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Chapter 11

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  • 1. Psychological Disorders: More Than Everyday Problems
  • 2. Psychological Disorder
    • The presence of a constellation of symptoms that create significant distress; impair work, school, family, relationships, or daily living; or lead to significant risk or harm
    • Symptoms
      • Cognitive
      • Emotional
      • Behavioral
  • 3. Abnormality and Insanity are not Synonymous with a Psychological Disorder
    • Insanity is a legal term. Insanity is being unable to appreciate the nature and quality of the wrongfulness of his or her acts, because of mental disease or defect.
    • Abnormality is a condition or behavior that deviates from the usual physical or psychological state. Culture and context are important in defining abnormality. Talking to the dead is normal in some cultures.
  • 4. Explaining Psychological Disorders
    • The Brain
      • Genes
      • Neurotransmitters
      • Brain Structure and Function
      • Diathesis (of the Diathesis-Stress Model)
  • 5. Explaining Abnormality
    • The Person
      • Classical and Operant Conditioning
      • Cognitive Biases
      • Emotions
  • 6. Explaining Abnormality
    • The Group
      • Culture  Conception of Disorders
      • Relationships may exacerbate certain disorders.
      • Social support can help individuals cope with disorders.
  • 7. Categorizing Disorders
    • Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders , 4 th edition ( DSM-IV )
      • Axis I: clinical disorders
      • Axis II: personality disorders and mental retardation
      • Axis III: general medical conditions
      • Axis IV: psychosocial and environmental problems
      • Axis V: global assessment of functioning
  • 8. Mood Disorders
    • Persistent or episodic disturbances in emotion that interfere with normal functioning in at least one realm of life
    • Major depressive disorder
        • Affect
        • Behavior
        • Cognition
      • More common in women
      • Most common psychological
      • disorder in the United States
  • 9. Mood Disorders
    • Dysthymia
      • Lifetime prevalence 6%
    • Suicide
      • Attempted by 30% of depressed people
  • 10. Mood Disorders
    • Bipolar disorder
      • Mania
        • Hypomania
        • Manic episode
        • Prodromal phase
      • Often cycles with depression
      • Formerly called manic depression
      • Lifetime prevalence 1%
  • 11. Explaining Mood Disorders
    • The brain
      • Hereditary factors
      • Serotonin
    • The person
      • Beck’s negative triad
      • Learned helplessness
      • Attributional style
    • The group
      • Life stressors
      • Lack of social reinforcement
  • 12. Anxiety Disorders
    • Generalized anxiety disorder
    • Panic disorder
      • Panic attacks
      • Agoraphobia
      • Locus coeruleus
      • Anxiety sensitivity
      • Lifetime prevalence 3%
  • 13. Anxiety Disorders
    • Phobias
      • Social phobia
        • Lifetime prevalence 13%
      • Specific phobia
        • Animal fears
        • Blood-injection-injury fears
        • Natural environment fears
        • Situation fears
        • Miscellaneous fears
        • Lifetime prevalence 10%
  • 14. Anxiety Disorders
    • Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD)
      • Obsession
      • Compulsion
        • Checking
        • Washing
        • Ordering
      • Lifetime prevalence 2-3%
      • Caudate nucleus
  • 15. Anxiety Disorders
    • Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)
      • Traumatic event
      • Fear and helplessness
      • Symptoms
        • Re-experience event
        • Avoidance and emotional
        • numbing
        • Heightened arousal
      • Lifetime prevalence 8% (among Americans)
      • Genetic predisposition
  • 16. Schizophrenia
    • Positive symptoms
      • Delusions
      • Hallucinations
      • Disordered behavior
      • Disorganized speech
    • Negative symptoms
      • Flat affect
      • Alogia
      • Avolition
    Lifetime prevalence 1%
  • 17. Schizophrenia
    • Four subtypes
      • Paranoid
      • Disorganized
      • Catatonic
      • Undifferentiated
  • 18. Explaining Schizophrenia
    • The brain
      • Hereditary
      • The dopamine hypothesis
    • The group
      • High expressed emotion
      • Social selection and social causation
  • 19. Dissociative Disorders
    • Dissociative amnesia
    • Dissociative fugue
    • Dissociative identity disorder
  • 20. Somatoform Disorders
    • Physical ailments with no authentic organic basis that are due to psychological factors.
    • Somatization: A history of diverse physical complaints that appear to be psychological in origin.
    • Conversion Disorder: A significant loss of physical functioning usually in a single organ system (i.e., paralysis, blindness).
    • Hypochondrias: An excessive preoccupation with one’s health and incessant worry about developing a physical illness.
  • 21. Eating Disorders
    • Anorexia nervosa
      • Body image distortion
    • Bulimia nervosa
    • Factors
      • Genetic predisposition
      • Gender
      • Cultural factors
    • Lifetime prevalence 0.5-4%
  • 22. General Diagnostic Criteria for PD’s
    • Enduring pattern of inner experience or behavior that deviates from expectations of culture, manifested in two or more of the following:
    • - cognition (perception of self, others)
      • affectivity (intensity, range of emotions)
      • interpersonal functioning
      • impulse control
    • Enduring pattern is inflexible, pervasive in many situations
  • 23. Personality Disorders
  • 24. Anti-Social Personality
  • 25. The End

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