Memory: Living with Yesterday
Fundamental Memory Processes <ul><li>Encoding </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Organizing and transforming incoming information to be...
Different Memory Stores <ul><li>We have three different  memory stores,  or sets of neurons that maintain information </li...
Different Memory Stores Sensory Memory Short-Term Memory Long-Term Memory Rehearsal
Sensory Memory <ul><li>Very short memory store arising from the temporary activation of perceptual areas of the brain </li...
Short-Term Memory <ul><li>Short-term memory store is the only memory store whose contents you are aware of   </li></ul><ul...
Working Memory (WM) <ul><li>WM was proposed to address the limitations of the original STM model </li></ul><ul><li>Three c...
Working Memory <ul><li>Functions of WM </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Central Executive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Controls act...
Long-Term Memory <ul><li>Long-term memory store containing the accumulated knowledge base </li></ul><ul><li>Characteristic...
Earliest Memory <ul><li>What is one of your earliest memories?  How old were you when the event took place? </li></ul><ul>...
Long-Term Memory <ul><li>Hermann Ebbinghaus (1850–1909)  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Learned lists of nonsense syllables such as...
Ebbinghaus Forgetting Curve
Serial Position Effect Percentage Recalled 100 0 50 Serial Position Early Middle Late Primacy Effect Recency Effect
The Women who Never Forgets <ul><li>Video Clip </li></ul>
Making Memories: Code <ul><li>A code   is a type of mental representation, an internal “re-presentation” of a stimulus or ...
Making Memories: Code <ul><li>Information stored as one type of code does not need to match the original input  </li></ul>...
Consolidation <ul><li>The process of forming a  relatively permanent memory trace  in LTM may take several years!  </li></...
Reconsolidation <ul><li>The simple act of recalling information can change the information. These changes are  reconsolida...
Depth of Processing <ul><li>The success of learning new information depends upon the depth at which it is processed </li><...
Depth of Processing <ul><li>An example: A word is used as a stimulus in all three questions below, each of which requires ...
Transfer Appropriate Processing <ul><li>You have better memory for information if you use the same type of processing when...
Breadth of Processing <ul><li>Elaborative encoding involves  organizing and integrating  new information   into what you a...
Flashbulb Memories <ul><li>Highly emotional and detailed memories of personal experiences </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Where were...
Types of LTM Long-Term Memory Implicit Memory Explicit Memory Semantic Memory Episodic Memory
Implicit vs. Explicit Memories <ul><li>Implicit memories </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cannot be voluntarily called to mind and ve...
Implicit Memories <ul><li>Examples </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Classically conditioned responses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Habi...
Implicit Memories: Skills <ul><li>Skills are sets of behaviors that can be applied to a variety of stimuli within a domain...
Recognition versus Recall <ul><li>Recall  is the intentional bringing to mind of explicit information (e.g., an essay test...
Encoding Specificity Hypothesis <ul><li>Memory is better when people are given same cues that were present during learning...
State-Dependent Retrieval <ul><li>Information is better remembered if recall is attempted in the same psychological state ...
What Causes Forgetting? <ul><li>Decay </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Theory that memories fade over time because relevant connectio...
Amnesia <ul><li>Retrograde amnesia disrupts previous memories  </li></ul><ul><li>Anterograde amnesia   leaves already cons...
What is episodic memory? <ul><li>Is memory like a collection of file drawers where each file contains a verbatim memory of...
The Reliability of Memory in Adults: Reconstruction versus Recall <ul><li>False memories </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Loftus and ...
How Real are Memories? <ul><li>Memory Video </li></ul><ul><li>Memory Video 2 </li></ul>
The Repressed Memory Debate <ul><li>Are they real memories that are forced out of consciousness and then later emerge, as ...
Questions about memory <ul><li>Can people be made to believe almost anything? Are they as confident in these memories as o...
Improving Memory <ul><li>Depth and breadth of processing </li></ul><ul><li>Distributed versus massed practice </li></ul><u...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Chapter 5

1,090 views
1,033 views

Published on

0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
1,090
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
21
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
26
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide
  • Note to Instructors: Before showing the graph, present students with the following list of words and plot the number recalled by serial position Word List: Ring, Tree, Rope, Wall, Pen, Nail, Roof, Monk, Nose, Lake, Pear, Lock, Wax, Store, Chair, Box, Car, Door, Rose, Wing, Clam
  • Chapter 5

    1. 1. Memory: Living with Yesterday
    2. 2. Fundamental Memory Processes <ul><li>Encoding </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Organizing and transforming incoming information to be entered into memory </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Storage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Retaining information in memory </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Retrieval </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Accessing information previously stored in memory </li></ul></ul>
    3. 3. Different Memory Stores <ul><li>We have three different memory stores, or sets of neurons that maintain information </li></ul><ul><li>Each memory store has a different… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Duration: the length of time information is maintained </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Capacity: the amount of information that is maintained </li></ul></ul>
    4. 4. Different Memory Stores Sensory Memory Short-Term Memory Long-Term Memory Rehearsal
    5. 5. Sensory Memory <ul><li>Very short memory store arising from the temporary activation of perceptual areas of the brain </li></ul><ul><li>Characteristics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Duration: Very short, typically less than 1 second </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Capacity: Large </li></ul></ul>
    6. 6. Short-Term Memory <ul><li>Short-term memory store is the only memory store whose contents you are aware of </li></ul><ul><li>Characteristics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Duration: Several seconds without rehearsal, typically 30 seconds with rehearsal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Capacity: Small, typically 5-9 items </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Processes in STM </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Chunking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Chunking example </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rehearsal </li></ul></ul>
    7. 7. Working Memory (WM) <ul><li>WM was proposed to address the limitations of the original STM model </li></ul><ul><li>Three components of WM </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Central executive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Articulatory loop </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Visuospatial sketch pad (VSSP) </li></ul></ul>
    8. 8. Working Memory <ul><li>Functions of WM </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Central Executive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Controls activity of the articulatory loop and VSSP </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Articulatory Loop </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tape recorder </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Most similar to original concept of STM </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>VSSP </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Maintains mental images, location of objects, etc. </li></ul></ul></ul>Central Executive Articulatory Loop Visuospatial Sketch Pad
    9. 9. Long-Term Memory <ul><li>Long-term memory store containing the accumulated knowledge base </li></ul><ul><li>Characteristics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Duration: Hours to years </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Capacity: Huge-possibly limitless </li></ul></ul>
    10. 10. Earliest Memory <ul><li>What is one of your earliest memories? How old were you when the event took place? </li></ul><ul><li>What is one of your earliest memories for a national (or regional) event? How old were you? </li></ul>
    11. 11. Long-Term Memory <ul><li>Hermann Ebbinghaus (1850–1909) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Learned lists of nonsense syllables such as cac, rit, and dax </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Later recalled nonsense syllables to investigate forgetting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Found that syllables early and late in a list are most likely to be recalled </li></ul></ul>
    12. 12. Ebbinghaus Forgetting Curve
    13. 13. Serial Position Effect Percentage Recalled 100 0 50 Serial Position Early Middle Late Primacy Effect Recency Effect
    14. 14. The Women who Never Forgets <ul><li>Video Clip </li></ul>
    15. 15. Making Memories: Code <ul><li>A code is a type of mental representation, an internal “re-presentation” of a stimulus or event </li></ul><ul><li>You can store information in a visual or verbal code </li></ul>vs. “Coffee and a muffin”
    16. 16. Making Memories: Code <ul><li>Information stored as one type of code does not need to match the original input </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Visual stimuli can be coded verbally </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Verbal stimuli can be coded visually </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Information stored and accessed as visual code will activate the visual processing areas of the brain (occipital lobe) </li></ul>
    17. 17. Consolidation <ul><li>The process of forming a relatively permanent memory trace in LTM may take several years! </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Consolidation of explicit memories involves the hippocampus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dynamic versus structural </li></ul></ul>
    18. 18. Reconsolidation <ul><li>The simple act of recalling information can change the information. These changes are reconsolidated , restabilized as a stored structure. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Different proteins undergo consolidation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not all activated memories go through reconsolidation </li></ul></ul>
    19. 19. Depth of Processing <ul><li>The success of learning new information depends upon the depth at which it is processed </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Shallow: based on characteristics of appearance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Moderate: based on characteristics of the sound </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Deep: based on characteristics of the meaning </li></ul></ul>
    20. 20. Depth of Processing <ul><li>An example: A word is used as a stimulus in all three questions below, each of which requires a yes/no response. The difference is in the type of processing required to answer the questions. </li></ul><ul><li>Stimulus: GAIN </li></ul><ul><li>Depth of processing questions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Shallow: Is this word printed in capital letters? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Moderate: Does this word rhyme with “train”? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Deep: Does this word fit in the following sentence? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>I have nothing to _______ by helping you. </li></ul></ul></ul>
    21. 21. Transfer Appropriate Processing <ul><li>You have better memory for information if you use the same type of processing when you try to retrieve it as you did when you originally studied it </li></ul><ul><li>An example </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Study: Does this word rhyme with “train”? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Same processing at retrieval: A word that rhymes with “brain” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Different processing at retrieval: A word that means “to attain more” </li></ul></ul>
    22. 22. Breadth of Processing <ul><li>Elaborative encoding involves organizing and integrating new information into what you already know </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rehearsal in STM is not very effective for encoding new information in LTM </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Providing context exercise </li></ul></ul></ul>
    23. 23. Flashbulb Memories <ul><li>Highly emotional and detailed memories of personal experiences </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Where were you on September 11, 2001? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Who were you with? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What were you doing? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How did you feel when you heard the news? </li></ul></ul>
    24. 24. Types of LTM Long-Term Memory Implicit Memory Explicit Memory Semantic Memory Episodic Memory
    25. 25. Implicit vs. Explicit Memories <ul><li>Implicit memories </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cannot be voluntarily called to mind and verbalized </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Include motor skills </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Explicit memories </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can be voluntarily called to mind and verbalized </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consist of both factual knowledge (semantic) and memory for personal experiences (episodic) </li></ul></ul>
    26. 26. Implicit Memories <ul><li>Examples </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Classically conditioned responses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Habits and Skills </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Priming </li></ul></ul>
    27. 27. Implicit Memories: Skills <ul><li>Skills are sets of behaviors that can be applied to a variety of stimuli within a domain, such as riding a bike </li></ul><ul><li>Initially, skills rely on controlled processing and given enough practice shift to rely on automatic processing </li></ul>
    28. 28. Recognition versus Recall <ul><li>Recall is the intentional bringing to mind of explicit information (e.g., an essay test). </li></ul><ul><li>Recognition occurs when a person matches an encoded stimulus to one that has been stored in memory. </li></ul><ul><li>Recognition tests are easier, unless choices are very similar. </li></ul>
    29. 29. Encoding Specificity Hypothesis <ul><li>Memory is better when people are given same cues that were present during learning </li></ul><ul><li>People remember better if they are in the same mood or psychological state when they try to remember information as when they first learned it. </li></ul>
    30. 30. State-Dependent Retrieval <ul><li>Information is better remembered if recall is attempted in the same psychological state as when the information was first encoded. </li></ul>
    31. 31. What Causes Forgetting? <ul><li>Decay </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Theory that memories fade over time because relevant connections between neurons are lost </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Interferences </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Theory that the disruption of the ability to remember one piece of information is caused by the presence of other information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Retroactive: New information interferes with old </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Proactive: Old information interferes with new </li></ul></ul>
    32. 32. Amnesia <ul><li>Retrograde amnesia disrupts previous memories </li></ul><ul><li>Anterograde amnesia leaves already consolidated memories intact but prevents the learning of new facts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Movie: Memento </li></ul></ul>
    33. 33. What is episodic memory? <ul><li>Is memory like a collection of file drawers where each file contains a verbatim memory of an event </li></ul><ul><li>OR </li></ul><ul><li>Is memory like a puzzle where we fill in the pieces. It contains bits and pieces of a given event, information of similar events, and semantic memories of general facts about the world. </li></ul>
    34. 34. The Reliability of Memory in Adults: Reconstruction versus Recall <ul><li>False memories </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Loftus and colleagues </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>100 participants saw a 1-minute film with a 4-second accident. 50 asked about the cars smashing and 50 asked about the cars hitting. One week later the critical question was did you see broken glass. </li></ul></ul></ul>% Reported Broken Glass
    35. 35. How Real are Memories? <ul><li>Memory Video </li></ul><ul><li>Memory Video 2 </li></ul>
    36. 36. The Repressed Memory Debate <ul><li>Are they real memories that are forced out of consciousness and then later emerge, as hypothesized by Freud, or are they false memories? </li></ul><ul><li>Sexual abuse </li></ul>
    37. 37. Questions about memory <ul><li>Can people be made to believe almost anything? Are they as confident in these memories as other memories? </li></ul><ul><li>How can false memories come about? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Suggestive interrogation, discussing old memories, ambiguous events, imagined doing, constant recall, etc. </li></ul></ul>
    38. 38. Improving Memory <ul><li>Depth and breadth of processing </li></ul><ul><li>Distributed versus massed practice </li></ul><ul><li>Mnemonic devices </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Visualize interacting objects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Acronyms </li></ul></ul>

    ×