Chapter 7
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Chapter 7






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Chapter 7 Chapter 7 Presentation Transcript

  • Emotion and Motivation: Feeling and Striving
  • What are Emotions? What Do They Communicate to Us? What Would Life Be Like Without Them?
  • Emotion
    • A psychological state with four components:
      • A positive or negative subjective experience
      • The activation of specific mental processes, such as cognitive appraisal, and stored information
      • Bodily arousal
      • Characteristic overt behavior
  • Overt Behavior: Name the Emotion Happy Sad Fear Anger Surprise Disgust
  • Are Emotions Universal?
    • Does the Fore tribe in New Guinea identify Caucasian facial expressions?
  • Cognitive Aspects of Emotions
    • Scenario: You trip over someone’s feet getting on the bus.
    • You think: He did it on purpose. How do you feel?
    • You think: I am clumsy. How do you feel?
    • You think: Poor guy doesn’t look like he is doing so well. How do you feel?
    • You think: That hottie wants to get my attention. How do you feel?
  • How do Feelings Influence the Body?
  • Separate But Equal Emotions
    • Positive and negative emotions can coexist
    • Approach emotions (left frontal)
      • Love and happiness
    • Withdrawal emotions (right frontal )
      • Fear and disgust
  • Theories of Emotion: James-Lange Theory Event You feel emotions after your body reacts Physiological arousal Interpret physiological changes Emotion
  • Theories of Emotion: Cannon-Bard Theory Event The event causes both arousal and emotion Physiological arousal Emotion
  • Theories of Emotion: Cognitive Theory Event Your arousal and the context combine to form emotions Physiological arousal Interpret based on context Emotion
  • Theories of Emotion: Emerging Synthesis Event Different emotions rely on different combinations of body and brain reactions and interpretation Brain and body reactions Memories and interpretation Emotion
  • Facial Feedback Hypothesis
    • We experience emotions in part as a result of the positions of our facial muscles
      • Smiling makes you feel happier
      • Frowning makes you feel sadder
  • The Schacter-Singer Experiment
    • Participants are told they are receiving a vitamin supplement
    • They actually receive epinephrine
  • The Schacter-Singer Experiment Emotional response depended on context
  • Expressing Emotion
    • Cultural display rules
    • Body language
      • Nonverbal communication
      • Gender differences
  • Lie Detection
    • How do you detect lies?
    • Lie detection
      • Polygraph
      • Video
  • Motivation
    • What do you want in life more than anything else?
  • Motivation
    • The requirements and desires that lead animals (including humans) to behave in a particular way at a particular time and place
  • Theories of Motivation: Instincts
    • Organisms have inherited tendencies to produce organized and unalterable responses to particular stimuli
    • Weakness
      • Human behaviors are more complex
      • and flexible than instincts can explain
    • Evolutionary psychology
      • Hard-wired goals
  • Theories of Motivation: Drive
    • In response to internal imbalances, drives push you to reduce the imbalance
    • Homeostasis
    • Example: Freudian Theory
      • Sex and aggression
  • Theories of Motivation: Arousal Theory
    • We seek intermediate levels of stimulation: when understimulated, we seek arousal; when overstimulated, we seek less stimulation
    • Weakness
      • Difficult to define levels of stimulation and how they vary
  • The Yerkes-Dodson Law Performance Level High Intermediate Low Arousal Level Low High Intermediate
  • Theories of Motivation: Incentives
    • We are motivated toward particular goals in anticipation of a reward
  • Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Physiological needs Safety needs Belongingness needs Esteem needs Cognitive needs Aesthetic needs Self- actualization needs
  • Culture and Achievement
    • Individualist culture
    • Collectivist culture
  • Do We only Eat when We are Hungry?
    • Metabolism
      • set of chemical reactions that occur in living organisms to maintain life
    • Stomach and intestine
      • Communicates fullness to brain
    • Role of the brain
      • Lateral Hypothalamus:
        • Destroyed = no hunger
        • Stimulated = hunger
      • Ventromedial hypothalamus
        • Destroyed = hunger
        • Stimulated = no hunger
  • Eating Environment
    • Learned preferences and habits
    • Food-related cues
    • Stress, arousal, and eating
  • Why Do People Have Sex?
    • Reproductive sex
      • 2% of sex acts
    • Recreational sex
      • 98% of sex acts
    • Difficult to study
      • Sampling bias
      • Response bias
  • Sexual Response Cycle
    • Excitement
    • Plateau
    • Orgasm
    • Resolution
      • Refractory period (men)
  • Sexual Stimuli
    • Visual stimuli
      • Are men more visually aroused?
      • Are women aroused by both
      • male and female stimuli?
    • Olfactory stimuli
      • What is the most important
      • sensory stimuli that can turn
      • women off sexually?
  • Sexual Orientation
    • Heterosexual
    • Homosexual
    • Bisexual
    • Gay: Biology vs. Environment
    • Biological differences
      • Hypothalamus
      • Genes
    • Environment
    • Video