The President


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The President

  1. 1. Chapter 12- The Presidency Keep on Leadin’ in the Free World
  2. 2. Objectives: Our Analysis <ul><li>Sketch the evolution of the presidency from 1789 to present </li></ul><ul><li>List and describe the various offices that make up the office of the President. </li></ul><ul><li>Enumerate and discuss the facets of presidential power </li></ul>
  3. 3. Evolution of the Presidency <ul><li>Constitutional Convention </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Alternatives: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Executive council with veto powers over presidential action </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>President with life term </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Concerns </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fear of an excessively strong President </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fear over no term limits (no 22nd Amendment until 1951) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fear of weak President who would be tool of the senate </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>“ Make him too weak: the legislature will usurp his powers. Make him too strong: he will usurp the legislature.” - Gouverneur Morris </li></ul>
  4. 4. Evolution of the Presidency <ul><li>Constitutional Convention </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Election of the President </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Congress elects </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Direct Election </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Too much power to large states </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Demagogue might appeal to masses </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Illiteracy was common </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Poor communication </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Electoral College </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Balance of power among states </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Small states overrepresented if election goes to House (Why is this?) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Evolution of the Presidency <ul><li>The Early Presidents (Washington to Monroe) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All but Adams served two terms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Legitimacy of office secured - All were active in Independence movement and prominent politicians </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Rule of fitness” - only well-respected and most qualified </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Modest powers </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Evolution of the Presidency <ul><li>Andrew Jackson and the Expansion of the President (1829-1837) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Spoils system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>12 vetoes (more than predecessors combined) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ignored Supreme Court order on Indian Removal </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Evolution of the Presidency <ul><li>Congress Strikes Back 1837-1932 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reestablished power after Jackson </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> left office </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flashes of Presidential Power (Lincoln </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>during the Civil War; TR; Wilson) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Viewed as an obstacle to Congress </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(ie Grover Cleveland’s 414 vetoes) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Strong Personality or Crisis brought about Presidential power </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Evolution of the Presidency <ul><li>Emergence of the Presidency </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Crisis brings about increased presidential power </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>WWII and increased powers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cold War necessitates presidential initiative and leadership </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1970s Congress tried to reassert itself with limited results (we will explore this later in greater depth) </li></ul></ul>VS.
  9. 9. Growth of Presidential Power <ul><li>Why has Presidential Power increased? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Constitution hasn’t changed, but non-constitutional sources of power have arisen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Unity of office </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Character and Personality </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Complexity of society </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Congress delegates authority to Executive </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mass Media </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>US as Superpower </li></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Growth of Presidential Power <ul><li>3 Rules of thumb for maximizing Presidential Power </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Move it or lose it.” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Avoid Details” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Cabinets don’t get much done; people do.” </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Overview of the Presidency <ul><li>Constitutional Requirements </li></ul><ul><li>Natural Born citizen (sorry Ah-nuld!) </li></ul><ul><li>35 years of age </li></ul><ul><li>14 year residency </li></ul><ul><li>What are the “unwritten” requirements? </li></ul>
  12. 12. Overview of the Presidency <ul><li>Presidential Character </li></ul><ul><li>Barber’s characterization falls under two fields: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Active vs. Passive </li></ul><ul><li>Positive vs. Negative </li></ul><ul><li>Which combo would be the least effective? Why ? </li></ul>
  13. 13. Overview of the Presidency <ul><li>Term: </li></ul><ul><li>Four years </li></ul><ul><li>Maximum of two elected terms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Washington set the precedent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>22nd Amendment (1951) due to Republican Congress’ concern over future FDRs. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What is the maximum amount of time a person can serve as President? </li></ul>
  14. 14. Overview of the Presidency <ul><li>Compensation: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Set by Congress (cannot be raised or lowered during the President’s term) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2001- Raise from $200,000 to $400,000 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Perks” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Serious chance to make some money after leaving office: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Speaking fees </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Book deals (scandals help) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Serve on Corporate Boards </li></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Overview of the Presidency <ul><li>Succession </li></ul><ul><li>25th Amendment (1967) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>VP succeeds President (death, resignation, impeachment and removal) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>VP nominates new VP and Congress confirms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If both are unable to serve: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Speaker; Pres Pro Tempore; Sec. Of State; Sec. Of Treasury; Sec of Defense; and other cabinet members in order of the creation of their offices. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Overview of the Presidency <ul><li>Succession </li></ul><ul><li>* The Vice President </li></ul><ul><li>* Speaker of the House </li></ul><ul><li>* President pro tempore of the Senate </li></ul><ul><li>* Secretary of State </li></ul><ul><li>* Secretary of the Treasury </li></ul><ul><li>* Secretary of Defense </li></ul><ul><li>* Attorney General </li></ul><ul><li>* Secretary of the Interior </li></ul><ul><li>* Secretary of Agriculture </li></ul><ul><li>* Secretary of Commerce </li></ul><ul><li>* Secretary of Labor </li></ul><ul><li>* Secretary of Health and Human Services </li></ul><ul><li>* Secretary of Housing and Urban Development </li></ul><ul><li>* Secretary of Transportation </li></ul><ul><li>* Secretary of Energy </li></ul><ul><li>* Secretary of Education </li></ul><ul><li>* Secretary of Veterans Affairs </li></ul><ul><li>* Secretary of Homeland Security </li></ul>
  17. 17. Overview of the Presidency <ul><li>Presidential Disability </li></ul><ul><li>President informs Congress of disability and VP becomes ACTING PRESIDENT </li></ul><ul><li>If Prez cannot inform Congress, VP and majority of cabinet secretaries can go to Congress </li></ul><ul><li>Prez informs Congress of his intent to return. (Congress decides disputes) </li></ul>
  18. 18. Presidential Support Staff <ul><li>Presidential Support Staff </li></ul><ul><li>Today, White House Staff alone is over 500 </li></ul><ul><li>Staff may be in awe of president and avoid disagreeing with Prez. </li></ul><ul><li>Staff can control who gets access to the Prez./ can isolate a president </li></ul>
  19. 19. Presidential Support Staff <ul><li>EXECUTIVE OFFICE OF THE PREZ </li></ul><ul><ul><li>White House Office/ White House Staff </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>OMB (Office of Management and Budget) prepares annual budget and reviews federal programs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NSC (National Security Council) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CEA (Council of Economic Advisors) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cabinet </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Presidential Support Staff <ul><li>White House Office </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Immediate staff of the President (close proximity to the Prez.) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rule of Propinquity: power is wielded by people in the room where decisions are made </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Jockey for influence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Appointments usually do not require Senate approval </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Presidents seek people who will be loyal </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Overview of the Presidency
  22. 22. Presidential Support Staff <ul><li>Forms of Organization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Circular Method (FDR): Prez is the hub and assistants are the spokes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Allows more access but at the expense of efficiency (Prez if overwhelmed) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pyramid Method (Reagan): Assistants report through a hierarchy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Presidents are more efficient but often kept in the dark. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Overview of the Presidency <ul><li>Presidential Support Staff </li></ul><ul><li>Forms of Organization </li></ul>Prez PREZ
  24. 24. Presidential Support Staff <ul><li>Cabinet </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Heads of Cabinet Depts. (15) And 5 others who hold “cabinet rank”- OMB Director, CIA Director, WH Counselor, UN Ambassador, US trade Rep </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Appointed by Prez w/ Senate consent </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Presidential Support Staff
  26. 26. Presidential Support Staff <ul><li>Cabinet </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cabinet’s role has not expanded: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Divided loyalties of Cabinet members </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Conflicting goals of Prez and Cabinet </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Limited influence of Prez over Cabinet (90% of people w/in depts. are Civil Service employees. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Presidential Support Staff <ul><li>Cabinet </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Officials constitutionally banned from holding Congressional office </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Making the Presidency Safe and Effective <ul><li>Checks that weaken the Prez: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Traditional = Congress and Courts (United States v. Nixon) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New ones: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Congressional leaders </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cabinet </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bureaucrats </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Parties </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Interest groups </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Media </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Independent counsel </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Holds on nominees by Senate </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Divided Govt. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  29. 29. Making the Presidency Safe and Effective <ul><li>Strengthening the President: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Revitalize Political Parties </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Revise Constitutional Restraints </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>6 year term </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2 or 3 person presidency </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Allow Prez to dissolve Congress </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Members of Congress in Exec. Branch </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No more split tickets </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Line-item veto was tried, but deemed unconstitutional in 1998 </li></ul></ul></ul>
  31. 31. Tension Between Prez and Congress