr N. Jackson• Chiswick crossing in a head race• Putney Pier turn• Other pictures to be added? – Yellow peril from Hammersmith Bridge – Up stream and down stream markers for all restricted zones and lights on bridges taken from launch – Syon crossing taken from Kew gardens – Wind against stream pictures – Boats out of position due to stream – Dealing with washes – Class V in narrow channel
  • 57. Waiting in Surrey IZ by the RED buoy
  • 58. Crossing: general view of the Surrey queue and a boat crossing
  • 59. Two eights crossing at Chiswick Stepsone at 45o and TSS at 30o (because they are so fast!)note crossing marshal launch in background controlling
  • 60. Carrying on up the Middlesex IZ past GREEN buoy
  • 61. Putney Pier, Ebb tideturning the gap to Putney Embankment