Psychological Disorders: More Than Everyday Problems
The presence of a constellation of symptoms that create significant distress; impair work, school, family, relationships, or daily living; or lead to significant risk or harm
Abnormality and Insanity are not Synonymous with a Psychological Disorder
Insanity is a legal term. Insanity is being unable to appreciate the nature and quality of the wrongfulness of his or her acts, because of mental disease or defect.
Abnormality is a condition or behavior that deviates from the usual physical or psychological state. Culture and context are important in defining abnormality. Talking to the dead is normal in some cultures.
Explaining Psychological Disorders
Brain Structure and Function
Diathesis (of the Diathesis-Stress Model)
Classical and Operant Conditioning
Culture Conception of Disorders
Relationships may exacerbate certain disorders.
Social support can help individuals cope with disorders.
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders , 4 th edition ( DSM-IV )
Axis I: clinical disorders
Axis II: personality disorders and mental retardation
Axis III: general medical conditions
Axis IV: psychosocial and environmental problems
Axis V: global assessment of functioning
Persistent or episodic disturbances in emotion that interfere with normal functioning in at least one realm of life
Major depressive disorder
More common in women
Most common psychological
disorder in the United States
Lifetime prevalence 6%
Attempted by 30% of depressed people
Often cycles with depression
Formerly called manic depression
Lifetime prevalence 1%
Explaining Mood Disorders
Beck’s negative triad
Lack of social reinforcement
Generalized anxiety disorder
Lifetime prevalence 3%
Lifetime prevalence 13%
Natural environment fears
Lifetime prevalence 10%
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD)
Lifetime prevalence 2-3%
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)
Fear and helplessness
Avoidance and emotional
Lifetime prevalence 8% (among Americans)
Lifetime prevalence 1%
The dopamine hypothesis
High expressed emotion
Social selection and social causation
Dissociative identity disorder
Physical ailments with no authentic organic basis that are due to psychological factors.
Somatization: A history of diverse physical complaints that appear to be psychological in origin.
Conversion Disorder: A significant loss of physical functioning usually in a single organ system (i.e., paralysis, blindness).
Hypochondrias: An excessive preoccupation with one’s health and incessant worry about developing a physical illness.
Body image distortion
Lifetime prevalence 0.5-4%
General Diagnostic Criteria for PD’s
Enduring pattern of inner experience or behavior that deviates from expectations of culture, manifested in two or more of the following:
- cognition (perception of self, others)
affectivity (intensity, range of emotions)
Enduring pattern is inflexible, pervasive in many situations