Intelligence

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Intelligence

  1. 2. What is intelligence? <ul><li>Think of the smartest people you know. What makes you think they are intelligent? </li></ul>
  2. 3. The World’s Smartest: Potential and Pitfalls <ul><li>Child Genius </li></ul><ul><li>World’s Smartest Man </li></ul>
  3. 4. Intelligence <ul><li>What is intelligence? </li></ul><ul><li>Are there different types of intelligence? </li></ul><ul><li>If so, how many? </li></ul><ul><li>Can intelligence be measured? </li></ul><ul><li>Not all psychologists agree on the answers to these important questions </li></ul>
  4. 5. What Is IQ? <ul><li>IQ: Intelligence Quotient </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Score on an intelligence test </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Meaning has changed over time; also, how mutable it is and origins of between group differences. </li></ul></ul>
  5. 6. Intelligence Testing: History <ul><li>Alfred Binet and Theodore Simon </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Developed first intelligence test (1904-1911) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify students who need extra help </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Test many normal children at each age </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Compare individual’s score to “normal” scores </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mental age </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chronological age </li></ul></ul>
  6. 7. Intelligence Testing: History <ul><li>Lewis Terman (Stanford University) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Developed American version of the Binet-Simon test, called the Stanford-Binet test, for ages 2 to adult </li></ul></ul><ul><li>David Wechsler </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Performance and verbal subtests </li></ul></ul>
  7. 8. Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale
  8. 9. Calculating IQ <ul><li>William Stern </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Problem: people don’t get stupider with age </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Modern approach </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Compare individual to standardized sample </li></ul></ul>IQ = mental age chronological age x 100
  9. 10. The Normal Curve <ul><li>Population </li></ul><ul><li>Norming </li></ul><ul><li>Mean </li></ul><ul><li>Standard deviation </li></ul>
  10. 11. Reliability and Validity <ul><li>A good test must be valid and reliable </li></ul><ul><li>Reliability </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Test produces consistent results </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Validity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Test measures what it is supposed to </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The WAIS-III is highly reliable, but is it a valid measure of intelligence? </li></ul>
  11. 12. IQ and Achievement <ul><li>IQ tends to be related to achievement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>High school and college grades </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Job prestige and salary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Marital stability </li></ul></ul><ul><li>However, IQ accounts for only a small amount of the variation in job success </li></ul><ul><li>Correlation is not causation </li></ul><ul><li>Motivation, education, culture are important </li></ul>
  12. 13. One Intelligence or Many? <ul><li>Charles Spearman </li></ul><ul><ul><li>g : general factor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>s : specific factors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intelligence depends mostly on g </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Factor analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Louis Thurstone </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Separate primary mental abilities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples: verbal comprehension and spatial visualization </li></ul></ul>
  13. 14. One Intelligence or Many? <ul><li>Raymond Cattell and John Horn </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Crystallized intelligence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fluid intelligence </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Aging </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Crystallized intelligence doesn’t suffer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fluid intelligence tends to decrease </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Different aging effects support the distinction </li></ul></ul>
  14. 15. One Intelligence or Many? <ul><li>Carroll’s three-stratum model </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Top strata is g , general intelligence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Second strata includes fluid and crystallized intelligence with 6 other broad abilities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Third strata includes 69 specific abilities </li></ul></ul>
  15. 16. Emotional Intelligence (EI) <ul><li>Knowing your emotions </li></ul><ul><li>Managing your feelings </li></ul><ul><li>Self-motivation </li></ul><ul><li>Recognizing others’ emotions </li></ul><ul><li>Handling relationships </li></ul><ul><li>Women tend to have higher EI than men </li></ul>
  16. 17. Multiple Intelligences <ul><li>Howard Gardner (8 or 9 forms of intelligence) </li></ul><ul><li>1) Linguistic intelligence: The ability to use language well. </li></ul><ul><li>2) Spatial intelligence: The ability to reason well about spatial relations. </li></ul><ul><li>3) Musical intelligence: The ability to compose and understand music. </li></ul><ul><li>4) Logical-mathematical intelligence: The ability to manipulate abstract symbols. </li></ul><ul><li>5) Bodily-kinesthetic intelligence: The ability to plan and understand sequences of movements. </li></ul><ul><li>6) Intrapersonal intelligence: The ability to understand oneself. </li></ul><ul><li>7) Interpersonal intelligence: The ability to understand other people and social interactions. </li></ul><ul><li>8) Naturalist intelligence: The ability to observe carefully. </li></ul><ul><li>9) Existential intelligence: The ability to address “the big questions” about existence. </li></ul>
  17. 18. Brain Size and Intelligence <ul><li>Is bigger always better? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Depends more on size of crucial brain areas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Females tend to have smaller brains but equal IQs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Correlation between size and intelligence is small </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Correlation is not causation </li></ul></ul>
  18. 19. IQ and Speed of Processing <ul><li>Is IQ correlated with speed of information processing? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mixed results </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Many IQ subscales are time, so it is not surprising that mental processing speed would be related to IQ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Measures of neural conduction are only weakly related to intelligence </li></ul></ul>
  19. 20. Working Memory and IQ <ul><li>IQ is correlated with working memory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Many IQ subscales are involve memory, so it is not surprising that mental processing speed would be related to IQ </li></ul></ul>
  20. 21. IQ: Genes and Environment <ul><li>Adoption studies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Correlation of IQs for identical twins raised apart is higher than that for fraternal twins and nontwin siblings raised together </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>An adopted child’s IQ correlates higher with the biological mother’s IQ than with the adoptive mother’s IQ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Strong evidence of the link between genes and IQ </li></ul></ul>
  21. 22. IQ: Genes and Environment <ul><li>Effects of environment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stoolmiller (1999) estimated the effects of the environment on IQ to be 57% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Microenvironment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reaction range </li></ul></ul>
  22. 23. Group Differences in IQ <ul><li>Within-group versus between-group differences </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Genetics accounts for 72% of IQ variation in affluent environments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Genetics accounts for 15% of IQ variation in impoverished environments </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Race differences: Why? </li></ul><ul><li>Test bias </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental differences </li></ul><ul><li>Microenvironments </li></ul><ul><li>Sex differences </li></ul>
  23. 24. Boosting IQ <ul><li>The Flynn effect </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Average IQ increases 3 points every 10 years </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Explanations? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Daily life is more challenging </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Nutrition is better </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reasoning ability stressed by IQ tests has gotten better, not IQ itself </li></ul></ul></ul>
  24. 25. The Pygmalion Effect <ul><li>Rosenthal & Jacobson </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Harvard Test of Inflected Acquisition” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Random selection of children </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Self-fulfilling prophecy </li></ul></ul>
  25. 26. Educational Programs and IQ <ul><li>Head Start and similar projects </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most show only short-term IQ gains </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most gains evaporate over time </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Abecedarian Project </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Intellectual, medical, and nutritional enrichment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>5 years before kindergarten </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Long-term 5-point IQ boost </li></ul></ul>
  26. 27. Mental Retardation <ul><li>IQ less than 70 </li></ul><ul><li>4-7 million Americans </li></ul><ul><li>Islands of excellence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Kim Peek </li></ul></ul>
  27. 28. Mental Retardation <ul><li>Genetic influences </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Down syndrome </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fragile X syndrome </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Autism </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Environmental influences </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fetal alcohol syndrome </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Childhood diseases </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Exposure to environmental toxins </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inadequate medical care </li></ul></ul>
  28. 29. The Gifted <ul><li>IQ of 150-180 </li></ul><ul><li>Prodigies </li></ul>

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