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Chapter 4

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  • Note: Figure 6.2 on page 215 in the textbook incorrectly labels the CS as “Food”
  • Transcript

    • 1. Learning
    • 2. Learning
      • A relatively permanent change in behavior that results from experience
      • Types
        • Classical conditioning
        • Operant conditioning
        • Cognitive and social learning
    • 3. Classical Conditioning: Examples
      • Sound of a dentist’s drill: sweaty palms
      • Sight of significant other: smiling
      • Smell of a certain beverage: nausea
      • Noise of a can opener: cat comes running
      How does this happen?
    • 4. Pavlov’s Observation
      • Classical condition was discovered (accidentally) by Ivan Pavlov
      • Studied digestion in dogs
        • Presented meat powder and measured salivation
        • Dogs started salivating before food was presented
        • Why?
    • 5. Classical Conditioning
      • Components
        • Unconditioned Stimulus (US)
        • Unconditioned Response (UR)
        • Conditioned Stimulus (CS)
        • Conditioned Response (CR)
    • 6. Pavlov’s Experiment: Phase 1
      • Food (US): salivation (UR)
        • Reflexive response
      • Tone: nothing
    • 7. Pavlov’s Experiment: Phase 2
      • CS is repeatedly paired with the US
        • A tone is sounded before the food is presented
        • Acquisition
    • 8. Pavlov’s Experiment: Phase 3
      • Eventually, the CS elicits a new CR
        • Classical conditioning is complete when hearing the tone by itself causes salivation
    • 9. Examples of Classical Conditioning
      • Classical Condition at BGSU
      • Classical Condition at the Office
    • 10. Classical Conditioning
      • Can you condition salivation
    • 11. CS and US Presentation
      • Different Presentation Types
      • Delayed conditioning
        • CS occurs before and during
      • Trace conditioning
        • CS ends before presentation of the US
      • Backward conditioning
        • US comes first followed by CS
      • Simultaneous conditioning
        • CS and US at the same time
    • 12. Classical Conditioning: Conditioned Emotional Response
      • Conditioned emotional response
      • Phobias
        • Little Albert
      • Biological preparedness
      • Contrapreparedness
        • Easy to develop a snake phobia
        • Hard to develop a car door phobia
    • 13. Classical Conditioning
      • Extinction
      • Renewal
      • Spontaneous recovery
    • 14. Classical Conditioning
      • Stimulus generalization
      • Stimulus discrimination
    • 15. Higher Order Conditioning
      • Pair CS 1 with a new CS 2
      • CS 2 : CR
      • But, CR will be weaker
    • 16. Associative Learning
      • This involves an organism making a connection (or ‘association’) between a particular situation and a particular response. 
      $$$$ = Happiness $$$$ = Sex $$$$ = Love
    • 17. Dissecting Classical Conditioning
      • Learning to be afraid
        • Information registers in the brain
        • Amygdala reacts
        • Hippocampus helps store associations with context
        • Sets of neurons become linked
    • 18. Classical Conditioning Applied
      • Drug overdoses
        • Conditioned compensatory response
      • Smoking: environmental cues
      • Therapy: systematic desensitization
      • Advertising: sex appeal
      • Anticipatory nausea
      • Conditioning and the immune system
    • 19. Types of Learning
      • Classical conditioning
      • Operant conditioning
      • Cognitive and social learning
    • 20. Operant Conditioning: Examples
      • Tantrums are punished: fewer tantrums
      • Tantrums bring attention: more tantrums
      • Slot machine pays out: gamble more
      • Reward dog for sitting: dog is likely to sit
      How does this happen?
    • 21. Operant Conditioning: Skinner Box
    • 22. Example of Operant Conditioning
      • B. F. Skinner
    • 23. Operant Conditioning: Principles
      • Positive Reinforcement: Behavior is increased because it is followed by rewarding stimulus.
        • Give a compliment, get a kiss give; you begin to give more compliments.
      • Negative Reinforcement : Behavior is increased because a negative stimulus is removed.
        • Nag your roommate to clean, stop nagging when your roommate cleans; your roommate cleans more to avoid nagging.
      • Positive Punishment: Behavior is decreased because it is followed by negative stimulus.
        • You boss yells at you for arriving late; you arrive on time next time.
      • Negative Punishment: Behavior is decreased because rewarding stimulus is removed.
        • You BF/GF won’t kiss you because you smoke; you begin to smoke less.
    • 24. Beyond Basic Reinforcement
      • Generalization
      • Discrimination
        • Discriminative stimulus
      • Extinction
      • Spontaneous recovery
      • Shaping
        • Successive approximations
        • Rat Basketball
    • 25. Reinforcement Schedules
      • Continuous
      • Partial
      • Fixed interval
      • Variable interval
      • Fixed ratio
      • Variable ratio
    • 26. Classical vs. Operant Conditioning
      • Classical conditioning
        • Learned association between US and CS
        • Organism is passive
        • Responses elicited
      • Operant conditioning
        • Associate response and reinforcement
        • Organism is active
        • Responses emitted
      • Shared features
        • Extinction and spontaneous recovery
        • Generalization and discrimination
    • 27. Types of Learning
      • Classical conditioning
      • Operant conditioning
      • Cognitive and social learning
    • 28. Cognitive Learning
      • Insight learning
        • “ Aha” experience
        • Sultan the chimpanzee
    • 29. Observational Learning
      • Bandura’s social learning theory
        • Bobo doll study
        • Modeling
      • Learning from models
    • 30. Observational Learning
      • Violence on TV
        • 57% of programs contain violence
        • 73% of perpetrators receive no punishment
        • No harm to victim in almost half of the violent interactions
        • 58% of victims show no pain
        • 4% of violent programs show nonviolent solutions
      • Video games