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Information and Background on Federalism

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  1. 1. FEDERALISM Wilson Chapter 3 AP Government - Mr. Cambou
  2. 2. Objectives <ul><li>Explain the differences between federal and centralized systems of government </li></ul><ul><li>Show how competing political interests at the Const. Convention led to the adoption of a federal system that was not clearly defined. </li></ul><ul><li>Outline the ways in which national and state powers have been interpreted by the courts </li></ul><ul><li>Distinguish between categorical and block grants </li></ul>
  3. 3. Federalism <ul><li>Definition: </li></ul><ul><li>Constitutional division of power between the national government and state governments. Both get their power from a Constitution, not each other. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Reasons for Federalism in US <ul><li>Unitary system (central govt. not Constitution delegates power) was undesirable </li></ul><ul><li>Confederate structure undesirable </li></ul><ul><li>Allows for unity, but not uniformity (allows differences among the states) </li></ul><ul><li>More suitable to large nation </li></ul><ul><li>More likely to check tyranny (ie Shay’s rebellion) </li></ul><ul><li>Encourages experimentation </li></ul><ul><li>Keeps govt. closer to the people - multiple points of access for citizens </li></ul>
  5. 5. The Founding <ul><li>A bold plan to protect personal liberty </li></ul><ul><ul><li>People control the government and will balance power between the state and federal govts. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>10th amendment limits power of the fed govt. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Elastic Clause - Article 1 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>- All laws “necessary and proper” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- Emphasized national supremacy- used to grant new powers (change the Constitution) </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Historical Developments <ul><li>Supreme Court speaks: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>McCulloch vs. Maryland (1819) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>National bank was necessary and proper </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>States cannot tax a federal bank - national powers were supreme </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nullification - states can declare acts of federal government unconstitutional. Court ruled against this. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Dual Federalism (through 1937) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>States and Federal govt. remained supreme in their own spheres </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Powers and policies were distinct to their layer of government - like a layered cake </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Historical Developments <ul><li>Cooperative (“Marble Cake”) federalism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Since 1937 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mingling of responsibilities; share powers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>National government powers should be interpreted broadly </li></ul></ul><ul><li>New Federalism (Nixon, Reagan) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Power back to states </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use of Block grants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>States’ exert more control - Initiative, Referendum and Recall; Police powers </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Structure of American Federalism <ul><li>National Powers (Delegated) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Expressed or enumerated </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Implied (importance of elastic clause) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inherent (necessary as a national govt.) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>State Powers (Reserved- Amendment 10) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>- Establishing voting requirements, running elections, licensing professionals) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Concurrent Powers (Shared) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>- taxing, borrowing, establishing court system) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>National Supremacy (Article 6) </li></ul><ul><li>Obligations of National Government </li></ul><ul><li>Obligations of State Government </li></ul>
  9. 9. Federal- State Relationships <ul><li>P. Diddy summed it up best - its all about the Benjamins! </li></ul><ul><li>Growth of federal government has necessitated the funding of local government for the purpose of administering federally funded programs </li></ul><ul><li>- Dollar amounts have consistently risen over the last several decades, though the % of federal expenditures have varied </li></ul>
  10. 10. Federal-State Relations <ul><li>Why was federal money so attractive to the states? </li></ul><ul><li>- Availability and political gains </li></ul><ul><li>Purposes of Federal grants: </li></ul><ul><li>Reduces federal bureaucracy </li></ul><ul><li>Supplies local govt. with funds </li></ul><ul><li>Establishes federal standards </li></ul><ul><li>Equalizes reources among rich and poor states </li></ul>
  11. 11. Types of Grants <ul><li>CATEGORICAL- For specific programs (roads, housing, airports) </li></ul><ul><li>BLOCK - Granted to support a collection of general programs = more state leeway in spending (104th Congress favored) </li></ul><ul><li>REVENUE SHARING - General grants of money to states to spend as they please (Nixon and Reagan favored) </li></ul>
  12. 12. CASE STUDY: Welfare Reform of 1996 <ul><li>Welfare block grants replaced welfare categorical grants </li></ul><ul><li>Federal “strings” attached (very few): </li></ul><ul><li>No funds to recipients who had not worked in past 2 years </li></ul><ul><li>No funds to recipients who had received fed. $ for more than 5 years </li></ul><ul><li>States must spend at least 75% of what they had previously spent on welfare </li></ul>
  13. 13. MANDATES <ul><li>A federal order imposed upon states: </li></ul><ul><li>Americans with disabilities act </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental Acts </li></ul><ul><li>Individuals with Disabilities in Education Act </li></ul><ul><li>Purpose is to meet a goal of the federal govt. </li></ul>
  14. 14. MANDATES <ul><li>Impact on States: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Financial burden (unfunded mandates) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Federal intrusiveness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Heavy penalties </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Federal blackmail (don’t comply in one area, funds withheld in another) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Excessive power of Federal government </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Devolution Revolution <ul><li>Push by the Republican Congress of 1994 (104th) to pass federal functions on to the states. </li></ul><ul><li>Central to the “Contract with America” </li></ul><ul><li>Promised: </li></ul><ul><li>-restrictions on unfunded mandates </li></ul><ul><li>more block grants </li></ul><ul><li>Continue the “New Federalism” of Nixon that was favored by Reagan, and the Bushes. </li></ul>
  16. 16. The Results <ul><li>Clinton declared the “end of big government” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Welfare Reform bill </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Repeal of 55 mph speed limit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Restrictions on unfunded mandates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More block grants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bush Tax cuts </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. However, <ul><li>National criteria for state-issued drivers’ licenses </li></ul><ul><li>National registration of mutual funds </li></ul><ul><li>More national food safety standards </li></ul><ul><li>More national crimes </li></ul><ul><li>Patriot Act </li></ul><ul><li>No Child Left Behind </li></ul>
  18. 18. Finally <ul><li>What is better? </li></ul><ul><li>Decentralist (states’ rights approach) </li></ul><ul><li>Vs. </li></ul><ul><li>Centralist (nationalist approach) </li></ul>