WHO GOVERNS? Wilson Chapter 22 Mr. Cambou - AP Government
Objectives <ul><li>Provide definitions and examples of the four different types of policy outputs of government. </li></ul...
Four Kinds of Politics-  How Costs and Benefits are Distributed <ul><li>Majoritarian </li></ul><ul><li>Interest Group  </l...
Majoritarian Politics The Case for War in Iraq <ul><li>Public Opinion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Discernible public opinion- wh...
Majoritarian Politics The Case for War in Iraq <ul><li>3. Worldview </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ideological debate institutional...
Interest Group Politics <ul><li>Costs and benefits concentrated on distinct, relatively small groups </li></ul><ul><ul><li...
Client Politics <ul><li>Costs spread throughout and benefits concentrated on distinct, relatively small groups </li></ul><...
Entrepreneurial Politics <ul><li>Need skilled leadership that attracts media attention </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rely on Symbo...
Theories of Political Power <ul><li>No one theory accurately captures all aspects of our political power system. </li></ul...
Marxist Theory <ul><li>Definition: Ownership of means of production shapes  politics and determines political outcomes. </...
Elitist Theory <ul><li>Definition: Single elite with common background makes  all policy, influenced only weakly by public...
Bureaucratic Theory <ul><li>Definition: Government by large organizations  made up of appointed career officials. </li></u...
Pluralist Theory <ul><li>Definition: Policies come from conflict, bargaining  among organizations representing affected  g...
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Who Governs

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Who Governs

  1. 1. WHO GOVERNS? Wilson Chapter 22 Mr. Cambou - AP Government
  2. 2. Objectives <ul><li>Provide definitions and examples of the four different types of policy outputs of government. </li></ul><ul><li>Explain the function of public opinion in the four types of policy outputs and indicate under what circumstances the public is most influential and least influential. </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the Marxist, elitist, bureaucratic, and pluralist theories. Indicate the advantages and disadvantages of each theory. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Four Kinds of Politics- How Costs and Benefits are Distributed <ul><li>Majoritarian </li></ul><ul><li>Interest Group </li></ul><ul><li>Client </li></ul><ul><li>Entrepreneurial </li></ul>
  4. 4. Majoritarian Politics The Case for War in Iraq <ul><li>Public Opinion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Discernible public opinion- what was it? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Why did politicians need to follow public opinion? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Who led the development of this policy? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ideological Debate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Was there debate before going to war? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What is the Debate like now? </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Majoritarian Politics The Case for War in Iraq <ul><li>3. Worldview </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ideological debate institutionalizes new world view: Preemptive war as a national security policy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Loose constraint of public opinion allowed elite leaders great freedom. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Did a crisis alter the worldview on preemptive war? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Media alters worldview </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Changing perceptions of consequences and causes of the problem. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>4. Political Parties </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Perceived benefit of greater national security allowed for strong initial bipartisan support </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>As costs increased (and an election approached) the scrutiny over the policy increased. </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Interest Group Politics <ul><li>Costs and benefits concentrated on distinct, relatively small groups </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stem cell research </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Result of changing economic and social cleavages. </li></ul><ul><li>Parties are usually weakened the political battle - too much internal conflict </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Religious ideals vs. political capital </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Legislative battle is just the beginning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Court battles, media influence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Presidential power lessened in this new phase </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Client Politics <ul><li>Costs spread throughout and benefits concentrated on distinct, relatively small groups </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Veterans Benefits </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Low visibility- may change with shift in economic conditions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Party role is relatively small- request is generally unopposed </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Trouble with access for client group </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Self-appointed representative takes up the cause (benefits for the poor) </li></ul><ul><li>Service through government agencies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lawsuits have reduced client politics - smoking suits have hindered tobacco subsidies </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Entrepreneurial Politics <ul><li>Need skilled leadership that attracts media attention </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rely on Symbols </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Proposition 13 (Howard Jarvis); Campaign Finance (John McCain) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Party role is relatively small- Media drives the promotion </li></ul><ul><li>Agencies are targeted by the interest groups affected by policy </li></ul><ul><li>Courts play a role in deciding outcomes </li></ul>
  9. 9. Theories of Political Power <ul><li>No one theory accurately captures all aspects of our political power system. </li></ul><ul><li>Four competing theories we will examine: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Marxist theory </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Elitist Theory </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bureaucratic Theory </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pluralist Theory </li></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Marxist Theory <ul><li>Definition: Ownership of means of production shapes politics and determines political outcomes. </li></ul><ul><li>Foreign Policy, Defense policy and economic regulation seen as primary examples. </li></ul><ul><li>Client relationships seen as key in arguments, but not all center on economics (Civil Rights) </li></ul><ul><li>Public and elite opinions limit client politics (National security concerns supercede airline concerns post 9/11) </li></ul><ul><li>Agenda is much more open to allow more access- not just about economics anymore! </li></ul><ul><li>Redistribution of political resources without redistribution of wealth. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Elitist Theory <ul><li>Definition: Single elite with common background makes all policy, influenced only weakly by public opinion. </li></ul><ul><li>Client politics affirms this contention </li></ul><ul><li>Elites don’t always seek self-serving policies </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Activist federal judiciary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Foreign policy elites </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Career politicians (isn’t that ironic? Don’t you think?) </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Bureaucratic Theory <ul><li>Definition: Government by large organizations made up of appointed career officials. </li></ul><ul><li>Where do they draw their power? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Laws that are not precise - need bureaucratic discretion. (Examples?) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>How has Congress tried to address this phenomenon? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>More precise direction on legislation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>How has the agenda helped to increase bureaucratic power? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bureaucracy serves as the guide in determining what is necessary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Is this power dangerous? Is it in line with democratic ideals? </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Pluralist Theory <ul><li>Definition: Policies come from conflict, bargaining among organizations representing affected groups. </li></ul><ul><li>How does Interest group politics supports this? How does it not? </li></ul><ul><li>Why don’t groups organize in client politics? </li></ul><ul><li>Why is pluralism more applicable to entrepreneurial politics? </li></ul>
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