Congress
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×
 

Congress

on

  • 7,499 views

 

Statistics

Views

Total Views
7,499
Slideshare-icon Views on SlideShare
7,465
Embed Views
34

Actions

Likes
1
Downloads
135
Comments
0

2 Embeds 34

http://whsocialstudies.com 31
http://www.slideshare.net 3

Accessibility

Categories

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Microsoft PowerPoint

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment

    Congress Congress Presentation Transcript

    • AP American Government Chapter 11 Congress
    • Chapter 11
      • Article I: The Legislative Branch
      • “ All legislative Powers herein granted shall be vested in a Congress of the United States, which shall consist of a Senate, and a House of Representatives .”
    • Core of the Analysis
      • The power of Congress is a function of its capacity to effectively represent important groups and forces in society.
      • During the first hundred years of U.S. government, Congress was the dominant institution; with the beginning of the New Deal, the presidency became the more accessible, dominant branch of U.S. government.
      • Before a bill can become a law, it must pass through the legislative process, a complex set of organizations and procedures in Congress.
      • The legislative process is driven by six sets of political forces: political parties, committees, staffs, caucuses, rules of lawmaking, and the president.
    • Founders’ Intentions
      • Most powerful branch of government
      • Representative assembly
      • Accessible to the people
      • Bicameral legislature addresses concerns over:
        • Excessive power in single institution
        • Mob rule
        • Manner of representation
      • Congress would be the dominant branch of government
    • Centralization vs. Decentralization
      • Argument of Centralization vs. Decentralization
        • Allow congress to act decisively and quickly or protect individual members’ interests
      • 1889-1910 Strong centralization
        • Speaker Thomas Reed exercised power
        • Joseph Cannon followed and continued strong centralization
      • 1910- Era of decentralization
        • Members vote without fear of repercussions
    • Centralization vs. Decentralization
      • Decentralization led to an increase in the power of Committee chairs and the seniority system to select committee chairs
      • Further decentralization in the 70s- increased subcommittees lead to more power of subcommittee chairs
      • Senate is naturally a more decentralized and informal body
    • Congress in Its Original Form
      • Dominated government
      • Speakers of the House were more important than the president
      • Epitome of government (declare war and collect taxes)
    • Powers of Congress
      • Expressed Powers
        • Levy taxes
        • Borrow money
        • Regulate foreign, interstate and Indian commerce (broadly interpreted by Congress)
        • Naturalization and Bankruptcy laws
        • Coin money
        • Establish weights and measures
        • Post offices
        • Create courts inferior to Supreme Court
        • Define and Punish piracy
        • Declare War
        • Raise and support an army and navy
    • Powers of Congress
      • Implied Powers
        • Based upon elastic clause
        • Examples: national banks, paper money, air force, CIA
        • Strict v. loose constructionist approaches
    • Powers of Congress
      • Institutional Powers (those that relate to the system of checks and balances)
        • Senate ratifies treaties with 2/3 votes
        • Senate approves presidential appointments with majority vote
        • House votes for impeachment (majority vote needed), Senate tries impeachment cases (2/3 vote to convict)
        • House elects President if no electoral majority, Senate elects VP
        • Propose constitutional amendments w/ 2/3 vote in both houses.
        • Each can seat, unseat and punish (e.g. censure) own members
    • Powers of Congress
      • Powers Denied
        • Passing ex post facto laws
        • Passing bills of attainder
        • Suspending habeas corpus except in cases of rebellion or invasion
    • Overview of Congress
      • Terms and Sessions
      • Term of Congress lasts two years
      • Term begins Jan. 3 of every odd numbered year
      • Terms numbered consecutively (105th from 1997-1999; 106th ‘99-01; 107th ‘01-03; 108th ‘03-05)
      • Adjournment: end of a term; date must be agreed upon by both houses
      • Two regular sessions per term. Periodic recesses (not to be confused w/ adjournment)
    • Overview of Congress- House
      • Qualifications
      • 25 years of age
      • Citizenship for 7 years
      • Residency in state
    • Overview of Congress- House
      • Size
        • Determined by Congress: 435 since 1911
        • Members elected by districts, not states
        • Reps per state determined by population
        • Demographics show increase in Sun Belt and decrease in Frost Belt representations
    • Overview of Congress- House
      • Terms -
      • Two years
      • Entire body up for reelection every two years = a more responsive body to be kept in check by the Senate
      • Terms limits passed by some states, but ruled unconstitutional by the Supreme Court (US Term Limits v Thornton, 1995)
    • Overview of Congress- House
      • House Structure
        • Centralized and organized
        • Less debate
        • Restricted access to the floor
        • Individual members have limited power
      • Functions
        • Originate all revenue bills
        • Agents of local interests
    • Overview of Congress -Senate
      • Requirements
        • Thirty years of age
        • Nine years of citizenship
        • Six-year term
    • Overview of Congress -Senate
      • Size
      • 100 members, chosen in statewide elections
      • Smaller size makes it a more informal body with less need than the House for as many strict procedures.
      • Terms
      • 6 years. 1/3 up for reelection every two years
      • Staggered terms allow for a more stable body.
    • Overview of Congress -Senate Structure
      • Regional and national constituencies
      • Represent elites (Senators appointed by state legislatures until Seventeenth Amendment) (1913)
      • More deliberative: no time limits on speaking
      • Filibuster: speak as long as they want to oppose an action
    • Overview of Congress
      • Compensation
      • Members set their own salary
      • 27th amendment prevents raises from taking effect until the following term
      • Perks: staff, travel allowance, office space, franking privilege , insurance
      • Cannot be arrested/ detained while going to or from a session of Congress.
    • Overview of Congress
      • Membership
      • Overrepresentation of white, male, Protestant, upper-middle class lawyers in their 50s
      • But…
      • Many more women and minorities in recent years
      • No reason why above group cannot represent the poor and afflicted
      • People in the end elect these representatives
    • table 5.1
    • Idea of Representation
      • House member’s responsibilities
        • Speaks or acts on behalf of someone
        • In 1789, represented 30,000 constituents
        • Today, 600,000 persons in each constituency
    • Representative's role
      • Instrument for policy
      • Perform constituency service (intervene on behalf of citizens with INS, EPA, or help with other needs—capitol tours, tickets to viewing gallery)
      • Patronage activities provide direct service to constituents
        • Reward contributors
      • Re-election motives Congress
      • Distributive tendency : pork-barrel legislation funds local work projects to bring federal money to the states
    • process box 5. 1
    • figure 5.1
    • Incumbency Advantage
      • Reelection rate in House 90%
      • Reelection rate in Senate 80%
      • Relatively few seats are seriously contested
      • “ Permanent Congress”
      • Election of 1994 (104th) more a call against Dems than incumbents
      • But… retirements open up a lot of seats each year
    • Incumbency Advantage
      • Specific Advantages
      • Franking privilege
      • Staffers
      • Patronage
      • Name recognition
      • Casework
      • Money, esp. from PACs
    • Incumbency Advantage
      • Special Advantage: Gerrymandering
      • 1. Reapportionment: Redistribution of 435 seats in the House on the basis of changes in the state populations.
      • a. Reps per state determined by pop.
      • b. Census conducted every 10 yrs.
      • c. Census shows populations changes and seats are allotted based upon new numbers
    • Incumbency Advantage
      • Special Advantage: Gerrymandering
      • 2. Redistricting : When seats change, district boundaries must change.
      • a. Party controlling state legislature redraws district boundaries.
      • b. Gerrymandering = redrawing boundaries to favor party in power
    • Incumbency Advantage
      • Special Advantage: Gerrymandering
      • Origins of term:
      • 19th century Governor Elbridge Gerry redrew lines himself with some having such strange shapes, they looked like salamanders.
      • Party in Power keeps power by:
      • “ Packing”- concentrate opposition population in few districts
      • “ Cracking”- Disperse opp. Party throughout state to dilute their impact
    • Incumbency Advantage
      • Special Advantage: Gerrymandering
      • Effects of Gerrymandering
      • Party in power, STAYS in power
      • Safe seats are created
      • Odd-shaped districts
      • “Majority-Minority” districts created by racial gerrymandering
    • Incumbency Advantage
      • Redistricting Requirements:
      • Districts must be as near equal in population as possible
        • a. Baker v. Carr, 1962 “one man, one vote” principle applied to state leg districts to correct overrepresentation of rural areas.
      • District lines must be contiguous
      • Racial gerrymandering is prohibited (Shaw v. Reno, 1993). Race may not be the primary factor in drawing district lines (Miller v. Johnson, 1995)
    • Organization of Congress
      • Party leadership fosters:
        • cooperation
        • coalitions
        • compromise
    • Organization of House http://www.house. gov /
      • A majority in the House elects Speaker of the House
        • Majority party determines agendas/roles
        • Speaker of the House controls the calendar, sets the legislative agenda, and has the power to recognize speakers
        • Majority whip maintains party unity, polls members on bills and develops party support for legislative goals
        • Committee chairs (all are majority party)
        • Representatives seek assignments that allow them to influence decisions important to their districts
        • Minority leader is senior leader of the minority party
        • Minority whip maintains party unity and promotes minority party's agenda
    • figure 5.2
    • Organization of Senate http://www.senate. gov /
      • Majority leader controls calendar, sets agenda, has power to recognize speakers
      • Majority whip maintains party unity and promotes majority party's agenda
      • Minority leader is senior leader of the minority party
      • Minority whip maintains party unity and promotes minority party's agenda
      • Vice president presides over important votes, can break a tie
      • President Pro Tempore (3rd in line for Prez); presides in absence of VP
    • figure 5.3
    • Committee System
      • Core of Congress where bills are considered
        • Committees allow members to specialize in policy areas and become experts
      • Congressional division of labor achieved through committees
        • Committee chairs act as "gatekeepers“
      • Standing committees have fixed membership, officers, rules, staff, and offices
        • Majority party sets rules and chooses officers
        • Majority party always has most committee members
        • Jurisdiction is defined by subject matter of legislation
    • Committee System
      • Committee functions:
        • Handle legislation
        • Conduct investigation of exec. Branch on an as-needed basis
        • Conduct oversight of exec. Branch agencies on an ongoing basis.
    • Committee System
      • Selection of members:
        • Importance of getting on the right committee (where you can best represent your constituents)
        • Assigned by Steering committee or Committee on Committees
        • Party with majority in Congress has majority of seats on committee
      • Selection of Committee chairs
        • Secret ballot in party caucus or conference of leaders.
        • Seniority rule generally followed.
        • Advantages of seniority rules: experience, stability, expertise.
    • Committee System
      • Standing committees are the permanent committees of Congress. They have both legislative and oversight powers.
      • House Standing:
        • Rules (most powerful of all)
        • Ways and means (deals with tax bills)
        • Appropriations (spending)
        • Budget
        • Armed Services
    • Committee System
      • Standing committees are the permanent committees of Congress. They have both legislative and oversight powers.
      • Senate Standing:
        • Finance (tax bills)
        • Appropriations (spending)
        • Budget
        • Foreign Relations (prestigious) Treaty and ambassador work
        • Judiciary: screen judicial nominees
    • Committee System
      • Conference committees:
        • Temporary committees comprised of members of both houses
        • Develop compromise language for a bill when versions differ
        • After conference committee sends bill back - no amendments are allowed and bill is generally passed
        • “ Third House of Congress”
      • Other Committees
      • Select: temporary purpose in House
      • Joint: Both houses for temporary purpose
    • Committee System
      • Party Committees in Congress:
      • Senate:
      • Assigning party members to standing committees:
        • Dems use Steering committee
        • Reps use Committee on Committees
      • House:
      • Assigning party members to standing committees:
        • Dems use Steering and Policy Committee
        • Reps use Committee on Committees
    • table 5.2
    • Examples
      • Farm subsidy bills go to Agriculture Committee
      • Highway bills go to Transportation Committee
      • GI Bill benefits go to Veteran’s Affairs Committee
      • House Rules Committee decides the order in which bills come up for a vote and determine the rules that govern length of debate and opportunity for amendments
    • House committees parallel the executive branch
      • Committee on judiciary checks Justice Department
      • Committee on commerce checks Commerce Department
      • Committee on national security checks Defense Department
      • 95 percent of the 10,000 bills introduced die in committee
      • Committee chair is from majority party
        • Schedules hearings
        • Selects subcommittee members
        • Appoints committee staff
    • Influences: Cooperation in Congress
      • Members act for various reasons
        • Politicians are eager to please major campaign contributors
        • Politicians pursue their own agendas
          • When acting as delegates, members do the public's bidding
          • When acting as trustees, members do what they think is right
      • Because of a diversity of interests, legislative consensus is required for bills to become laws
      • Cooperation forms from political parties, regional, or ideological commonalities
      • Cooperation also results from "back-scratching“
    • Problems Underlying Cooperation
      • Various policy preferences prevent a dominant view on issues
      • All legislators are equal and therefore cannot succumb to more powerful legislators
      • Ambiguous information on how to solve problems—legislators vote for policies not outcomes
    • figure 5.4
    • Distributive Tendency in Congress
      • Legislators advocate their constituents' interests to secure appropriations for their districts
      • During campaigns legislators use federal funding to advertise that they are successful for their districts
      • Since all legislators are subject to re-election, there is a tendency for legislators to support others' pet projects in exchange for their support (logrolling)
    • Congress Members Rely on Staff System
      • Second in importance to committees
      • Authorized budget
      • Two offices (local and Washington, DC)
      • Handle casework of federal matters
    • Tasks of Congressperson’s Staff
      • Handle constituency requests
      • Deal with legislative details
      • Formulate and draft proposals
      • Negotiate with lobbyists
      • Influence legislative process
    • Other influences on Members
      • Constituent convictions
      • Members convictions
      • Other members
      • Staff
      • Interest groups, lobbies, PACs
      • Congressional Caucuses (black, Hispanic, etc)
      • President
      • Campaign contributors
      • Media as “watchdog”
      • Party membership of member
      • “ Iron triangles” ( Congressional committee, related federal agency and impacted interest group)
    • Caucus System
      • Groups of legislators who share opinions, interests, or social characteristics;
      • Congressional interest group
        • Examples
          • Steel Caucus
          • Caucus for Women’s Issues
          • Black Caucus
    • Legislation -Public Bills
      • Concern class action
      • 10,000 introduced per term
      • Five-hundred pass per term
    • Legislation -Private Bills
      • Relate to actions on behalf of and relating to a named individual
      • Twenty per term
        • Immigration matters
        • Claims against the government
    • Legislation - Resolutions
      • Used to extend existing legislation
      • Simple
      • Pass in only one House depending whom the bill deals with
    • Legislation -Concurrent
      • Expression of opinions by Congress and requires approval of both Houses
      • Not sent to the president
      • Does not have the force of law
    • Legislation - Executive Documents
      • Treaty ratification (two-thirds of Senate)
      • Confirmation of major appointees, judges, and military officers (simple majority)
      • Reorganization of the executive branch
    • After bill is introduced, it is sent to the appropriate committee for deliberation
      • Referred to subcommittee
      • Hearings
      • Testimony
      • Determine whether it should go to full committee for consideration
      • Committee
        • May accept, hold hearings, amend or the bill may die in committee
    • If legislation leaves committee, goes to the Rules Committee
      • Closed rule : severe time limits on debate
      • Open rule : no time limits
        • Open rule can allow time for damaging debate and amendments
      • Calendar controls the agenda of the Congress
      • Floor debate : •opportunity for a member to make a position public
        • Controlled by the Speaker or Senate Majority Leader
        • Most time for debate is allotted to bill’s sponsor and its leading opponent
      • What can end a filibuster? (three-fifths majority or sixty votes: cloture)
    • If the Bill survives, the Process Continues
      • Senate: non-germane or rider allowed
      • House: limited by the rule that accompanies the bill
      • Voting by roll call
      • Conference Committee
        • Reconciles two versions of a similar bill
        • Usually a compromise
      • President receives the bill and can do three things
      • Sign the bill into law
        • Veto: return bill within ten days with explanation
        • Pocket veto: president takes no action before Congress adjourns
    • process box 5.2
    • Additional Congressional Powers
      • Oversight
          • Oversee or supervise Executive Actions; broad area or problem
        • Examples
          • Intelligence oversight: ensures military does not collect intelligence on civilians
          • Uncover illegal activities: Iran-Contra
    • Additional Congressional Powers
      • Advice and Consent
        • Treaties require two-thirds majority in the Senate
        • Appointments require a majority
    • Efforts to level the field when campaigning for office
      • Limit amount of money that can be spent on campaigns
      • House campaigns every two years
        • Average $500,000
        • Always campaigning
      • Senate every six years
        • Average $10 million
      • Increase access to ballots
    • The Case against Congress
      • Congress is inefficient
      • Congress is unrepresentative
      • Congress is unethical
      • Congress is irresponsible
        • Example: Gramm-Rudman-Hollings Bill (instituted mandatory budget cuts since Congress could not balance the budget)
      • Congress delegates its power to Executive