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OERs: The Value Proposition


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Presentation made by Prof Rory McGreal for The OER MOOC

Presentation made by Prof Rory McGreal for The OER MOOC

Published in: Education, Technology, Business

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  • The new technologies are developing at a rapid pace. In the Seychelles Islands of the Indian Ocean, the Australians are known for pulling up their boats alongside a swimming shark, leaning over and easing themselves onto the creature's back. The trick is: They DON'T Let go. No matter where or how fast the shark goes, they have to maintain their grip on the dorsal fin and hang on. Modern technology is like that. It is moving so rapidly and so erratically that all we can do is climb aboard and hang on.
  • When we talk of “free” education, we are speaking about “free” as in speech NOT as in “beer”.
  • The costs of education can never be totally eliminated, but present trends point to an asymptotic curve, where the costs will continue to approach zero, without ever quite reaching it. These curves can be deceiving as the drop in costs increases exponentially. At present, we are near the top of this curve and so, the drop is only beginning to be noticeable. This curve is being driven by several factors.
  • Perhaps, the most significant factor is the growth of the World Wide Web, which is now available globally to anyone who can access the Internet. With the WWW, educators can reach an infinite audience.
  • The growth of the WWW is contributing to the phenomenon of the “Death of Distance”. With global telecommunications systems, satellites, wireless nodes and the ubiquity of the Internet, geographical distance is becoming irrelevant.
  • Copyright was instituted to protect the rights of the copyright owner. Copyright isn't on a par with the right to life, liberty, fraternity and equality before the law. It's a privilege extended to us by our fellow citizens because they recognise the value they get out of our efforts.
  • The point is, knowledge and learning and not things that belong to someone. Knowledge and learning and the birthright of every human being, a cultural heritage shared by all, and like the commons, access to that birthright isn't granted like some act of charity or sold like some act of commerce. You don't 'give' what doesn't belong to you, you don't 'sell' what doesn't belong to you. We do not need to engage in some special act of creation to produce this heritage; it is already there. We need only remove the barriers to access, the presumption that knowledge and learning are owned and possessed, that they are some sort of property . We seek a society where knowledge and learning are public goods, freely created and shared, not hoarded or withheld in order to extract wealth or influence.
  • Waldron, J. (1993). From authors to copiers: Individual rights and social values in intellectual property. Chicago-Kent Law Review, 68, 841 -847. May, C. (2010). The global political economy of itellectual property rights: The new enclosures (2nd ed.). New York: Routledge.
  • On the other hand, gaming and other play devices have been with us for some time. These are reasonably priced 64 bit computers (twice as powerful as your average desktop!). Game players like the Sony Playstation and the Xbox can be modified to include lessons, educational simulations, games and other learning activities. Athabasca University has successfully taken the Sony Playstation and the Ipod and used it for accessing our digital library. The next generation of game players will have more open systems to allow many more possibilities for learning.
  • Rob Carter, chief information officer at FedEx, thinks the best training for anyone who wants to succeed in 10 years is the online game World of Warcraft. Carter says WoW, as its 10 million devotees worldwide call it, offers a peek into the workplace of the future. Each team faces a fast-paced, complicated series of obstacles called quests, and each player, via his online avatar, must contribute to resolving them or else lose his place on the team. The player who contributes most gets to lead the team — until someone else contributes more. The game, which many Gen Yers learned as teens, is intensely collaborative, constantly demanding and often surprising. "It takes exactly the same skill set people will need more of in the future to collaborate on work projects," says Carter. "The kids are already doing it."
  • Has anyone heard of a unit of measure called a “twitch”? A twitch is a unit of measure in electronic game design. It is equivalent to 1/200th of a millisecond. In this time, electrons travelling on a wire can travel 13 000 miles. What does this tell us? -- That God in his or her infinite wisdom designed the world perfectly for playing video games.
  • Canadian copyright to not only including "moral rights" and "mass-copying rights" (commercial uses of copyrighted works), but now to "access rights" where copyright holders are presumed to be able to control how, when, and with what specific brands of technological assistance audiences are able to access copyrighted material. I strongly believe we should be going the opposite direction, mandating that copyright not be allowed to be abused to dictate to audiences any aspect of their own personal technology choices. I believe that any 'hardware assist' for communications, whether it be eye-glasses, VCR's, or personal computers, must be under the control of the citizen and not a third party.
  • Carry everywhere. ultra-mobile t PC 2007, 7-inch screen and all-day battery life, always connected. Always available. Acer's next-generation Tablet PC quickly converts from a laptop to a slate-like computer and is ready for use instantly. Auxiliary displays. An ASUS-designed auxiliary display concept for mobile and desktop PCs and peripheral devices, such as cell phones, remote controls, keyboards and watches, offers immediate access to calendars, recent e-mail, digital media and other data. It would also offer updates on the status of the PC while the machine is turned off or the lid of a mobile PC is closed.
  • New low cost mobile computers are becoming available. The Mobilis TFT is now selling in India for less than US$250. MIT will be releasing a sub $US100 computer in the spring of 2006. Five companies: Google, Advanced Micro Devices, News Corp., Red Hat and BrightStar. MIT media guru Nicholas Negroponte noted: “It’s an education project, not a laptop project. If we can make education better--particularly primary and secondary schools--it will be a better world."
  • MIT media guru Nicholas Negroponte noted: “It’s an education project, not a laptop project. If we can make education better--particularly primary and secondary schools--it will be a better world."
  • Computers on paper and electronic books represent different aspects of a the phenomenon known as pervasive computing, where microchips are being imbedded into common objects. Your refrigerator will be able to talk to your stove. God forbid that they don’t gossip about us. Can you imagine your fridge whispering to your stove: “Oh God! Here comes the fat man again?” Digital convergence is another trend where your cell phone will also house a personal digital assistant, a computer, a calculator, a clock, a fax, an Internet connection for email and web browsing, an electronic book, and even a television. These devices already exist.
  • The changes are happening very rapidly and are very worrisome. But do not be alarmed. If you are not confused, you do not understand what is happening. When the world is confusing, confusion is an understandable feeling. In the present situation,people who know exactly what they are doing are very dangerous. They are either charlatans or fools.
  • To conclude, there is a story that if you put a frog in cold water and slowly heat it up, he won’t jump out even when the water is boiling. By this time, his legs are cooked and he cannot jump. The new technology is like that bubbling all around us. At some point, we have to jump or we are cooked!
  • Danny Hillis reminds us "Let's put all this hype about change and transformation in perspective. It's underhyped.“ He continues: "There's something coming after us, and I imagine it is something wonderful.” François Tavenas, past rector of Laval University warns: “Change is mandatory, survival is an option. Make the right choice.” François Tavenas, ancien recteur de l’Université Laval
  • Transcript

    • 1. Open Educational Resources: The Value proposition Prof. Rory McGreal Athabasca University Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License (some images fair dealing)
    • 2. What to learn: Openness
    • 3. Evolution: FREE Education COSTS
    • 4. Evolution: FREE Education An asymptotic curve COSTS Zeno’s dichotomy paradox Free to the learner
    • 5. Evolution: Free Education Growth of the WWW Reach an infinite audienceReach an infinite audience Tim Berners-Lee
    • 6. Evolution: Free Education “Death of Distance” • GlobalGlobal telecommunicationstelecommunications • SatellitesSatellites • WirelessWireless • InternetInternet Atlas of Cyberspaces
    • 7. History of copyright
    • 8. They hang the man and flog the woman Who steals the goose from off the common But leaves the greater villain loose Who steals the common from off the goose. Anonymous 1764 or 1821? Stealing the Goose
    • 9. An Act for the Encouragement of Learning Statute of Queen Anne 1710
    • 10. Remove barriers to access • No one owns creative works • Creations belong to everyone • Creations are public goods
    • 11. Intellectual Property Privileged Monopoly
    • 12. • imposing duties • restricting freedom • inflicting burden on users Waldron Intellectual Property ? OR a manifestation of government intervention in social relations May
    • 13. Law & Policy Enable us To shout “MINE” ever more loudly, to convulse ever more uncontrollably and hit each other with ever larger toys. D. Wiley
    • 14. Benefits of Sharing • Preserves authors’ rights – Openness makes plagiarism difficult; No incentive – Attribution – No need to lie about source – Institutional marketing – Services not content – Expands creator’s careers
    • 15. OER
    • 16. Toys? Sony’s PSP GO Mobile phone CD Shape Gizmondo
    • 17. = 2 jiffies or 200 milliseconds
    • 18. Why OER?
    • 19. Why OER? • DRM (digital rights management) • Digital licenses digital restrictions management?
    • 20. DRM (Digital Rights Management) You CANNOT • Copy & paste, annotate, highlight • Text to speech • Format change • Move material • Print out • Move geographically • Use after expiry date • Resell
    • 21. • DRM restricts our freedom • Can we not own & control our own property? But our device is our PROPERTY
    • 22. But, we’re innocent!
    • 23.
    • 24. Digital Licenses •Copy & paste, annotate, highlight • Text to speech or hyperlink • Format change • Move material to another computer • Print out • Move geographically • Use after expiry date • Resell • Prohibited to show your content to others • Must accept that you have NO rights • Owners have NO liability even if product doesn’t work • Owners can “invade” your computer without permission • Collect & use personal data • User has a “privilege” to use the product not own it
    • 25. Open ETextbooks •Copy & paste, annotate, highlight √ • Text to speech or hyperlink √ • Format change √ • Move material to other computer √ • Print out √ • Move geographically √ • No expiry date √ • Reuse/Remix/Mash √ •Retain privacy and digital rights √√Essential for E-learning implementations
    • 26. Access Rights? Vendors can control how, when, where, and with what specific brands of technological assistance audiences are able to access content You buy but you don’t get – D. Wiley
    • 27. • student owns nothing, can share nothing, save nothing, sell nothing • subscription ends – ALL ends •publishers own student data, notes, highlights • students can’t transfer data Commercial Learning Service or Rent-a-book
    • 28. US Version per month +20 000 movies $ 7.99 +45 000 TV shows $ 7.99 +15 000 000 songs $ 9.99 TOTAL $25.97 ONE Biology text $20.25 -David Wiley
    • 29. When you subscribe to content through a digital service, the publisher achieves complete and perfect control over you and your use of their content -- David Wiley Attack on Personal Property
    • 30. Openness is the skeleton key that unlocks every attempt at vendor control and lock in - D. Wiley
    • 31. MOOCs
    • 32. A Canadian First
    • 33. ITC 23% Arts 28%
    • 34. Community learning
    • 35. What technology has done more to destroy human community than any other? Could it be the portable book? Community or accessibility?
    • 36. Mobile learning
    • 37. Free Education Wireless Access
    • 38. Mobile learning? +2 billion Internet connexions World population: 7 billion ¼ of the world’s population
    • 39. Global Internet usage International Telegraph Union 2012
    • 40. Global Mobile phone subscriptions
    • 41. Internet Users International Telecommunications Union 2012
    • 42. Web usage worldwide 3.81% Worldwide Chad 29% Nigeria 25% Sudan 22%
    • 43. Mobile Signal Coverage Percentage of the world's population covered by a mobile cellular signal, 2003 compared to 2010
    • 44. Mobile Telephony
    • 45. Mobile learning 4.5 billion mobile subscriptions 1.5 billion mobile internet users 1/3 only access internet via mobile 90% of world population is covered by cellular More time spent on Internet with Mobile than with desktops More time spent on Internet with Mobile than with desktops
    • 46. The world is going mobile
    • 47.
    • 48. Design for Mobile FIRST
    • 49. 4G Mobile Phones • Computer in your phone • Phone in your computer?
    • 50. Tablets Google AndroidiPad Mini Samsung
    • 51. Tablets Shenzhen Tablet <$75 Aakash India <$50 Ypy Brazil <$75
    • 52. Sakshat $20 laptop Affordable Computing India to unveil the £7 laptop Government hopes its mini-computer, the world's cheapest, will bridge the digital divide between rich and poor
    • 53. One Tablet per Child Negroponte et al.
    • 54. E-Books
    • 55. OPENNESS Digital convergence: TV Email Electronic book Computer Telephone Radio WWW Fax Clock Camera Handy 21 Oxygen project MIT PDA Nokia 5510 Game player
    • 56. bandwidth features performance functionality usability accessibility A Balancing Act Kent Anderson,
    • 57. Mobile Learning requires OER
    • 58. OER •Copy & paste, annotate, highlight √ • Text to speech or hyperlink √ • Format change √ • Move material to other computer √ • Print out √ • Move geographically √ • No expiry date √ • Reuse/Remix/Mash √ •Retain privacy and digital rights √√Essential for M-learning implementations
    • 59. the International experience
    • 60. •$2 billion for OER
    • 61. Netherlands
    • 62. POLAND
    • 63. Avoir Project
    • 64. INDIA • National Repository of Open Educational Resources <http://nroer/home/> • S.N.D.T. Women’s Univ. (Mumbai) • B.A.O.U. (Gujarat)
    • 65. Washington State
    • 66. Utah
    • 67. California
    • 68. the Canadian experience
    • 69. OER in Canada: A POERUP Report D. Quirk R. McGreal T. Anderson Athabasca University Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License (some images fair dealing)
    • 70. Policies for OER UPtake OER
    • 71. •OER •Open access •Open user-generated works •Open data •Open Glam(Galleries, Libr., Arch. Museums) •Open government •Open policies •Open licences •Open licence tools (CC) •Open standards •Open Source Paul Stacey
    • 72. Paul Stacey
    • 73. Open Access & OER “Despite the mounting support for open access, Canada has lagged behind with only a handful of pilot projects from the federally-funded research agencies . . . it is time for those agencies to make a firm commitment to open access.”
    • 74. Canada Report • Provincial • No Government policies • Few initiatives • Policy proposals (HEIs)
    • 75. Open Data Canada • Innovation • Leveraging public information • Develop consumer/commercial products • Better use of broadband • Research • Informed decisions for consumers
    • 76. THE BIG Canadian SPLIT • School Level vs Higher Education Ministries • Paris Declaration on OER
    • 77. • BC Campus licence • Online Programme Development Fund • 40 First year post-secondary courses as OER First Major OER initiative
    • 78. Alberta • $2 million for OER • Post-secondary
    • 79. OER Barriers
    • 80. Barriers: Fear • Competition • Loss of students/jobs • Loss of revenue/control • Criticism by peers • lack of economic models • Accountability With Paul Stacey
    • 81. Barriers: Confusion • Business model • How open licences work • Collaboration strategies • Autonomy • Evidence of effectiveness • Terminology (OA,OER, PD etc.) With Paul Stacey
    • 82. Barriers: Effort • Finding OER • Finding quality resources • How it saves time or money? • Specific academic contexts • Localisation With Paul Stacey
    • 83. Barriers: Special Interests • Publishers • Copyright collectives • Textbook authors $$$ • “Not invented here” • Copyright officers • ???? With Paul Stacey
    • 84. OER Incentives
    • 85. Incentives: YES • Updating at any time - quality • Copy, paste, annotate highlight, print • Mix, mash, alter, localise • Format shifting • Move content/share/collaborate • Cost savings – open textsWith Paul Stacey
    • 86. Incentives: YES • Increased access to education • Students can better assess/plan • Showcase profile/brand • Convert lurkers into students • Accelerate learning • Reduce faculty preparation time With Paul Stacey
    • 87. How to participate?
    • 88. How to participate internationally?
    • 89. Rory McGreal Fred Mulder UNESCO Chairholders in OER Partners Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License (some images fair use) Wayne Mackintosh Tel Amiel
    • 90. OER: Successful Practices
    • 91. Fred Mulder PhD in the study of OER
    • 92. Susan D’Antoni
    • 93. Global OER Graduate Network Characteristics • Umbrella for PhD research on OER in a global network of universities / researchers (decentralized model) • Addressing fundaments, design, applications, context, evaluation, etcetera, linked to a wide range of disciplines • Key are the PhD candidates, both full-time and part-time • Joint supervision by 2-3 experts / (co-)promoters • Rely on QA system of the promoter’s university & country • Knowledge dissemination with the GradNetwork label • Lightly supervised by a GradNetwork Board Cape Town December 2013
    • 94. Why OERu? Present systems are unsustainable. Present systems are not scalable for universal education. We must find new more cost-effective learning systems with higher quality. OER will form part of this solution: How many learners??
    • 95. The issue Learners who access OER and acquire knowledge/skills cannot have their learning assessed and accredited
    • 96. The view from an OERu partner Traditional modelTraditional model OERu model learners The mini-MOOC Friesen & Murray
    • 97. Challenges
    • 98. Challenges • Economic crisis – Decrease in investment in education & innovation – Promotion of OER becomes more challenging – National programmes are declined, downsized, or not started POERUP team
    • 99. Opportunities & further work • Opportunities – The rise of MOOCs – a new business model – FutureLearn in the UK • Further work – In-depth analysis on OER policies & practices – In-depth research into end-users of OER POERUP team
    • 100. Reality & support
    • 101. Information
    • 102. Priorities NOT Principles
    • 103. "Let's put all this hype about change and transformation in perspective. It's underhyped." "There's something coming after us, and I imagine it is something wonderful.” " Danny Hillis, Wired Change « le changem ent s’im pose, la survie est une option; faites le bon choix » François Tavenas, ancien recteur de l’Université Laval “Change is m andatory, survival is an option. M ake the right choice.” François Tavenas, ancien recteur de l’Université Laval
    • 104. General Eric Shinseki, retired Chief of Staff, U. S. Army
    • 105. So, let’s wake up and smell the coffee
    • 106. THANK YOU