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  • AP_Unit2

    1. 1. AP Government UNIT 2 Political Beliefs and Behaviors
    2. 2. POLITICAL CULTURE <ul><li>Definition </li></ul><ul><li>10 Characteristics of American Culture </li></ul>DON’T TOUCH!
    3. 3. IDEOLOGY and PUBLIC POLICY <ul><li>Background </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ideology Definition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ideologues </li></ul></ul>
    4. 4. IDEOLOGY and PUBLIC POLICY <ul><li>2. Liberalism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Classical vs. Modern </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Peak 1930-1970 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Decline 1980-1990 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Neoliberals </li></ul></ul>GOVERNMENT
    5. 5. IDEOLOGY and PUBLIC POLICY <ul><li>Conservatism </li></ul><ul><li>A. = Classical liberalism </li></ul><ul><li>B. Resurgence since 1970s </li></ul><ul><li>C. Neoconservatives/ New Right </li></ul><ul><li>1. Social </li></ul><ul><li>2. Economic </li></ul><ul><li>3. Foreign Policy </li></ul>Government
    6. 6. IDEOLOGY and PUBLIC POLICY <ul><li>Socialism </li></ul><ul><li>Libertarianism </li></ul>
    7. 7. PUBLIC OPINION <ul><li>Types of Publics </li></ul><ul><li>Who is paying attention? </li></ul>
    8. 8. PUBLIC OPINION <ul><li>II. Types of Opinions </li></ul>Death Penalty Presidential Popularity Military Draft Abortion Gun Control Balanced Budget Building Codes ERA
    9. 9. PUBLIC OPINION <ul><li>Measurements of Public Opinion </li></ul><ul><li>a. Election- but why? </li></ul><ul><li>b. Straw polls- inaccurate </li></ul><ul><li>c. Scientific polls </li></ul><ul><li>1. Construction </li></ul><ul><li>2. Use </li></ul><ul><li>3. Abuse of Polls </li></ul>
    10. 10. PUBLIC OPINION <ul><li>IV. Public Awareness and Interest in Politics </li></ul>
    11. 11. POLITICAL SOCIALIZATION <ul><li>Definition </li></ul><ul><li>8 Agents of socialization </li></ul>
    12. 12. VOTER TURNOUT <ul><li>Historical qualifications for suffrage </li></ul>21
    13. 13. VOTER TURNOUT <ul><li>II. Current Qualifications (set by states) </li></ul><ul><li>A. Citizenship </li></ul><ul><li>B. Residency </li></ul><ul><li>C. Age </li></ul><ul><li>D. Registration (except ND) </li></ul>
    14. 14. VOTER TURNOUT <ul><li>III. Voter turnout in the US vs. other countries </li></ul><ul><li>A. Turnout in various elections… </li></ul><ul><li>B. Why the other Western nations have higher turnouts- around 90%: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Penalties </li></ul><ul><li>2. Multi-party system </li></ul><ul><li>3. Registration </li></ul>
    15. 15. VOTER TURNOUT <ul><li>IV. Reasons for low voter turnout </li></ul><ul><li>A. Institutional barriers </li></ul><ul><li>1. Registration - Motor Voter Registration Act </li></ul><ul><li>2. Long Ballot </li></ul><ul><li>3. Type of Election </li></ul><ul><li>4. Absentee Ballot </li></ul><ul><li>5. Ballot Fatigue - too many elections </li></ul><ul><li>6. Young people </li></ul><ul><li>B. 4 Political Reasons: efficacy, candidates, no competition, mobilization efforts </li></ul>
    16. 16. VOTER TURNOUT <ul><li>V. Who Votes? </li></ul><ul><li>A. Characteristics of likely voters- EDUCATED,older, white, wealthy </li></ul><ul><li>B. Does low turnout matter? YES and NO </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
    17. 17. FACTORS AFFECTING VOTER BEHAVIOR <ul><li>7 Factors </li></ul><ul><li>Geography </li></ul><ul><li>Strong Presidential candidates (coattail effect) </li></ul><ul><li>Timing (realignment, midterms) </li></ul><ul><li>Party Affiliation (strongest) </li></ul><ul><li>Demographics </li></ul>
    18. 18. FACTORS AFFECTING VOTER BEHAVIOR <ul><li>Demographics Continued: </li></ul><ul><li>A. Sex </li></ul><ul><li>B. Race </li></ul><ul><li>C. Social Class </li></ul><ul><li>D. Religion </li></ul>I like Cheney! Hillary ‘08 VS. Rep. Dems
    19. 19. FACTORS AFFECTING VOTER BEHAVIOR <ul><li>6. Issues </li></ul><ul><li>Retrospective - are you better off today than you were four years ago </li></ul><ul><li>vs. </li></ul><ul><li> Prospective - looking ahead at how a candidate will handle something </li></ul><ul><li>7. Candidate Appeal </li></ul><ul><li>8. Residency in Florida (in 2000 1,000 people voted for all 10 prez candidates, 700 voted for both Bush and Gore, 3600 voted for all 10 except Bush, 700 voted for all 10 except Gore </li></ul>
    20. 20. CONGRESSIONAL ELECTIONS <ul><li>Intro </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Schedule </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Terms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Term limits = No-No </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Single Member Districts </li></ul></ul>
    21. 21. CONGRESSIONAL ELECTIONS <ul><li>2. Primary Elections </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Progressive Reform </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Types </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Closed - registered only </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Open- pick party primary </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Blanket- free love </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    22. 22. CONGRESSIONAL ELECTIONS <ul><li>Factors Affecting Outcome of Congressional Elections </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A. Incumbency- the greatest influence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>= Permanent congress </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Incumbency Advantage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Franking Privilege </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Staff </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Patronage </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Gerrymandering = safe seats </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Committee Service </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Name recognition: Duncan Hunter vs. Whats His Name </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Casework </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pork Barrel </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ </li></ul></ul></ul>Frank the mailman Contains work for the district
    23. 23. CONGRESSIONAL ELECTIONS <ul><li>Factors Affecting Outcome of Congressional Elections Continued </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Type of Elections </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Incumbent Campaign </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Weak Challenger </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Strong Challenger </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Open Seat- think of musical chairs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>House vs Senate </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Midterms = bad for President </li></ul></ul></ul>Somebody fill me ! I have no chance Oh, my poor opponent! I can do it!
    24. 24. CONGRESSIONAL ELECTIONS <ul><li>Factors Affecting Outcome of Congressional Elections Continued </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Coattail Effect </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Media </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Party Affiliation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Issues- scandals anyone? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Campaign Consultants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Technology </li></ul></ul>
    26. 26. PATH TO THE PRESIDENCY <ul><li>Pros of Nominating System </li></ul><ul><li>Cons of Nominating System </li></ul>
    27. 27. CAMPAIGN FINANCE <ul><li>Vocab to start our discussion: </li></ul><ul><li>Soft money- money given to party for party building purposes </li></ul><ul><li>Hard Money- money given to candidate for election </li></ul><ul><li>Independent expenditure- unlimited funds spent by individual. Actions cannot be coordinated with candidate or campaign </li></ul><ul><li>Disclosure- reporting sources of funding </li></ul><ul><li>Contribution- bills you drop on a candidate </li></ul><ul><li>PACs- Political Action Committee ( a group affiliated with an organization whose job is to work on campaigns and support candidates) </li></ul>
    28. 28. CAMPAIGN FINANCE <ul><li>Federal Election Campaign Acts 1971-74 </li></ul><ul><li>Main Provisions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>DISCLOSURE </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SUBSIDIES </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>LIMITATIONS- $1000 per candidate, per election , $5000 for PAC contributions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>BUCKLEY V. VALEO (1976) and its interpretation of FECA </li></ul>
    29. 29. CAMPAIGN FINANCE <ul><li>Campaign Reform Act of 2002 (McCain- Feingold Bill) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bans Soft Money to the National Parties </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Limits amount and use of soft money to the state parties ($10,000 and GOTV) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Doubles individual “hard money” donations ($2000 and tied to inflation) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No change for PACs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unions and Corporations banned from soft money contributions </li></ul></ul>
    30. 30. CAMPAIGN FINANCE <ul><li>Ways around McCain-Feingold </li></ul>
    31. 31. CAMPAIGN FINANCE <ul><li>ANALYSIS- points to ponder </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No subsidies for congressional candidates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No limits on Congressional spending </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No limits on Independent Expenditures (527 groups like swift boat veterans) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lack of subsidies for Minor Party prez candidates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Candidate-centered campaigns- whose power suffers as a result of this? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Growth of PACs- their $ goes to incumbents </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Presidential candidates can opt out of funds and not abide by spending limits Hi MR CAMBOU!!! </li></ul></ul>