Chapter 8


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  • Note: Homer Simpson is a character from the TV show “The Simpsons”
  • Note: Ned Flanders is a character from the TV show “The Simpsons”
  • Note: Stuart Smalley was an optimistic character on the TV show “Saturday Night Live”
  • Note: Stuart Smalley was an optimistic character on the TV show “Saturday Night Live”
  • Chapter 8

    1. 1. Personality: Vive la Difference!
    2. 2. What Is Personality? <ul><li>What are some terms you use to describe the personalities of others? </li></ul><ul><li>What are you trying to communicate about them? </li></ul><ul><li>Definition </li></ul><ul><li>A set of behavioral, emotional, </li></ul><ul><li>and cognitive tendencies that </li></ul><ul><li>people display over time and </li></ul><ul><li>across situations that distinguishes </li></ul><ul><li>individuals from each other. </li></ul>
    3. 3. Sigmund Freud <ul><li>Two major drives </li></ul><ul><li>Sex and Aggression </li></ul><ul><li>Psychological determinism </li></ul><ul><li>All behavior has an underlying psychological cause </li></ul>
    4. 4. Freud: Consciousness <ul><li>Conscious level </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Normal awareness </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Preconscious level </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Easily brought to consciousness </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Unconscious level </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hidden thoughts and desires </li></ul></ul>
    5. 5. Freud: Structural Model <ul><li>The id </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Unconscious level </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Present at birth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Home to sexual and aggressive drive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Governed by the </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>pleasure principle </li></ul></ul>
    6. 6. Freud: Structural Model <ul><li>The superego </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Preconscious and unconscious levels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Develops in childhood </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Home to morality and conscience </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Governed by the ego ideal </li></ul></ul>
    7. 7. Freud: Structural Model <ul><li>The ego </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Conscious, preconscious, and unconscious levels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Develops in childhood (before superego) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Acts as a referee between id and superego </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Governed by the reality principle </li></ul></ul>
    8. 8. Freud: Personality Development <ul><li>We must pass through psychosexual stages successfully </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Each stage focuses on how we receive pleasure </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Failure to pass through </li></ul><ul><li>a stage leads to fixation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In times of stress, we </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>regress to that stage </li></ul></ul>
    9. 9. Freud: Psychosexual Stages <ul><li>Oral stage (birth to 1 year) </li></ul><ul><li>Anal stage (1 to 3 years) </li></ul><ul><li>Phallic stage (3 to 6 years) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Oedipus and Electra complexes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Latency period (6 to puberty) </li></ul><ul><li>Genital stage (puberty onward) </li></ul>
    10. 10. Freud: Defense Mechanisms <ul><li>Unconscious attempts prevent unacceptable thoughts from reaching conscious awareness </li></ul>
    11. 11. Freud’s Followers: Alfred Adler <ul><li>Key concepts: </li></ul><ul><li>People strive for superiority : Perfection and self-actualization. </li></ul><ul><li>People possess an innate social interest : They are cooperative and interested in the welfare of others. </li></ul><ul><li>People possess an inferiority complex : They are motivated to overcome feelings of inferiority. </li></ul><ul><li>Birth order has a tremendous impact on personality. </li></ul>
    12. 12. Birth Order <ul><li>Does birth order influence </li></ul><ul><li>personality? Do children share </li></ul><ul><li>personality traits with other children </li></ul><ul><li>of the same birth order? </li></ul><ul><li>How could/does birth order influence personality? </li></ul><ul><li>Does gender of siblings or spacing of births influence birth order effects? </li></ul><ul><li>How different would you be if you were born in a different birth order position? </li></ul>
    13. 13. Personality and Birth Order First Borns and Success <ul><li>Agreeable </li></ul><ul><li>Extraverted </li></ul><ul><li>Open to experience </li></ul><ul><li>Less identified with family </li></ul><ul><li>Conscientious </li></ul><ul><li>Neurotic </li></ul>Later-born Middle-born First-born or only child
    14. 14. Freud’s Followers: Eric Fromm <ul><li>Key concepts: </li></ul><ul><li>Humans strive for freedom and autonomy. </li></ul><ul><li>Humans strive for connectedness with each other. </li></ul><ul><li>An imbalance between freedom/autonomy and connectedness can result maladaptive behaviors. </li></ul><ul><li>For example, excessive freedom can sometimes lead to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Authoritarianism : People become over dominant or submissive. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Destructiveness : People may no longer try to relate to others and may become destructive. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conformity : To reduce feelings of separateness they become like everyone else. </li></ul></ul>
    15. 15. Humanistic Theories <ul><li>Humanists focus on people’s positive aspects: their innate goodness, creativity, and free will </li></ul><ul><li>Reaction to Freud and behaviorist emphasis on… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dehumanization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Determinism </li></ul></ul>
    16. 16. Humanistic Theories <ul><li>Abraham Maslow </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hierarchy of needs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Self-actualization </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Carl Rogers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Unconditional positive regard </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Criticisms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Difficult to test </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Idealistic view </li></ul></ul>
    17. 17. Carl Rogers’ Person Centered Theory <ul><li>Self-concept: A collection of beliefs about one’s nature, qualities, and behavior. </li></ul><ul><li>Congruence: A correspondence between one’s self-concept and reality. </li></ul><ul><li>Incongruence: A disparity between one’s self-concept and reality. </li></ul>
    18. 18. Carl Rogers’ Person Centered Theory <ul><li>What contributes to congruence or incongruence? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Conditional Love: Affection and love are made conditional. Kids block out of self-awareness those experiences that make them feel unworthy of love. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unconditional Love: Affection and love are made unconditional. Kids do not block out of self-awareness any experiences, because they feel loved regardless. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>How does incongruence contribute to anxiety and psychological problems? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Experiences that are inconsistent with self-concept create anxiety, denial, distortions of truth, creative reinterpretation of the events. </li></ul></ul>
    19. 19. Personality: Traits or Situations? <ul><li>Trait view </li></ul><ul><ul><li>We think and behave consistently across situations </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Situationist view </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Our thoughts and behaviors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>change with the situation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Interactionist view </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Both traits and situations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>affect thoughts and behavior </li></ul></ul>
    20. 20. Trait Theories: The Big Five
    21. 21. Measuring Personality: Inventories <ul><li>Questionnaires (paper or computer) </li></ul><ul><li>Produce a personality profile </li></ul><ul><li>Easy to score and statistically analyze </li></ul><ul><li>Social desirability </li></ul>
    22. 22. Measuring Personality: Projective Tests <ul><li>Include Rorschach and TAT </li></ul><ul><li>Concerns about validity and reliability </li></ul>What do you see?
    23. 23. Biological Influences on Personality <ul><li>Do horse breeds have common personality traits? </li></ul><ul><li>Do dog breeds have common personality traits? </li></ul>
    24. 24. Temperament <ul><li>Innate tendencies to behave in certain ways </li></ul><ul><li>Correlation between temperament at infancy and adulthood </li></ul><ul><li>Shyness </li></ul><ul><li>Sensation seeking </li></ul>
    25. 25. Theories of Temperament <ul><li>Buss and Plomin’s four factors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sociability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Emotionality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Activity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Impulsivity </li></ul></ul>
    26. 26. Heritability <ul><li>Heritability of personality </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Minnesota twin studies </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Heritability of specific behaviors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>.5 for work and leisure interests </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>.44-.8 for happiness </li></ul></ul>
    27. 27. Learning and Cognitive Elements of Personality <ul><li>Learning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Conditioning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Operant learning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social learning </li></ul></ul>
    28. 28. Personality and Gender <ul><li>Female </li></ul><ul><li>More empathic </li></ul><ul><li>More neurotic </li></ul><ul><li>Greater social connectedness </li></ul><ul><li>Male </li></ul><ul><li>Greater individuality </li></ul><ul><li>More aggressive </li></ul><ul><li>More assertive </li></ul>Nature or nurture?
    29. 29. Personality and Culture <ul><li>Difficult to compare personality across cultures </li></ul><ul><li>Collectivism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Focus on the needs of the group </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chinese, African, Latin American, Arab cultures </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Individualism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Focus on needs of the individual </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>United States, Canada, Great Britain, Australia </li></ul></ul>