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This presentation was given by Kirsty Lingstadt and Peter McKeague of RCAHMS at a one-day seminar, Towards a Collaborative Strategy for sector information management (TACOS) in York on 14 May …

This presentation was given by Kirsty Lingstadt and Peter McKeague of RCAHMS at a one-day seminar, Towards a Collaborative Strategy for sector information management (TACOS) in York on 14 May 2014.

http://www.archaeologists.net/groups/imsig/tacos

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  • ‘Team Scotland’ approach to delivery of the StrategyAnd underlying all of this that Culture has an intrinsic value not just an economic value and is therefore of importance to .... Talbot Rice Speech ref
  • Scotland’s historic environment is intrinsic to our sense of place and strong cultural identity. It is diverse, but collectively it tells the story of our shared past. It is important in its own terms, providing key evidence of the lives and creativity of our forebears. It also helps to create a sense of place, identity and physical and social wellbeing, and benefits the economy, civic participation, tourism and lifelong learning. It is dynamic and ever-changing and that dynamism lies at the heartof the need for sound principles of stewardship. For the people of Scotland to continue to gain real, and increasing, benefits from their historicenvironment, it needs to be understood, valued and championed.Ultimately, we will know we have succeeded when that value is widely realised and we have broadened the profile and people’s understanding of whatheritage can deliver socially, environmentally and economically. We know some actions will require a long term approach. That is why the Strategy hasbeen framed as a ten year plan.
  • Scotland’s historic environment is understood and valued, cared for and protected, enjoyed and enhanced. It is at the heart of a flourishing and sustainable Scotland and will be passed on with pride to benefit future generations.This vision is underpinned by a series of high level aims, together with the rationale for their importance and an outline for delivery.AIMSWe will realise this shared vision by:• Understanding – By investigating and recording our historic environment to continually develop our knowledge, understanding and interpretation of our past and how best to conserve, sustain and present it. Proper understanding of the value means having the right information to assist decision making, authoratative, up-to date and open• Protecting – By caring for and protecting the historic environment, ensuring that we can both enjoy and benefit from it and conserve and enhance it for the enjoyment and benefit of future generations.• Valuing – By sharing and celebrating the richness and significance of our historic environment, enabling us to enjoy the fascinating and inspirational diversity of our heritage.WHY?We will do this because it will help ensure that the cultural, social, environmentaland economic value of our heritage continues to make a major contribution tothe nation’s wellbeing.HOW?require the range of bodies, groups and individuals with an interest in, or responsibility for, aspects of the historic environment to work together towards a common purpose. Effective use must be made of the skills, experience and resources of all parties, to realise the valuesDecision making informed based on evidence - robust data at the heart of decision makingLeadership and collaboration - resourcesSkills and capacity Mainstreaming
  • In order to share and celebrate our historic environment as widely as possible we must continue to build on our successes to date and find new and innovativeways of interpreting and presenting our heritage to the people of Scotland and beyond. Encouraging wide-ranging access and adopting a broad learning and engagement approach to growing understanding and promoting active participation will help deliver this key aim. We want to see people value the historic environment as an important community resource.Access and interpretation can only be developed on knowledge and the dissemination of that knowledge therefore, we need to look at new ways in which we can provide information and also how we deliver that information.Knowledge helps create understanding and appreciationMeasuring Success - Developing a strong evidence base for such a diverse sector is challenging. Although individual organisations may construct their own performancemeasurement frameworks, there is an opportunity to enhance the evidence base for the sector as a whole by developing a transparent and consistent basis to assess resources, activities, outcomes and ultimately, impacts.
  • The SHED Strategy is a sector-wide initiative to improve access to information about Scotland’s historic environment. The key aim is to work in partnership in order to protect, promote and enhance Scotland’s historic environment through coordinated activity to improve the data, and the associated systems and processes. The partnership includes government agencies, non-government organisations (NGOs), and academic institutions, but also supports the public’s involvement in the care and enjoyment of the historic environment through better records. The initiative is an example of a complicated and diverse sector coming together to agree and deliver benefits to a wide audience.
  • ‘the physical evidence for human activity that connects people with place, linked with the associations we can see, feel and understand’ (Scottish Government 2014,2). 1.3 Scotland’s Historic Environment Data plays a key role in a wide range of activities. From providing people with evidence for planning decisions, to helping school children understand and value their environment, SHED provides a living record for all. 1.4 This Strategy echoes the significance that society places on cultural heritage. SHED helps us interpret our surroundings, gives us a place to record our knowledge, and to share it with others. 1.5 The aims and objectives of the Strategy result from collecting and analysing views from creators, curators and users of data. The Strategy looks to address those issues and the wider needs of current and future users of the digital dataScotland’s Historic Environment Data is the digital information about our physical historic environment plus related information on archives, objects and intangible cultural heritage. Together this informs the management, study and interpretation of the historic environment from the earliest times to the present day. 2.3 The purpose of the Strategy is to enhance Scotland’s Historic Environment Data, to address long-standing issues highlighted by users and curators, and to ensure the long-term sustainability
  • The implementation will be overseen by the SHED Programme Board with representation of data curators and users from the sector. The constituency of that Board will be actively broadened, especially to include representatives of the built heritage conservation sector, museums, archives and education
  • The implementation will be overseen by the SHED Programme Board with representation of data curators and users from the sector. The constituency of that Board will be actively broadened, especially to include representatives of the built heritage conservation sector, museums, archives and educatio
  • We already make information available through Web Portals but we need to make data much more accessible. This is particularly true for spatial information which is, or rather should be covered by the Infrastructure for Spatial Information in the European Community – or more simply INSPIRE.INSPIRE provides a clear mandate for public bodies to share environmental data through a Spatial Data Infrastructure (SDI).Data curators are required to provide discovery services, WMS, WFS and Transposition Services for a range of datasets organised into 34 themes in 3 annexes to an agreed roadmap – or timetable. In Scotland, both the Royal Commission and Historic Scotland have published metadata and view services for their key datasets as part of the Protected Places theme. However, the status of undesignated assets is less clear in INSPIRE with the UK Location advice to treat Historic Environment Records as part of the annex III Buildings theme – even though this is an ill fit for much of the data.
  • As a sector we have already been collaborating online very effectively for over 10 years through the OASIS application hosted by the ADS. Through an online form, OASIS provides a standards driven environment managing information flow from those creating knowledge through fieldwork –including site reports, to relevant data managers in local authority HERs and the national agencies (EH and RCAHMS) who validate and can update their records. After national sign-off information is passed to the ADS for inclusion on ArchSearch with the grey literature also discoverable through the ADS Library. Data collected through OASIS can provide the attribution for project boundary files that may be uploaded through the system. Launched in England ten years ago and adopted in Scotland in 2007, there are now over 40,000 records working their way through the system with over 22,000 records signed off by English Heritage and over 2,000 for Scotland. Of the nearly 26,000 reports available through the Grey literature library 17,875 were delivered through OASIS. They are visible and freely accessible to all. Without OASIS, many would be lost.
  • But the data gathered through OASIS works harder. In England, the OASIS form gathers metadata essential to document geophysical survey and published it through the ADS Geophysical Survey database and provides metadata to accompany digital archive uploaded through ADSEasy. In Scotland web services from the ADS help prepopulate the Online Radiocarbon application form developed in partnership with RCAHMS and Historic Scotland to capture the information flow for radiocarbon determinations commissioned by Historic Scotland. They will also provide information to Archaeology Scotland’s online Discovery and Excavation in Scotland. In both cases recycling information already gathered to help reduce data entry duplication.
  • For the marine environment the Marine Environmental Data and Information Network uses OAI-PMH (The Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting) to collect metadata from relevant records in OASIS and publishes these through their own metadata registry which in turn feeds into Data.gov.uk.Aggregated information gathered through the radiocarbon and DES are aggregated into the national record - Canmore . and metadata and view services for the spatial resource are then published through the SSDI, with a copy to MEDIN, The SSDI data is then harvested by data.gov.uk and onto the INSPIRE Registry.
  • In June 2013 the G8 countries adopted the Open Data Charter which acknowledges the enormous potential that Open Data offers to create more accountable, efficient, responsive and effective governments and businesses, and to spur economic growth. The UK Government also has identified 13 Public Data Principles Public data will be published in reusable, machine readable form Public Data should be released under the same open licence which enables free reuse, INCLUDING commercial reuse Public Data should be available in any lawful way and that Public bodies should actively encourage its reuse.Basically data should be discoverable (through data.gov.uk), it should be useable (both in machine readable form and for the human eye) and it should be understandable (machine readable formats will help here but we need to document the nuances of the data for remote users).
  • Many here will be familiar with Sir Tim Berners Lee five star open data - but how do we measure up? Taking RCAHMS data as an example, Our Historic Landuse Assessment data is available to browse online and may be downloaded – though only under a non-commercial end-user licence as it shares IPR with the OS map background.Otherwise most of the rest of our data is available online though the exact terms of use are not explicitly clear. It certainly does not conform to one star data.2 star data We currently do not make digital files in proprietary format available for download.3 star data limited data is available for download from PastMap under an OGL acknowledging OS IPR 4 star data – currently none5 star data Thee key vocabularies published through the SENESCHAL project on the heritagedata.org website.
  • Even without drivers for Open Data, we are facing an exponential growth and availability of data – in both structured and unstructured formats but we still keep data in silos. Open Data should present fantastic opportunities for innovative solutions to long standing challenges of breaking down data silos hiding behind excuses that the data is wrong – Citizen science helps refine and update our dataIt is complex – then we need to do more to help people understand its limitationsYou are giving away my research – the research is knowledge built on the data There is a cost involved – we place a low threshold on heritage
  • By way of illustration, the Lewis Chessmen provide a good example of the potential offered by 5 Star Linked Open Data. Found in 1831, information about the findspot may be found on Canmore whilst the collection of 78 chess pieces, 14 tablemen and a buckle were dispersed between the National Museum in Edinburgh and the British Museum. The NMS website presents an accessible summary of the hoard, whilst the British Museum has published detailed catalogue records for each piece it curates. Significantly the British Museum has published the collection data in the W3C open data standard, RDF, allowing it to join and relate to a growing body of linked data published by organisations around the world. Potentially, the data could be mashed-up with other Llnked Data for innovative uses beyond the immediate remit of the host institution. So Linked data records for the chessmen could be mased up with Canmore data to present an holistic record of the findspot and each item.
  • Or take the British and Irish archaeological bibliography – an online database of over 200,000 bibliographic references- with over 1,500 new records added each year - covering all aspects of archaeology and the historic environment . It complements and enhances the information in record systems in the national agencies and LA HERs.Publishing as Linked Open Data would address resourcing and potential duplication of efforts amongst national and local curators, with reciprocal data potentially adding value to Biab records.
  • So we already have a strong record in collaboration – through OASIS and PastMapwhilst innovative projects such as Scotland Rural Past or Britain from Above can tap the knowledge of Citizen Science to enhance our records.and external drivers can encourage further collaboration across the sector to deliver something that is much greater than the sum of its parts.

Transcript

  • 1. Tomorrow’s Standards Together Tomorrow’s Standards Together Kirsty Lingstadt and Peter McKeague Kirsty.Lingstadt@rcahms.gov.uk Peter.mckeague@rcahms.gov.uk Towards a Collaborative Strategy for sector information management (TACOS) University of York 14 May 2014
  • 2. Scotland’s historic environment plays an important part in all our lives. It provides a link to the past and helps shape our cultural identity. Therefore, it is crucial that we ensure that it is managed, promoted and preserved for the generations to come. Stewart Maxwell, MSP Convener, Education and Culture Committee, Scottish Parliament (http://www.scottish.parliament.uk/newsandmediacentre/74122.aspx) The Strategy does not belong to government or any particular sector – it is for everyone and we can all play a part in helping to ensure it delivers positive outcomes for our historic environment. Delivering the Strategy, however, will require the commitment and enthusiasm of everyone – from academics and professionals with specialist knowledge and skills, through all aspects of local and national government, to individuals and communities taking an interest in their local historic environment. Fiona Hyslop MSP Cabinet Secretary for Culture and External Affairs (http://www.scotland.gov.uk/Publications/2014/03/8522) The Historic Environment Strategy for Scotland
  • 3. http://www.scotland.gov.uk/Publications/2014/03/8522 • Developed collaboratively through a wide range of stakeholders • Shared vision • No single ownership – it is not the government’s strategy or that of any particular sector • Everybody has a part to play The Historic Environment Strategy for Scotland
  • 4. The Historic Environment Strategy for Scotland • Cross-cutting  Understanding – By investigating and recording our historic environment to continually develop our knowledge, understanding and interpretation of our past and how best to conserve, sustain and present it.  Protecting – By caring for and protecting the historic environment, ensuring that we can both enjoy and benefit from it and conserve and enhance it for the enjoyment and benefit of future generations.  Valuing – By sharing and celebrating the richness and significance of our historic environment, enabling us to enjoy the fascinating and inspirational diversity of our heritage. Delivered through collaborative approaches
  • 5. The Historic Environment Strategy for Scotland To ensure that the cultural, social, environmental and economic value of our heritage continues to make a major contribution to the nation’s wellbeing. Decision making in relation to the care and management of the historic environment should be informed by the best available evidence, supported by robust data. Enhance participation through encouraging greater access to and interpretation and understanding of the significance of the historic environment.
  • 6. The Historic Environment Strategy for Scotland
  • 7. Scottish Historic Environment Data (SHED) Strategy Scotland’s Historic Environment Data is the collaborative national public information resource for the historic environment. This joint venture between local and national bodies comprises shared and linked digital records. It will be professionally managed, continually updated, and accessible to all, ensuring the greatest economic, social and cultural benefits for the people of Scotland and beyond. Vision Statement SMR Forum, August 2012 WORKING TOGETHER TO DELIVER BETTER HERITAGE INFORMATION
  • 8. http://www.scottish.parliament.uk/newsandmediacentre/74122.aspx PastMap Scottish Historic Environment Data (SHED) Strategy
  • 9. PastMap Scottish Historic Environment Data (SHED) Strategy
  • 10. PastMap Scottish Historic Environment Data (SHED) Strategy
  • 11. INSPIRE Directive One Scotland, One Geography INSPIRE (Scotland) Statutory Instrument Cookbook 1 How to serve a Scottish SDI and INSPIRE compliant WMS Annex I & II Metadata Annex III Metadata, View & Download Newly collected Annex I data conforms to IR Newly collected Annex II & III data conforms to IR All existing Annex II & III data conforms to IR All existing Annex I data conforms to IR INSPIRE: Spatial Data Standards Operational Guide UK Location Download Service IR: Implementation roadmap 2004 2007 2009 2010 2013 20122010 2011 Annex I & II View 2015 2017 2020 INSPIRE roadmap Historic Scotland & RCAHMS Metadata and View services
  • 12. Understanding spatial extents Organisation Historic Scotland SMRs/HERs RCAHMS Fieldwork What are we Mapping? Designation The Potential The Known Activities (Constraint Mapping) (Trigger Mapping) (Inventory Mapping) (Events and interpretation) Further reading: Mike Middleton (2010) Polygonisation The Shape of things to come What are the needs for Scottish polygonised Historic Environment Data?
  • 13. Geophysical Survey Extents Marine remote sensing Field Survey mapping 3D laser scanning landscape Geophysical Survey plots Lidar Excavation extents and details 3D laser scanning Standing structures But what about all the other information we create?
  • 14. OASIS: 10 years of online collaboration Fieldwork Planning Application Archaeological condition Number of records Number signed off Grey literature reports England (2004) 37,874 22,106 16,126 Scotland (2007) 3,343 2,098 1,749 Total 41,217 24,204 (58.7%) 17,875 OASIS ArchSearch ADS Grey literature library Publication
  • 15. OASIS: but it enables so much more! Online archiving Geophysical Survey Database Web services Web services OAI-PMH
  • 16. OASIS: but it enables so much more! Online archiving Geophysical Survey Database Web services Web services OAI-PMH Aggregated datasets Spatial datasets
  • 17. The Voluntary Sector or Citizen Science MyCanmore Since 2008 Canmore users may upload comments and images to Canmore records. Scotland’s Rural Past (2006-11) Five year partnership between RCAHMS and community groups to record Scotland’s historic rural settlements. • Over 60 community led projects • Guidance on field methodology and standards: A Practical Guide to Recording Archaeological Sites Britain From Above Collaborative Project between English Heritage, RCAHMS and RCAHMW to put online the Aerofilms collection of aerial photographs from 1919-1953. Uses Citizen Science to help identify unlocated images and share memories36,595 images and 2,161 comments added
  • 18. The G8 Charter for Open Data 1. Public data policy and practice will be clearly driven by the public and businesses that want and use the data, including what data is released when and in what form. 2. Public data will be published in reusable, machine-readable form. 3. Public data will be released under the same open licence which enables free reuse, including commercial reuse. 4. Public data will be available and easy to find through a single, easy-to use, online access point (data.gov.uk). 5. Public data will be published using open standards, and following relevant recommendations of the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C). 6. Public data from different departments about the same subject will be published in the same, standard formats and with the same definitions. 7. Public data underlying the Government’s own websites will be published in reusable form. 8. Public data will be timely and fine-grained. 9. Release data quickly, and then work to make sure that it is available in open standard formats, including linked data forms. 10. Public data will be freely available to use in any lawful way. 11. Public data will be available without application or registration, and without requiring details of the user. 12. Public bodies should actively encourage the reuse of their public data. 13. Public bodies should maintain and publish inventories of their data holdings. Public bodies should publish relevant metadata about their datasets and this should be available through a single online access point; and they should publish supporting descriptions of the format provenance and meaning of the data Discoverable Useable Understandable UK Government Public Data Principles (2012) G8 Open Data Charter and Technical Annex G8 Open Data Charter UK Action Plan 2013 Scotland’s Digital Future A Strategy for Scotland
  • 19. Examples Licensed data http://hla.rcahms.gov.uk/ End-user licence to download (OS IPR) Images (through online sales system) Data (through online sales system) On the Internet but with opaque licencing http://canmore.rcahms.gov.uk http://Pastmap.org.uk Archives: Digital files, Screen resolution images on the internet with an Open Licence machine readable but proprietary format non-proprietary format Limited data available as csv download from PastMap under an Open Government Licence acknowledging OS IPR Open standards based (URIs) linked open standards data Three key vocabularies (Monument type, Objects and Maritime craft) published on http://heritagedata.org Five Star data - how do we measure up? We need to do more!
  • 20. Big Data Some excuses for ‘Data Hugging’ • The data is wrong - and people will tell us the data is wrong - Citizen Science will help refine our data • People will misunderstand the data and draw wrong conclusions without understanding the context of the data - Historic Environment data can be difficult but it is our responsibility to publish usable data and inform people about its use and limitations • You are giving away my research - research is built upon data (often gathered at public expense) access to data helps inform research and challenge conclusions • There is a cost involved in making data available - we place a low value on heritage when the real priority should be promoting the historic environment and cultural heritage There is an exponential growth and availability of data - in both structured and unstructured formats. - but we still keep data in silos
  • 21. Benefits of a Linked Open Data approach The Lewis Chessmen Collection split between the National Museum Scotland and the British Museum
  • 22. Biab and Historic Environment Records british and irish archaeological bibliography provides bibliographic references - many with abstracts - covering all aspects of archaeology and the historic environment, and every chronological period, with a geographical focus on Britain and Ireland. There are almost 200,000 references from over three centuries of scholarship - with over 1,500 new records added each year. It complements and enhances the information in record systems – but we don’t talk to each other! A query came up as to whether HERs regularly trawl through national journals (e.g. Journal of Roman Studies, Vernacular Architecture, Industrial Archaeology Review etc) for sites and research relevant to their geographical area. I was wondering whether list members had a view on the usefulness and priority level this type of type of research. Martin Newman, HERforum, 26 September 2008 Few HERs have the resources to have the complete gamut of national journals and about as many of those you run HERs would have the time to examine them all… Chris Wardle, HERforum, 26 September 2008 We don't routinely do this, but have been considering it as a part of the HER backlog…. Nick Boldrini, HERforum, 29 September 2008
  • 23. Conclusions High level strategy - Our Place in Time recognises the need to collaborate Success stories • OASIS • PastMap Innovative projects • Engaging Community Groups • Harnessing the potential of Citizen Science External drivers towards further collaboration and standards • INSPIRE Directive - Spatial data standards • Open Data To deliver Accessible Historic Environment Data
  • 24. Tomorrow’s Standards Together Tomorrow’s Standards Together Kirsty Lingstadt and Peter McKeague Kirsty.Lingstadt@rcahms.gov.uk Peter.mckeague@rcahms.gov.uk Towards a Collaborative Strategy for sector information management (TACOS) University of York 14 May 2014