What are Emotions? What Do They Communicate to Us? What Would Life Be Like Without Them?
A psychological state with four components:
A positive or negative subjective experience
The activation of specific mental processes, such as cognitive appraisal, and stored information
Characteristic overt behavior
Overt Behavior: Name the Emotion Happy Sad Fear Anger Surprise Disgust
Are Emotions Universal?
Does the Fore tribe in New Guinea identify Caucasian facial expressions?
Cognitive Aspects of Emotions
Scenario: You trip over someone’s feet getting on the bus.
You think: He did it on purpose. How do you feel?
You think: I am clumsy. How do you feel?
You think: Poor guy doesn’t look like he is doing so well. How do you feel?
You think: That hottie wants to get my attention. How do you feel?
How do Feelings Influence the Body?
Separate But Equal Emotions
Positive and negative emotions can coexist
Approach emotions (left frontal)
Love and happiness
Withdrawal emotions (right frontal )
Fear and disgust
Theories of Emotion: James-Lange Theory Event You feel emotions after your body reacts Physiological arousal Interpret physiological changes Emotion
Theories of Emotion: Cannon-Bard Theory Event The event causes both arousal and emotion Physiological arousal Emotion
Theories of Emotion: Cognitive Theory Event Your arousal and the context combine to form emotions Physiological arousal Interpret based on context Emotion
Theories of Emotion: Emerging Synthesis Event Different emotions rely on different combinations of body and brain reactions and interpretation Brain and body reactions Memories and interpretation Emotion
Facial Feedback Hypothesis
We experience emotions in part as a result of the positions of our facial muscles
Smiling makes you feel happier
Frowning makes you feel sadder
The Schacter-Singer Experiment
Participants are told they are receiving a vitamin supplement
They actually receive epinephrine
The Schacter-Singer Experiment Emotional response depended on context
Cultural display rules
How do you detect lies?
What do you want in life more than anything else?
The requirements and desires that lead animals (including humans) to behave in a particular way at a particular time and place
Theories of Motivation: Instincts
Organisms have inherited tendencies to produce organized and unalterable responses to particular stimuli
Human behaviors are more complex
and flexible than instincts can explain
Theories of Motivation: Drive
In response to internal imbalances, drives push you to reduce the imbalance
Example: Freudian Theory
Sex and aggression
Theories of Motivation: Arousal Theory
We seek intermediate levels of stimulation: when understimulated, we seek arousal; when overstimulated, we seek less stimulation
Difficult to define levels of stimulation and how they vary
The Yerkes-Dodson Law Performance Level High Intermediate Low Arousal Level Low High Intermediate
Theories of Motivation: Incentives
We are motivated toward particular goals in anticipation of a reward