Seven Myths of the spanish conquestPresentation Transcript
-Acknowledgements-CH.1 A handful of Achievements-Ch. 3 Invisible Warriors-CH.5 The Lost Words of La Malinche-Epilogue
Acknowledgments• The bo ok is based on a seven part structure because the 7 has symbolic significance in the history of the Americas (Native Americans and Spanish).• Las siete partidas was the name of the medieval law code which was the basis of Spanish law.• There are rumored to be 7 cities of gold in Cibola.
Introduction, "The Lost Words ofBernal Diaz” Each of the seven chapters articulates a myth about the Conquest. It also presents historical interpretations and places the myths in the context of alternative sources of evidence. Restall explains that the book Is about the pictures painted by men like Diaz and the pictures painted by historians and others who followed Diaz across the Atlantic and the “new” world. He notes that the Spaniards wrote about the Americas through their own concepts and language. He also notes that as a historian, it is impossible to be completely objective. Bernal Diaz was lost for words when he saw Tenochitlan.
Chapter 1. "A Handful of Adventurers:The Myth of Exceptional Men". This chapter talks about how there were actually more than just a few great men who aided in the European discovery and the conquest of the Americas. It is not possible that the powerful empires of the Aztecs and Incas were able to be destroyed so easily and quickly by only a few hundred Spaniards. The myth is that the Spaniards greatness was what allowed them to conquer the Americas. The truth is that many Native Americans and Africans helped out in the conquest. Bernal Diaz’s description of the conquest was juat a big probanza. Probanza’s, which were proofs of merit, supply information on Conquest mythology. The Spaniards wanted to be imperial- they wanted to bring both civilization and Christianity to the Americas. It is important to note that the way in which Cortes conquered the Americas was a copy of previous conquests from Spain and Portugal.
Chapter 3. "Invisible Warriors: The Myth of the White There were many Indians who helped the Spaniards inConquistador". their conquest. The Tlaxcalans decided that they wanted to form an anti- Mexica alliance with Cortes after they saw how great the Spanish weapons were. According to the conquest historian Ross Hassig, 200,000 native allies helped out in the last fight in the Mexica capital. Groups like Huejotzingo wanted to aid the Spaniards in order to promote their own interests fight their own rivals. At one point, natives became slaves who were forced to help in the conquest but this act was soon banned by the Spanish crown. Many Africans arrived as slaves and were used to help in the conquest. Two great black conquistadors were Juan Valiente and Juan Garrido.
The Lost Words of La Malinche There was both communication and miscommunication in the meeting of Cortes and Moctezuma. They were both friendly and had mutual respect, but Moctezuma’s way of lordly address in which he was very polite speech was misinterpreted and a type of submission. The Mexica culture emphasized the language of polite speech, but the Spanish were obviously not familiar with this culture so they misinterpreted it. The reason why Cortes was able to communicate with the natives was because of Marina who was his interpreter and concubine. Marina/ Malinche along with 19 other women were given to Cortes and his men as part of a peace agreement. She learned Ycatec and later learned Spanish, so she became invalable. To many, Malinche became a symbol of betrayal of the Mexic a people since she helped the Spanish conquer them. Although some things may have been misunderstood , Through the sword and their spread throughout the region, the Spanish sent a clear message that they were there to conquer.
Epilogue, "Cuauhtemocs Betrayal" Cortes led an invasion to the City of Itzamkanac which had been invaded by Spaniards Africans and Nahuas. Mexican emperor Cuauhtemoc, died hanging in a tree after Cortes had brought him to start a revolution. Cuauhtemoc’s death is told ifrom 4 different perspectives. Matthew Restall tells each of the four perspectives, but it is hard to tell who betrayed Cuauhtemoc. History is left to the reader to interpret what took place.