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Chapter 4

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  • Note: Figure 6.2 on page 215 in the textbook incorrectly labels the CS as “Food”

Transcript

  • 1. Learning
  • 2. Learning
    • A relatively permanent change in behavior that results from experience
    • Types
      • Classical conditioning
      • Operant conditioning
      • Cognitive and social learning
  • 3. Classical Conditioning: Examples
    • Sound of a dentist’s drill: sweaty palms
    • Sight of significant other: smiling
    • Smell of a certain beverage: nausea
    • Noise of a can opener: cat comes running
    How does this happen?
  • 4. Pavlov’s Observation
    • Classical condition was discovered (accidentally) by Ivan Pavlov
    • Studied digestion in dogs
      • Presented meat powder and measured salivation
      • Dogs started salivating before food was presented
      • Why?
  • 5. Classical Conditioning
    • Components
      • Unconditioned Stimulus (US)
      • Unconditioned Response (UR)
      • Conditioned Stimulus (CS)
      • Conditioned Response (CR)
  • 6. Pavlov’s Experiment: Phase 1
    • Food (US): salivation (UR)
      • Reflexive response
    • Tone: nothing
  • 7. Pavlov’s Experiment: Phase 2
    • CS is repeatedly paired with the US
      • A tone is sounded before the food is presented
      • Acquisition
  • 8. Pavlov’s Experiment: Phase 3
    • Eventually, the CS elicits a new CR
      • Classical conditioning is complete when hearing the tone by itself causes salivation
  • 9. Examples of Classical Conditioning
    • Classical Condition at BGSU
    • Classical Condition at the Office
  • 10. Classical Conditioning
    • Can you condition salivation
  • 11. CS and US Presentation
    • Different Presentation Types
    • Delayed conditioning
      • CS occurs before and during
    • Trace conditioning
      • CS ends before presentation of the US
    • Backward conditioning
      • US comes first followed by CS
    • Simultaneous conditioning
      • CS and US at the same time
  • 12. Classical Conditioning: Conditioned Emotional Response
    • Conditioned emotional response
    • Phobias
      • Little Albert
    • Biological preparedness
    • Contrapreparedness
      • Easy to develop a snake phobia
      • Hard to develop a car door phobia
  • 13. Classical Conditioning
    • Extinction
    • Renewal
    • Spontaneous recovery
  • 14. Classical Conditioning
    • Stimulus generalization
    • Stimulus discrimination
  • 15. Higher Order Conditioning
    • Pair CS 1 with a new CS 2
    • CS 2 : CR
    • But, CR will be weaker
  • 16. Associative Learning
    • This involves an organism making a connection (or ‘association’) between a particular situation and a particular response. 
    $$$$ = Happiness $$$$ = Sex $$$$ = Love
  • 17. Dissecting Classical Conditioning
    • Learning to be afraid
      • Information registers in the brain
      • Amygdala reacts
      • Hippocampus helps store associations with context
      • Sets of neurons become linked
  • 18. Classical Conditioning Applied
    • Drug overdoses
      • Conditioned compensatory response
    • Smoking: environmental cues
    • Therapy: systematic desensitization
    • Advertising: sex appeal
    • Anticipatory nausea
    • Conditioning and the immune system
  • 19. Types of Learning
    • Classical conditioning
    • Operant conditioning
    • Cognitive and social learning
  • 20. Operant Conditioning: Examples
    • Tantrums are punished: fewer tantrums
    • Tantrums bring attention: more tantrums
    • Slot machine pays out: gamble more
    • Reward dog for sitting: dog is likely to sit
    How does this happen?
  • 21. Operant Conditioning: Skinner Box
  • 22. Example of Operant Conditioning
    • B. F. Skinner
  • 23. Operant Conditioning: Principles
    • Positive Reinforcement: Behavior is increased because it is followed by rewarding stimulus.
      • Give a compliment, get a kiss give; you begin to give more compliments.
    • Negative Reinforcement : Behavior is increased because a negative stimulus is removed.
      • Nag your roommate to clean, stop nagging when your roommate cleans; your roommate cleans more to avoid nagging.
    • Positive Punishment: Behavior is decreased because it is followed by negative stimulus.
      • You boss yells at you for arriving late; you arrive on time next time.
    • Negative Punishment: Behavior is decreased because rewarding stimulus is removed.
      • You BF/GF won’t kiss you because you smoke; you begin to smoke less.
  • 24. Beyond Basic Reinforcement
    • Generalization
    • Discrimination
      • Discriminative stimulus
    • Extinction
    • Spontaneous recovery
    • Shaping
      • Successive approximations
      • Rat Basketball
  • 25. Reinforcement Schedules
    • Continuous
    • Partial
    • Fixed interval
    • Variable interval
    • Fixed ratio
    • Variable ratio
  • 26. Classical vs. Operant Conditioning
    • Classical conditioning
      • Learned association between US and CS
      • Organism is passive
      • Responses elicited
    • Operant conditioning
      • Associate response and reinforcement
      • Organism is active
      • Responses emitted
    • Shared features
      • Extinction and spontaneous recovery
      • Generalization and discrimination
  • 27. Types of Learning
    • Classical conditioning
    • Operant conditioning
    • Cognitive and social learning
  • 28. Cognitive Learning
    • Insight learning
      • “ Aha” experience
      • Sultan the chimpanzee
  • 29. Observational Learning
    • Bandura’s social learning theory
      • Bobo doll study
      • Modeling
    • Learning from models
  • 30. Observational Learning
    • Violence on TV
      • 57% of programs contain violence
      • 73% of perpetrators receive no punishment
      • No harm to victim in almost half of the violent interactions
      • 58% of victims show no pain
      • 4% of violent programs show nonviolent solutions
    • Video games