Revised Bloom’s Taxonomy
Bloom’s Taxonomy
Cognitive researchrevealed that learning was not linear. It did not always occur inthis designated order  (e.g., analysis ...
Over the years, too manyverbs were used(and misused) to   describe the      levels.
Type ofknowledge makes adifference.
The original taxonomy wasnot designed for K-12 curricula.
Cognition               &            KnowledgeCognition
Revised Taxonomy of Educational Objectives                                          Cognitive Dimension             Rememb...
Knowledge Dimension
The Knowledge DimensionA.   FactualB.   ConceptualC.   ProceduralD.   Metacognitive
A. Factual KnowledgeBasic elements studentsmust know to be acquaintedwith a discipline or solveproblems in it.
B. Conceptual Knowledge       The interrelationships among       the basic elements within a       larger structure that e...
Conceptual knowledge has tobe taught by defining theattributes and with multipleexamples and non-examples(some of which ar...
C. Procedural KnowledgeHow to do something: methods of inquiry, andcriteria for usingskills, algorithms, techniques, and m...
D. Metacognitive Knowledge           Knowledge of cognition in           general as well as           awareness and knowle...
How do youknow you are dealing withmetacognitive knowledge?
Identify the knowledge dimension: 1. 1492 Columbus crossed ocean 2. What steps are used in scientific inquiry? 3. Describe...
Practice  Think about what you are  teaching over the next  week. What are some  examples of each of the  types of knowled...
Example• Factual   – names of rides, names of resorts, height requirements,     what rides are where• Conceptual   – types...
CognitiveDimension
Cognitive Dimension changesOriginal Bloom’s                 Revised Bloom’s  Categories                       Categories• ...
It’s more than just different words
1. RememberRetrieving relevant knowledge fromlong term memory(verbatim, unchanged by student)• Cognitive Processes:     1....
Retention    The ability toremember materialsat some later time inmuch the same wayas it was presented during instruction.
Transfer   The ability to use what was learned to        solve new problems, to answer new questions, or tofacilitate lear...
2. Understand        Constructing        meaning from        instructional        messages, including        oral, written...
2. Understand2.1   Interpreting2.2   Exemplifying2.3   Classifying2.4   Summarizing2.5   Inferring2.6   Comparing2.7   Exp...
3. ApplyCarry out or use a procedure in a givensituation.Cognitive Processes:  3.1 Executing: (carrying out) – using a    ...
4. AnalyzeBreak material into its constituent partsand determine how the parts relate toone another and to an overall stru...
5. EvaluateMake judgments based on criteria andstandards.Cognitive Processes:  5.1 Checking – testing for internal    cons...
6. CreatePut elements together to form a coherent orfunctional whole; recognize elements into a newpattern or structure.Co...
Bloom’s Revised Taxonomy                                          Cognitive Dimension             Remember      Understand...
Most Populated Cells for State Standards                                      Cognitive DimensionKnowledgeDimension     Re...
Learning Objectives• Student  – The student will…• Verb (type of cognition)  – understand…• Object (type of knowledge)  – ...
The student will understand how to move from place to           place using Disney transportation                         ...
Taxonomize the following: 1. The student will design a budget for their    vacation. 2. The student will compare resort op...
Level of Thinking• Create a list of the characteristics  of a biome• Describe the moon’s impact on  the earth’s tides• Com...
Practice• Using the types of knowledge you  brainstormed, create learning objective for  them.• Once completed, taxonomize...
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  • Widely known, published in 1956.Six levels within the cognitive domain, from the simple recall or recognition of knowledge, as the lowest level, through increasingly more complex and abstract mental levels, to the highest order, which is classified as evaluation. Bloom found that over 95% of the test questions students encounter require them to think only at the lowest possible level... the recall of information.
  • In the ‘70s & ‘80s, Bloom’s Taxonomy fell into disrepute when the cognitive psychologists realized that the path of learning was much more complicated. Each level of learning did not have to be mastered before you could learn or teach the next one. In fact, in both teaching and learning, sometimes you had to go to a higher level of learning in order to demonstrate a lower level(e.g., analyzing a piece of literature so you can identify the tone of it).
  • We also realized that there was no mention in the old taxonomy of what had to be learned - and content made a lot of difference when we were looking at those cognitive levels.
  • The old taxonomy was never designed for K-12. It was done at the request of the military in the late 1940’s. They asked college assessment faculties tohelp them categorize learning for use on the tests the Army gave.
  • So the big picture of the changes is this….
  • Refer people to their laminated handout on the Knowledge of Domain
  • Purpose: Introduce the Knowledge Dimension, which was added to the Revised Bloom’s Taxonomy.Tools: A Taxonomy for Learning, Teaching, and Assessing – Chapter 4, pp 38 - 62Key Points: Be sure to clearly define the four categories of the Knowledge Dimension on the Revised Bloom’s Taxonomy (RBT), which is on Table I.Factual Knowledge is knowledge that is basic to specific disciplines. This dimension refers to essential facts, terminology, details or elements students must know.Conceptual Knowledge is knowledge of classifications, principles, generalizations, theories, models, or structures.Procedural Knowledge refers to information or knowledge that helps students to do something specific. It also refers to methods of inquiry, very specific or finite skills, algorithms, techniques and particular methodologies. Metacognitive Knowledge is strategic or reflective knowledge about how to go about solving problems, cognitive tasks, including contextual and conditional knowledge and knowledge of self. Facilitator’s Tip:Facilitators are encouraged to review Chapter 4 of the text, A Taxonomy for Learning, Teaching, and Assessing © 2001, carefully for their own preparation and refer to elements in the chapter to increase use of book by participants in increasing their own understanding of the Knowledge Dimension.
  • Purpose: Define and provide examples of factual knowledge.Tools: A Taxonomy for Learning, Teaching, and Assessing – Chapter 4, pp 45-48Key Points: Factual knowledge is composed of the discrete, isolated, bits of information.Teachers must determine which facts are basic (and must be learned) andthe level of precision at which they must be learned.Sub-types:Aa. Knowledge of terminology – specific verbal and nonverbal labels orsymbols, the basic language of the discipline (which the novice must learn)e.g., alphabet, scientific terms, vocabulary of music, map symbols Ab. Knowledge of specific details & elements – events, locations, people,dates, sources of information- e.g., names, places, dates, sources, eventsExamples:William Shakespeare 18124 x 3 = 12>Facilitator’s Tip:Facilitators are encouraged to review Chapter 4 of the text, A Taxonomy for Learning, Teaching, and Assessing © 2001, carefully for their own preparation and refer to elements in the chapter to increase use of book by participants in increasing their own understanding of the Knowledge Dimension. Participants should work directly with Chapter 4 – pp 45-48.
  • Purpose: Define and provide examples of conceptual knowledge.Tools: A Taxonomy for Learning, Teaching, and Assessing – Chapter 4, pp 48-52;Laminated Handout – Table 1Key Points: Conceptual knowledge includes schemas, mental models, or implicit or explicit theories that individual has about how particular subject matter is organizedand structured---how the parts are connected or function together (the relationships between the parts). This is the way experts in the field think aboutphenomena in that area, e.g., the scientific explanation for the occurrence of the seasons. Sub-types: (see pages 48 and 49 of textbook)Ba. Knowledge of classifications and categories – more general and abstract thanknowledge of terminology, often specific to the subject, determines the connecting links between and among specific elements (page 49 in the text) - e.g., knowledge of variety of types of literature, knowledge of parts ofsentences, knowledge of different periods of geologic time.Bb. Knowledge of Principles and Generalizations – dominates academicdisciplines. These are broad ideas that are often difficult for students to understand because they are not familiar with the material the principles and generalizations are intended to summarize and organize;- e.g., fundamental laws of physics, principles of federalism.Bc. Knowledge of theories, models, and structures – most abstract formulations; shows interrelationships and organization of many specific details, classifications,categories, principles, and generalizations; differs from Bb in that it requiresunderstanding of often apparently unrelated principles and generalizations to form a model, theory, or structure – e.g., knowledge of theory of plate tectonics, genetic models.Facilitator’s Tip:Facilitators are encouraged to review Chapter 4 of the text, A Taxonomy for Learning, Teaching, and Assessing © 2001, carefully for their own preparation and refer to elements in the chapter to increase use of book by participants in increasing their own understanding of the Knowledge Dimension. Participants should work directly with pp 48-52.
  • Purpose: Assure understanding of the difference between factual and conceptual knowledge.Tools: A Taxonomy for Learning, Teaching, and Assessing – Chapter 4, pp 40-42Key Points: Concepts have to be taught by their attributes; the more abstract the concept, the more examples and non-examples are needed. A concept CANNOT be taught with a single example. Sometimes we assume too quickly that we’ve taught the concept. Look at the last one: equal parts. How many kids still think this refers only to halves? Understanding concepts is frequently the problem in math. The results of standardized tests show thatstudents typically can carry out a procedure (e.g., adding, subtracting) but can demonstrate littleunderstanding of the concepts involved. Thus, students often do well on the computation parts of math tests,but less well on the parts requiring conceptual understanding.Typical classroom assessments of concepts might look like this: 1. What is a republic? 2. What makes a spider a spider? 3. Give me an example of a rational number.Examples: TableLoveJusticeEqual partsFacilitator’s Tip:Facilitators are encouraged to review Chapter 4 of the text, A Taxonomy for Learning, Teaching, and Assessing © 2001, carefully for their own preparation and refer to elements in the chapter to increase use of book by participants in increasing their own understanding of the Knowledge Dimension. Participants should look closely at pp 40-42.
  • Purpose: Define and provide examples of procedural knowledge.Tools: Participant’s Guide, p 15; A Taxonomy for Learning, Teaching, and Assessing – Chapter 4, pp 52-55Key Points: You know you’re dealing with procedural knowledge if kids have to knowsequence, steps, or use a particular approach; if words like now, then, or next are used in the teaching. Keep in mind that we are just talking here about students’ knowledge of the procedure, not their ability to use it to do anything. Factual and conceptual knowledge represent the what of knowledge (i.e., product);procedural knowledge is the how (i.e., process). Sub-types: Ca. Knowledge of subject-specific skills and algorithms; e.g., knowledge of proceduresfor multiplying fractions; knowledge of skills used in painting with water colors; skills involved in performing the high jump; knowledge of skills used to determine word meaningfrom structural analysis.Cb. Knowledge of subject-specific techniques and methods: Result is less fixedthen with the first sub-type (correct answer can vary as with scientific method procedures used in experimental design - the experiments will vary); includes methods that are result of consensus, agreement or norms (how experts would do it) e.g., knowledge of methods for evaluating health concepts; knowledge of methods of literary criticism.Cc. Knowledge of criteria for determining when to use appropriate procedures. Student have to know when to use the procedures, which usually involves knowledgeof how the procedures were used in the past (what has been used in similar inquiries). What are the criteriafor deciding that this procedure is correct for this type of problem? E.g., Knowledge for determining method to use in solving algebraic equations;knowledge of criteria for determining which technique to apply to create a desired effect in a particular water color painting.Examples:In math, algorithms for performing long division In science, methods for designing experimentsIn English/Language Arts, procedures for spelling wordsFacilitator’s Tip:Facilitators are encouraged to review Chapter 4 of the text, A Taxonomy for Learning, Teaching, and Assessing © 2001, carefully for their own preparation and refer to elements in the chapter to increase use of book by participants in increasing their own understanding of the Knowledge Dimension. Participants should work directly with pp 52-55.
  • When I think about my thinkingThink alouds, talk alouds, explain your work, explain their thinkingHow did you come up with this? Not a process – it is deeper. Purpose: Define and provide examples of metacognitive knowledge.Tools: Participant’s Guide, p 15; A Taxonomy for Learning, Teaching, and Assessing – Chapter 4, pp 55-62Key Points: Sub-types:Da. Strategic Knowledge – knowledge of general strategies for learning, thinking, and problem-solving 3 categories of strategic knowledge Rehearsal (most effective for rote learning; not as effective for higher levels of learning Elaboration (e.g., mnemonics, summarizing, paraphrasing, finding main idea – deeper processing) Organizational (e.g., outlining, drawing cognitive maps, concept-mapping, note-taking) Knowledge of strategies useful in planning, monitoring own cognitionGeneral strategies for problemsolving and thinking: general heuristics such as means-ends analysis of working backwards from goal; inductive and deductive thinking, e.g., making appropriate inferences,avoiding circular arguments, evaluating the validity of logical statements. Metacognitive strategies are sequential strategies that one uses to ensure that a cognitive goal (e.g.,understanding a text) has been met. This might be knowledge about how to learn something, how toattack a certain kind of problem/situation, or even knowledge about own strengths and weaknesseswith regard to a certain kind of learning. Db. Knowledge about cognitive tasks, including contextual and conditional knowledge - knowledge about which tasks are more difficult, what their demands are; conditional knowledge is about when, under what conditions, particular metacognitive knowledge may be relevant; e.g.: knowledge that recall tasks make more demands on memory than recognition tasks; knowledge that a primary source book may more difficult to understand than a textbook Dc. Self-knowledge – knowledge of one’s own strengths and weaknesses with regard to learning; beliefsabout own motivation: self-efficacy beliefs (capability), reasons for doing tasks, and values and interests Accuracy of self-knowledge is crucial (don’t build false self-esteem) e.g., knowledge of one’s goals for performing tasks; accurate knowledge of one’s capability to perform tasksExamples:Knowing when to use mnemonic strategies, paraphrasing, summarizing, questioning, note-taking, or outlining to attain a learning goal. Realizing that your study session will be more productive if you work in the library rather than at home.Facilitator’s Tip:Facilitators are encouraged to review Chapter 4 of the text, A Taxonomy for Learning, Teaching, and Assessing © 2001, carefully for their own preparation and refer to elements in the chapter to increase use of book by participants in increasing their own understanding of the Knowledge Dimension. Participants should focus on pp 55-62.
  • Assessments will be subjective and divergent. It would not be directly assessed on a standardized test.Difficult to measure via paper and pencil tests - best done through classroom discussion and observation or examination of individual student work.Purpose: Provide clarity in metacognitive knowledge.Tools:Key Points: Highlight points on slide. Metacognitive knowledge is considered the most rigorous knowledge level.
  • Purpose: Provide practice in identification of dimensions of knowledge.Tool: Table 4.2 inside the front cover of the text, laminated handoutKey Points: Share each example below orally and have individuals/pairs/triads/tables determine the knowledge dimension – factual, conceptual, procedural, or metacognitive. Example 1 – Define rigor: Aa – requires definition of technical vocabulary Example 2 – What steps are taken to determine cognitive complexity?: Ca – identification of specific skills/steps to determine cognitive complexity. Note that some may see this as Cb; what is important is that they identify it as C – Procedural Knowledge. Example 3 – Describe your comfort level in determining the rigor of assessments: Db – identification of cognitive tasks. Note that some may also identify this as Dc; what is important is that they identify it as Metacognitive Knowledge. Example 4 - Compare analysis with evaluation: Ba– requires the classification or identification of interrelationships of two categories. Now have individuals/pairs/triads/tables create an example of each knowledge dimension – factual, conceptual, procedural, or metacognitive – and share with others, who can then identify and provide rationale for their answer.Facilitator’s Tip: As individuals share their answers and/or examples, focus on the major dimensions of knowledge, rather than the specific sub-type as answers may vary with appropriate rationales.
  • Purpose: Introduce participants to the table for definitions and examples of cognitive processes.Tool: Laminated Handout of tableA Taxonomy for Learning, Teaching, and Assessing – Chapter 5, pp 63-92, and specifically Table 5.1 inside the back cover; laminated handout Refer participants to Table 5.1 in the taxonomy book or to the laminated handout. Emphasize that this table is very helpful and should always be used to classify objectives or standards. The horizontal dimension of the taxonomy table is known as the Cognitive Process Dimension. Make and emphasize the following points about the cognitive process dimension: The cognitive process dimension contains 6 major cognitive categories each of which are identified by numbers: 1. Remember, 2. Understand, 3. Apply, 4. Analyze, 5. Evaluate, and 6. Create. The 6 major cognitive categories are associated with more specific cognitive processes. There are nineteen specific cognitive processes. These 19 specific cognitive processes are described by gerunds, ending in ing. For example, recognizing and recalling are associated with Remember. Table 2, “The Cognitive Process Dimension,” lists alternate names or synonyms for each specific cognitive process. For example, identifying is a synonym for recognizing. See Chapter 3 and Chapter 5 of textbook for additional information.Facilitator’s Tip: Facilitators should study carefully in advance Chapter 5 and refer to specific elements in the chapter that would help participants better understand the cognitive process dimension. Participants should become very familiar with the information on pages 63-92 in A Taxonomy for Learning, Teaching, and Assessing – Chapter 5. Provide a few minutes for participants to review and become familiar with the table of the cognitive process dimension.
  • Purpose: Compare the original categories of Bloom’s Taxonomy with the categories in the Revised Bloom’s Taxonomy (RBT).Tools:Key Points: The knowledge category was renamed. Knowledge is an outcome or product of thinking not a form of thinking per se. Consequently, the word knowledge was inappropriate to describe a category of thinking and was replaced with the word Remember instead.Comprehension and synthesis were re-titled to Understand and Create respectively, in order to better reflect the nature of the thinking defined in each category.The major categories were ordered in terms of increased complexity. As a result, the order of synthesis (create) and evaluation (evaluate) have been interchanged. This is in deference to the popularly held notion that if one considers the taxonomy as a hierarchy reflecting increasing complexity, then creative thinking (i.e., Create level of the revised taxonomy) is a more complex form of thinking than critical thinking (i.e., Evaluate level of the new taxonomy). This is because one can be critical without being creative, but creative production often requires critical thinking.The names of six major categories were changed from noun to verb forms. The reasoning behind this is that the taxonomy reflects different types of thinking and thinking is an active process. Verbs describe actions, not nouns;hence, the change. Each of the six major categories contains two or more specific cognitive processes. A total of 19 cognitive processes are described as verb forms. These 19 specific cognitive processes take the form of gerunds, ending in “ing.” See list below. 1. Remember: recognizing, recalling 2. Understand: interpreting, exemplifying, classifying, summarizing, inferring comparing, explaining 3. Apply: executing, implementing 4. Analyze: differentiating, organizing, attributing 5. Evaluate: checking, critiquing 6. Create: generating, planning, producingThe revision emphasizes explanation and description of the specific cognitive processes (subcategories) found under each category.For example, under Remember:Recognizing /Identifying - Locating knowledge in memory that is consistent with presented material.Recalling /Retrieving – Retrieving relevant knowledge from long-term memory.Facilitator’s Tip: Refer to the A Taxonomy for Learning, Teaching, and Assessing © 2001 to have the participants see the various definitions and examples of the 19 specific cognitive processes in the form of gerunds. Spending a few minutes on the explanations and examples in the book will prove to be valuable as you proceed.
  • Purpose: Define and provide examples of the cognitive process remember.Tools: Laminated handout of Table 2, A Taxonomy for Learning, Teaching, and Assessing – Chapter 5, pp 66-70 Key Points: Highlight the category,remember, and the key words of recognizing and recalling. Note the alternate names of identifying and retrieving, and the corresponding definitions and examples.1.1 Recognizing – Retrieving relevant knowledge from long-term memory in order to compare it with presented information. Alternative name: IdentifyingExample: The student learned the English equivalent of 20 Spanish words. A test of remembering could involve requesting the student to match the Spanish words in one list with their English equivalents in a second list. 1.2 Recalling – Retrieving relevant knowledge from long-term memory when given a prompt to do so. Alternative name: RetrievingExample: The student who learned the English equivalent of 20 Spanish words is asked to write the corresponding English word next to each of the Spanish words presented on a list. Example: A standard can be classified as Remember when the intent of that standard is to promote retention of the presented material in much the same form as it was taught. It is more difficult for students to recall information than recognize information. Remember is typically used in conjunction with Factual Knowledge (See the Knowledge Dimensions), which is often simply memorized information. Sometimes it’s unconnected to prior knowledge and unorganized. It’s simply stored in the brain. The student may be completely unaware of where it “fits” within the larger discipline.Facilitator’s Tip: You may want to begin to emphasize the importance of intent, as intent guides decisions for the cognitive processes and their alignment with curriculum, instruction, and assessment. Facilitators should study carefully in advance Chapter 5 and refer to specific elements in the chapter that would help participants better understand the cognitive process dimension. Participants should become very familiar with the information on pages 66-70 in A Taxonomy for Learning, Teaching, and Assessing – Chapter 5.
  • Two of the most important educational goals are to promote retention and to promote transfer, which when it occurs indicates meaningful learning. The cognitive process category Remember emphasizes retention and the other five categories (i.e., Understand, Apply, Analyze, Evaluate, Create) while they facilitate retention, emphasize transfer.Retention is the ability to remember materials at some later time in much the same way as it was presented during instruction. Example: After students read a textbook lesson on Ohm’s law, a retention test might ask them to write the formula for Ohm’s law.Transfer is the ability to use what was learned to solve new problems, to answer new questions, or to facilitate learning new subject matter. Example: A transfer test might ask students to rearrange an electrical circuit to maximize the rate of electron flow or to use Ohm’s law to explain a complex electric circuit.
  • Two of the most important educational goals are to promote retention and to promote transfer, which when it occurs indicates meaningful learning. The cognitive process category Remember emphasizes retention and the other five categories (i.e., Understand, Apply, Analyze, Evaluate, Create) while they facilitate retention, emphasize transfer.Retention is the ability to remember materials at some later time in much the same way as it was presented during instruction. Example: After students read a textbook lesson on Ohm’s law, a retention test might ask them to write the formula for Ohm’s law.Transfer is the ability to use what was learned to solve new problems, to answer new questions, or to facilitate learning new subject matter. Example: A transfer test might ask students to rearrange an electrical circuit to maximize the rate of electron flow or to use Ohm’s law to explain a complex electric circuit.
  • More cognitive processes are associated with this category than any other category.Most represented category in state standards.Critical for all further learning.Purpose: Define and provide background of the cognitive process understand.Tools: Laminated handout for Table 2, A Taxonomy for Learning, Teaching, and Assessing – Chapter 5, pp 70 - 76Key Points: Students understand when they build connections between the new knowledge to be gained and their prior knowledge. Incoming knowledge is integrated with existing schemas and cognitive frameworks.Facilitator’s Tip: Facilitators should study carefully in advance Chapter 5 and refer to specific elements in the chapter that would help participants better understand the cognitive process dimension. Participants should become very familiar with the information on pages 70-76 in A Taxonomy for Learning, Teaching, and Assessing – Chapter 5.
  • Purpose: Define and provide background of the cognitive process understand.Tools: Laminated handout for Table II, A Taxonomy for Learning, Teaching, and Assessing – Chapter 5, pp 70-76.Key Points: 2.1 Interpreting – when a student is able to convert information from one representational form to another. Alternative terms: clarifying, paraphrasing, representing, translating.Example: Ask students to convert words to pictures, words to words or paraphrasing. 2.2 Exemplifying – when a student is able to give a specific example or instance of a general concept or principle. Alternative terms: Illustrating, instantiating.Example: Ask students to select which of three presented triangles is an isosceles triangle.2.3 Classifying – begins with a specific instance or example and requires the student to find a general concept or principle. Alternative terms: Categorizing, subsuming.Example: Give students pictures of prehistoric animals with instructions to group them with others of the same species. Note: Classifying is a complementary process to exemplifying. Exemplifying begins with a general concept or principle and requires the student to find a specific instance or example.2.4 Summarizing – a single statement that represents presented information or abstracts a general theme.Alternative terms: Abstracting, generalizing.Example: Students read a scene in a play and are asked to summarize the important points of the scene.2.5 Inferring – finding a pattern within a series of examples or instances. Inferring focuses solely on the issue of inducing a pattern based on presented information. Alternative terms: concluding, extrapolating, interpolating, predicting.Example: Ask students to distinguish the pattern in this series of numbers: 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21.2.6 Comparing – detecting similarities and differences between two or more objects, events, ideas, problems, or situations. In “mapping” a student must show how one object/idea/problem/situation corresponds to (or maps to) each part of another. Alternative terms: Contrasting, mapping, matching.Example: Students are asked to determine how a current political scandal is like a historical political scandal. 2.7 Explaining - constructing and using a cause-and-effect model of a system. Note that this is a different usage from the usual. It does NOT mean discuss. It implies a causal relationship. Alternative terms: Constructing models.Example: Another example: Students may be asked to answer “Why does air enter a bicycle tire pump when you pull up on the handle?”Facilitator’s Tip: You may want to relate to other work district/building has done that is connected to these (e.g., Marzano, Classroom Instruction that Works; Dimensions of Learning).Facilitators should study carefully in advance Chapter 5 and refer to specific elements in the chapter that would help participants better understand the cognitive process dimension. Participants should become very familiar with the information on pages 70-76 in A Taxonomy for Learning, Teaching, and Assessing – Chapter 5.
  • Purpose: Define and provide examples of the cognitive process apply.Tools: Laminated handout for Table 2, A Taxonomy for Learning, Teaching, and Assessing – Chapter 5, pp 77 - 79Key Points: Apply typically occurs together with procedural knowledge; students must use a procedure to perform exercises or solve problems. An exercise is a task for which the student already knows the proper procedure to use, so the student has a routinized approach to it.A problem is a task for which the student initially does not know what procedure to use, so the student must locate a procedure to solve the problem. This category has two cognitive processes:3.1 Executing – Occurs when a student routinely carries out a procedure when confronted with a familiar task (exercise). Executing is more associated with the use of skills and algorithms than with techniques and methods. Skills and algorithms consist of a sequence of steps that are generally followed in a fixed order. When steps are performed correctly, the end result is a predetermined answer. An alternative term: Carrying out.3.2 Implementing – Occurs when a student selects and uses a procedure to perform an unfamiliar task. Student must understand the type of problem encountered as well as the range of procedures that are available. Two hints: Like a “flow chart” rather than a fixed sequence of steps and there is often no single, fixed answer that is expected when the procedure is applied correctly. Alternative term: Using.Facilitator’s Tip: Facilitators should study carefully in advance Chapter 5 and refer to specific elements in the chapter that would help participants better understand the cognitive process dimension. Participants should become very familiar with the information on pages 77-79 in A Taxonomy for Learning, Teaching, and Assessing – Chapter 5.
  • Purpose: Define and provide examples of the cognitive process analyze.Tools: Laminated handout for Table 2, A Taxonomy for Learning, Teaching, and Assessing – Chapter 5, pp 79-83Key Points: Analyze deals with “parts” and “wholes.” The whole can be as small as a sentence or as large as a novel which provides the context within which the student analyzes. 4.1 Differentiating – distinguishing the parts of a whole structure in terms of their relevance or importance; determining how parts fit into the overall structure or whole.Alternate terms: discriminating, selecting, distinguishing, and focusing.Example: Select the main steps in a written description of how something works. 4.2 Organizing – identifying the elements of a communication or situation and recognizing how they fit together into a coherent structure. Students build systematic and coherent connections among pieces of presented information. Alternative terms: structuring, integrating, finding coherence, outlining, and parsing.Example: Students write an outline that shows which facts in a passage on American history support and which facts do not support the conclusion that the American Civil War was caused by differences in the rural and urban composition of the North and South. 4.3 Attributing – occurs when a student is able to ascertain the point of view, biases, values, or intention underlying communications. In contrast to interpreting, in which the student seeks to understand the meaning of presented material, attributing involves an extension beyond basic understanding to infer the intention or point of view underlying the presented material. Alternate term – deconstructing. Example: In reading a passage on the battle of Atlanta in the American Civil War, students must determine whether the author takes the perspective of the North or the South. Facilitator’s Tip: You may want to have participants come up with examples of differentiating, organizing, and attributing. They could do this with school examples or examples from their hobby.Facilitators should study carefully in advance Chapter 5 and refer to specific elements in the chapter that would help participants better understand the cognitive process dimension. Participants should become very familiar with the information on pages 79-83 in A Taxonomy for Learning, Teaching, and Assessing – Chapter 5.
  • Purpose: Define and provide examples of the cognitive process evaluate.Tools: Laminated handout for Table 2; A Taxonomy for Learning, Teaching, and Assessing – Chapter 5, pp 83-84Key Points: Evaluation is based on the use of standards of performance with clearly defined criteria. For example: Is this process sufficiently effective? Is this product of sufficient quality?Criteria: quality, effectiveness, efficiency, and consistency. Generally determined by the student or by others. Standards: For use with the criteria - may be either quantitative or qualitative.5.1 Checking - involves testing for internal inconsistencies or fallacies in an operation or a product.Alternative terms: testing, detecting, monitoring, and coordinating.Example: Do data support or disconfirm a hypothesis?5.2 Critiquing – involves judging a product or operation based on externally imposed criteria and standards. Critiquing is often compared to summative evaluation.Alternative term: Judging.Example: Judge the merits of a particular solution to the problem of acid rain in terms of its likely effectiveness and its associated costs. Note: Not all judgments are evaluative. For example, students judge whether something belongs in a category or whether two objects are similar or different. Facilitator’s Tip: Facilitators should study carefully in advance Chapter 5 and refer to specific elements in the chapter that would help participants better understand the cognitive process dimension. Participants should become very familiar with the information on pages 83-84 in A Taxonomy for Learning, Teaching, and Assessing – Chapter 5.
  • Purpose: Define and provide examples of the cognitive process create.Tools: Laminated handout for Table 2; A Taxonomy for Learning, Teaching, and Assessing – Chapter 5, pp 84-88Key Points: Createinvolves students making a new product by mentally reorganizing some elements or parts into a pattern or structure not clearly present before. Students create by producing their own synthesis of information or materials to form a new whole, as in writing [not writing that represents the remembering of ideas or the interpretation of materials], painting, sculpting, building, etc. When creating, students synthesize material into a whole (i.e., the construct of an original product) and employ multiple types of knowledge. Three phases of the cognitive category create. 6.1 Generating – student attempts to understand the task and generate possible solutions (divergent thinking) that meet certain criteria.Alternative term: hypothesizing.Example: Students are asked to write as many hypotheses as they can to explain strawberries growing to extraordinary size. The teacher should establish clearly defined criteria for judging the quality of the responses and give them to the students. 6.2 Planning – involves devising a solution method that meets a problem’s criteria. Planning stops short of carrying out the steps to create the actual solution for a given problem. When planning the student may establish sub-goals, or break a task into subtasks to be performed when solving the problem.Alternative term: Designing.Example: Prior to writing a research paper on the causes of the American Revolution, submit an outline of the paper, including the steps they intend to follow to conduct the research. 6.3 Producing – involves carrying out a plan for solving a given problem that meets certain specifications. Alternative term: Constructing.Example: Design sets for plays. A corresponding assessment task for this objective asks students to design the set for a student production of Driving Miss Daisy. The specifications are used as the criteria for evaluating student performance relative to the objective.Facilitator’s Tip:The cognitive processes of create have order; first one hypothesizes, then designs, and ultimately creates or constructs the product.Facilitators should study carefully in advance Chapter 5 and refer to specific elements in the chapter that would help participants better understand the cognitive process dimension. Participants should become very familiar with the information on pages 84-88 in A Taxonomy for Learning, Teaching, and Assessing – Chapter 5.
  • Purpose: Connect the table with state standards and earlier discussions of the day.Tools:Key Points: As you think about our earlier discussions on students’ success across the nation on the NAEP score, it is important to note that most state standards address factual, conceptual, and procedural knowledge (no surprise!) but most prevalently in the areas of remember, understand, and apply – and rarely in the analyze, evaluate, and create, the ones most needed for the 21st century. The Iowa Core strives to increase those levels.
  • Purpose: Connect the table with state standards and earlier discussions of the day.Tools:Key Points: As you think about our earlier discussions on students’ success across the nation on the NAEP score, it is important to note that most state standards address factual, conceptual, and procedural knowledge (no surprise!) but most prevalently in the areas of remember, understand, and apply – and rarely in the analyze, evaluate, and create, the ones most needed for the 21st century. The Iowa Core strives to increase those levels.
  • Purpose: Review the pre-work assignment and check for clearer understanding.Tools: Day 1 Note Taking Tool – Chapter 3-5; Laminated Tables 1, 2, and 3Key Points: Give participants opportunity to share their response (original or new, based on their present understanding) for each of the sentences/objectives shared in the pre-assignment.The student will be able to recognize the steps of the selling process. Knowledge Level: ______________________Cognitive Process: _____________________ Plot: C 1 (Procedural Knowledge, Remember)The student will be able to execute correct drawing procedures.Knowledge Level: ______________________Cognitive Process: _____________________ Plot: C 3.1 (Procedural Knowledge, Application – Execute)The student will be able to explain the relationship of food-borne contaminants and food allergies.Knowledge Level: ______________________Cognitive Process: _____________________ Plot: B 2.7 (Conceptual Knowledge, Understanding – Explaining)The student will be able to critique a school district’s proposal for year-round schools.Knowledge Level: ______________________Cognitive Process: _____________________ Plot: B 5.2 (Conceptual Knowledge, Evaluate – Critique)Facilitator Tip: The purpose of this is to check their understanding at this point. Watch closely for their rationalization of their responses. Additional practices will be provided but this exercise should help with your understanding of their understanding.
  • The verbs that we depended on in the past does not really match the intended learning
  • Rbt with zen

    1. 1. Revised Bloom’s Taxonomy
    2. 2. Bloom’s Taxonomy
    3. 3. Cognitive researchrevealed that learning was not linear. It did not always occur inthis designated order (e.g., analysis may have to precede understanding…).
    4. 4. Over the years, too manyverbs were used(and misused) to describe the levels.
    5. 5. Type ofknowledge makes adifference.
    6. 6. The original taxonomy wasnot designed for K-12 curricula.
    7. 7. Cognition & KnowledgeCognition
    8. 8. Revised Taxonomy of Educational Objectives Cognitive Dimension Remember Understand Apply Analyze Evaluate CreateKnowledge Recognizing Interpreting Executing Differentiating Checking Generating Recalling Exemplifying Implementing Organizing Critiquing PlanningDimension Classifying Attributing Producing Summarizing Inferring Comparing Explaining Factual A1 A2 A3 A4 A5 A6KnowledgeConceptualKnowledge B1 B2 B3 B4 B5 B6Procedural C1 C2 C3 C4 C5 C6Knowledge Meta- Cognitive D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 D6Knowledge
    9. 9. Knowledge Dimension
    10. 10. The Knowledge DimensionA. FactualB. ConceptualC. ProceduralD. Metacognitive
    11. 11. A. Factual KnowledgeBasic elements studentsmust know to be acquaintedwith a discipline or solveproblems in it.
    12. 12. B. Conceptual Knowledge The interrelationships among the basic elements within a larger structure that enables them to work together. • In other words, a category or group of things with features (attributes).
    13. 13. Conceptual knowledge has tobe taught by defining theattributes and with multipleexamples and non-examples(some of which are near-misses); can be abstract orconcrete.
    14. 14. C. Procedural KnowledgeHow to do something: methods of inquiry, andcriteria for usingskills, algorithms, techniques, and methods
    15. 15. D. Metacognitive Knowledge Knowledge of cognition in general as well as awareness and knowledge of ones own cognition (thinking about your thinking)
    16. 16. How do youknow you are dealing withmetacognitive knowledge?
    17. 17. Identify the knowledge dimension: 1. 1492 Columbus crossed ocean 2. What steps are used in scientific inquiry? 3. Describe your thinking at how you arrived at your answer. 4. Compare analysis with evaluation.
    18. 18. Practice Think about what you are teaching over the next week. What are some examples of each of the types of knowledge you will be covering?
    19. 19. Example• Factual – names of rides, names of resorts, height requirements, what rides are where• Conceptual – types of rides, understanding crowds, dining types, organization of parks• Procedural – Touring plans, steps of planning, how to get through security efficiently, dealing with lost person• Metacognitive – Understanding what makes a good vacation, determining if you are having fun,
    20. 20. CognitiveDimension
    21. 21. Cognitive Dimension changesOriginal Bloom’s Revised Bloom’s Categories Categories• Knowledge • Remember• Comprehension • Understand• Application • Apply• Analysis • Analyze• Synthesis • Evaluate• Evaluation • CreateSource: Anderson et al (2001).
    22. 22. It’s more than just different words
    23. 23. 1. RememberRetrieving relevant knowledge fromlong term memory(verbatim, unchanged by student)• Cognitive Processes: 1.1 Recognizing (identifying) 1.2 Recalling (retrieving)
    24. 24. Retention The ability toremember materialsat some later time inmuch the same wayas it was presented during instruction.
    25. 25. Transfer The ability to use what was learned to solve new problems, to answer new questions, or tofacilitate learning new subject matter.
    26. 26. 2. Understand Constructing meaning from instructional messages, including oral, written, and graphic communication. 26
    27. 27. 2. Understand2.1 Interpreting2.2 Exemplifying2.3 Classifying2.4 Summarizing2.5 Inferring2.6 Comparing2.7 Explaining
    28. 28. 3. ApplyCarry out or use a procedure in a givensituation.Cognitive Processes: 3.1 Executing: (carrying out) – using a procedure on familiar tasks (exercises); has a fixed sequence of steps. 3.2 Implementing: – using a procedure on unfamiliar tasks (problems); student has to select technique or method and often change sequence (e.g., flowchart)
    29. 29. 4. AnalyzeBreak material into its constituent partsand determine how the parts relate toone another and to an overall structureor purpose.Cognitive Processes: 4.1 Differentiating – distinguishing the relevant from the irrelevant parts 4.2 Organizing – identifying ways that elements fit or function within the overall structures 4.3 Attributing – determining the underlying purpose or perspective
    30. 30. 5. EvaluateMake judgments based on criteria andstandards.Cognitive Processes: 5.1 Checking – testing for internal consistencies or fallacies in an operation or product 5.2 Critiquing – judging a product or operation based on externally imposed criteria and standards
    31. 31. 6. CreatePut elements together to form a coherent orfunctional whole; recognize elements into a newpattern or structure.Cognitive Processes/Phases: 6.1 Generating – hypothesizing, meeting certain criteria 6.2 Planning – designing, devising a solution 6.3 Producing – constructing, creating an original product based on 6.1 and 6.2
    32. 32. Bloom’s Revised Taxonomy Cognitive Dimension Remember Understand Apply Analyze Evaluate CreateKnowledge Recognizing Interpreting Executing Differentiating Checking Generating Recalling Exemplifying Implementing Organizing Critiquing PlanningDimension Classifying Attributing Producing Summarizing Inferring Comparing Explaining Factual A1 A2 A3 A4 A5 A6KnowledgeConceptualKnowledge B1 B2 B3 B4 B5 B6Procedural C1 C2 C3 C4 C5 C6Knowledge Meta- Cognitive D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 D6Knowledge
    33. 33. Most Populated Cells for State Standards Cognitive DimensionKnowledgeDimension Remember Understand Apply Analyze Evaluate Create Factual A1KnowledgeConceptual B2KnowledgeProcedural C3Knowledge Meta- CognitiveKnowledge
    34. 34. Learning Objectives• Student – The student will…• Verb (type of cognition) – understand…• Object (type of knowledge) – how to move from place to place using Disney transportation.
    35. 35. The student will understand how to move from place to place using Disney transportation Cognitive DimensionKnowledgeDimension Remember Understand Apply Analyze Evaluate Create FactualKnowledgeConceptualKnowledgeProceduralKnowledge C2 Meta- CognitiveKnowledge
    36. 36. Taxonomize the following: 1. The student will design a budget for their vacation. 2. The student will compare resort options to family needs. 3. The student will explain the differences between types of restaurants. 4. The student will critique a touring plan for ability to meet family needs. 5. The student will carry out touring plan and assess impact on group.
    37. 37. Level of Thinking• Create a list of the characteristics of a biome• Describe the moon’s impact on the earth’s tides• Comprehend the main idea of story• Outline the key points of the text
    38. 38. Practice• Using the types of knowledge you brainstormed, create learning objective for them.• Once completed, taxonomize each learning objective
    39. 39. Ticket outthe Door

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