Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge
Vol. 6(3), July 2007, pp. 426-428
Numerical v/s quantitative variations in ingredients of
Cyavanaprāśa — A limiting factor for SOP
Sujit Kumar Dalai*, Mohan S Dashora & Laxmikant Dwivedi
Department of Rasa Shastra & Bhaishajya Kalpana,
National Institute of Ayurveda, Madhav Vilas Palace, Amer Road, Jaipur, Rajasthan
Received 20 May 2005; revised 22 February 2007
Numerical v/s quantitative variation in ingredients of various formulations of Indian Systems of Medicine is one of the
major limiting factors for development of SOP (Standard Operative Procedure) and standardization. The paper enumerates
& highlights SOP hiatus with special reference to formulation like Cyavanaprāśa having Āmalaka (Indian gooseberry;
Emblica officinalis Gaertn.) in 500 numbers in single lot.
Keywords: Āmalaka, Standard Operative Procedure, Cyavanaprāśa, Indian gooseberry, Indian Systems of Medicine
IPC Int. Cl.8: A61K36/00, A61P15/10, A61P25/00
Āmlā (Indian gooseberry) or Āmalaka (Emblica Āmlā has impact on the relative proportion of other
officinalis Gaertn.) belonging to family constituents but also changes in constituents such as
Euphorbiaceae is widely used as plant ingredient in ascorbic acid, etc. reflects in the product behaviour.
Indian Systems of Medicine. Emblica officinalis This alternation in the relative proportion of other
Gaertn. fruit is one of the chief constituents of constituents resulting change in efficacy, i.e. this
Cyavanaprāśa1. Āmalaka is also important constituent variation marks the potency of Kwātha dravyas or
of many other formulations such as Dhātri Rasāyana, Praksepa dravyas or to ratio of the other constituents
Brāhma Rasāyana, Āmalaka Avaleha, Dhātryarista, because they remain same as the formula by weight.
Agastya Haritaki Avaleha, Kusumādi Netravarti, etc. Thus, there is an urgent need that the weight of Āmlā
Special mention of Āmalaka has been made in and weight of its constituents need to be established
Rasāyana Pāda, i.e. AbhayĀmalaka Pāda; in Cikitsā and standardized. To evaluate these parameters, a
sthāna of Caraka Samhitā, reflecting its prime study was conducted and the results are presented
activity as Vayasthāpana (maintains youthness) herewith.
Dravya. Shusruta enlisted Āmalaka as best in Phala
varga (fruit group). The name Āmalaka was derived Methodology
by virtue of its taste on tongue; Āmla rasa-the sour Various sizes of Āmalaka were collected from the
taste. This is also known as Vayasthā, Tiyaphalā and market; experimental study was carried out with
Dhātri in Sanskrit texts. These nomenclatures denote reference to its pharmaceutical processes. The result
its nursing nature or foster mother behaviors. of the study was statistically analyzed and compared
Āmalaka in present day is available in different sizes with the reports, which were collected from other
depending on the eco-climatic conditions, regions2.
geography/grafting and genomic variations, etc.
In Indian Systems of Medicine, use of 500 number Results and discussion
of Āmlā in many of the formulations in single lot has According to Bhāvaprakāś Samhitā, Triphalā is a
been described. However, variation in size and composite product of Haritaki, Bibhitaka & Āmalaka,
quantity of available pulp is the biggest limiting but no mention has been made whether they are to be
factors for the SOP (Standard Operative Procedure) mixed equal in number or in weight. However,
and standardization. Weight of 500 fresh Āmlā varies Caraka Samhitā and Sārangadhara Samhitā describe
from 2.5-25.25 kg. Not only physical weight of each Triphalā as the composite product of Haritaki,
______________ Bibhitaka & Āmalaka in the ratio of 1:2:4,
*Corresponding author respectively3.
DALAI et al.: VARIATIONS IN CYAVANAPRĀŚA INGREDIENTS 427
Table 1 — Weight of various sizes of Āmalaka and its yield (sample: Jaipur market, Rajasthan)
Wt. of 500 (10×50) Boiled composite Dry composite Pulp Dry pulp
Āmalaka (gm) seed (%) seed (%) (%) (%)
25,250 4.031 1.964 79.603 10.792
20,500 5.365 2.439 79.268 10.975
15,600 3.846 2.403 70.512 11.858
4,950 4.040 2.020 76.767 10.101
2,660 15.338 7.556 69.548 13.345
Above 5 experimental reports is the mean of three values
The weight of a good quality (srestha) Haritaki is 2 sugar for its preparation. Even in foot note (in first
karsa equal to 24 gm. edition), three times of the weight of fresh Āmlā, i.e.
Table 2 — Weight of various sizes of Āmalaka and its yield
uokfnxq.k ;qDrRoa rFkSok= f}d’kZrk A obtained (sample: Amaravati district, Maharastra state)
gjhrD;k% Qys;= };a rPNs’BeqP;rs AA Wt. of 500 Boiled composite Dry composite Dry pulp
(10×50) Āmalaka seed (%) seed (%) (%)
“Navādiguna yuktatwam tatheivātra dwikarsatā (gm)
Hritakyhā phaleyatra dwayam tachesthamucyate4” 2,700 14.184 7.407 12.592
2,450 16.734 7.755 12.500
Likewise, the weight of one good quality Bibhitaka 2,400 15.833 9.166 13.333
(karsa phala) is 12 gm. So, 2 Bibhitaka would be 24 2,150 18.372 10.232 13.953
gm. Hence, as per the principle of Triphalā, 4 1,735 21.733 11.54 20.196
Āmalaka must be 24 gm. This means use of equal Mean % = 17.371 9.22 14.514
weight of all the three constitutes, i.e. 24 gm is Table 3 — Weight of various sizes of Āmalaka (hybrid variety-
advocated while preparing Triphalā powder. On the cultivated) and its yield (sample: Azadpur Mandi, Delhi — A
above pretext, assuming 1 Āmalaka is equal to 6 gm, report of IMPCL)
500 Āmalaka would make 3 kg. Whether it is to be
Weight of 500 Boiled composite Pulp Dry pulp
taken in dry form or in fresh form is a subject of number of fresh seed (%) (%) (%)
consideration. According to the commentator Āmalaka (gm)
Ādhamalla (commentator of Sārangadhara Samhitā), 15,000 6.666 91.333 13.333
this is the dry value of the Āmalaka. The traditional 15,000 4 83.666 12.666
principle advocates, wet value should be two times or 13,500 5.555 83.333 11.111
double to that of dry value, i.e the weight of 500 fresh 15,000 5 56.666 7.333
Āmalaka should be taken as 6 kg (the dry value is 14,250 5.263 87.771 13.684
14,250 7.017 82.456 12.28
50% of wet value including the value of dry 10,250 4.87 17.073 9.756
composite seeds) 3. Dry composite seed varies from 2 13,250 6.037 84.905 11.32
to 12% (Tables 1-4). When the maximum percentage 15,000 4 65 8.333
(12%) is excluded, the rest (38%) is pure Āmalaka 11,750 8.51 85.1 14.042
17,500 7.142 85.714 12.857
powder, which does not go in consonance with the 12,500 8 96 14
result (13.894 %) of the report, which is the hiatus for 16,500 6.06 3.03 15.151
developing SOP for the formulations like 10,000 10 115 15
Cyavanaprāśa. 15,000 6.666 108.333 16.666
In case of Cyavanaprāśa, average weight of 500 20,000 5 82.5 12.5
18,000 5.555 81.944 13.055
number of Āmlā is taken into traditional consideration 18,500 5.405 85.135 13.513
to 6 kg fresh weight and if standard sugar (2.400 kg) 18,500 6.756 81.081 13.573
were to be added, would be inadequate for preparation 19,250 6.493 85.714 14.285
and would not be acceptable. At the same time, Mean % = 6.19975 85.518 12.722
Āyurvedic Formulary of India (AFI) mentions use of
2.5 kg for 500 number of fresh Āmalaka and 2.4 kg 7.5 kg of sugar was mentioned as a usual practice,
which was deleted in later edition.
428 INDIAN J TRADITIONAL KNOWLEDGE, VOL 6, No. 3, JULY 2007
In Siddha Yoga Sangrh, where the formula is enumerated to show that the variation in weight of
derived from Sārangdhara Samhitā and partially 500 Āmalaka is the hiatus for developing SOPs of the
modified by use of 12.288 kg (1 drona) of sugar for product like Cyavanaprāśa (complex drug).
Table 4 — Weight of various small sizes Āmalaka (wild variety) Āmalaka is equal to 6 gm and so 500 Āmalaka
and its yield (sample: Kumau Mandal Vikas Nigam Ltd, equaling to 3 kg, the wet form of Āmalaka can be
Uttaranchal state — A report of IMPCL)
taken into consideration. In Kalpa sthāna, Caraka
Weight of 500 Boiled composite Pulp Dry pulp
while classifying three types of deśas (the growing
number fresh seed (%) (%) (%) area) Āmalaka has been enumerated with Jāngala
Āmalaka (gm) desiya (wild trees). This shows that Āmalaka
collected and used in those days was mainly obtained
3,850 10.389 77.922 16.883
3,500 8.571 81.428 18.571
from wild trees. Wild Āmlā fruit is comparatively
3,850 14.285 76.623 16.883 richer in vitamin C content than cultivated varieties.
3,750 16 66.666 16 The wild variety was later designated as Ksudra
3,750 13.333 69.333 14.666 Dhātri (in Rāja Nighantu). Looking into the ratio of
3,850 12.987 77.922 16.883 sugar, AFI recommended 2.5 kg for the weight of 500
3,500 14.285 78.571 14.285
3,250 16.923 61.538 12.307 number of fresh Āmalaka in Cyavanaprāśa. Hence,
3,800 11.842 69.736 13.157 the weight of 500 number of fresh Āmalaka to be
4,000 13.75 78.75 13.75 taken as 2.5 kg in Cyavanaprāśa, needs to be
4,000 15.625 78.125 12.5 pharmacognostically as well as biologically examined
4,000 12.5 87.5 12.5
3,750 20 93.333 16.883
so that same quality of the drug is maintained
3,750 16 73.333 14.666 globally.
3,500 14.285 64.285 15
Mean % = 14.051 75.671 14.995 References
1 Ayurvedic Formulary of India, Part – I (ISMH, Govt. of
Mean report Yield of dry pulp i.e. India), 2003, 37.
Āmalaka in powder form (%) 2 Dalai Sujit Kumar & Dwivedi Laxmikant, Study of Free
1. - Report of Table - 1 (Exp No- 5) - 13.345 % Radical Scavenging Activity of Chyavanaprasha wsr to
Amalaki & Pippali, PG Thesis (Department of Rasa Shastra
- Report of Table - 2 - 14.514 %
& Bhaisajya Kalpana, National Institute of Ayurveda,
- Report of Table - 4 - 14.995 %
Jaipur), 2004, 119.
These reports are inconsonance with 3 Shastri Parsuram, Sarangadhara Samhita with the
wild variety commentary of Adhamalla’s Dipika and Kasiram’s
2. - Report of Table - 3 (hybrid variety) - 12.722 % Gudhartha Dipika, (Chaukhamba Orientalia Varanasi), 2002,
Total Mean value - 13.894 % 3, 179.
4 Mishra Brahma Shankar, Bhavaprakasha Samhita
500 number of fresh Āmlā (6 kg fresh weight) Haritakyadi varga, Vol I, (Chaukhamba Sanskrit Santha,
Varanasi), 1988, 6.
showing the double the quantity of sugar (more than 5 5 Acharya Yadavji Trikamji, Sidha Yoga Samgraha
times the standard, i.e. 2.400 kg)5. Boiling of 500 (Baidyanath Ayurved Bhavan Ltd, Nagpur), 2000, 78.
numbers of Āmlā with decoction results in pH change 6 Sharma Priyavrat, Cakradatta (Cikitsa Samgraha) of
due to variation in quantity and consequently acid Cakrapanidatta with Ratna Prabha, commentary by
soluble content would only be released accordingly. Mahamahopadhyaya Niscalakara, (Swami Jayaramdas
Ramprakasha Trust, Jaipur), 1993.
Changed pH can lead to hydrolysis/cleavage of 7 Sengupta Balaichandra, Caraka Samhita with Ayurveda
various bioactive molecules. Such as sugars, amino Dipika, commentary of Srimat Cakrapanidatta
acids, carbohydrates, alkaloids, proteins and phenols, (Chaukhambha Orientalia, Varanasi), 1991.
etc. which in turn may lead to change in elongative 8 Acarya Jadavaji TrikamaJi & Nandkishor, Susruta Samhita
(Sutrasthana) with Bhanumati, commentary by
phase of molecular synthesis. The variation in weight Cakrapanidatta (Shri Swami Laxmiram Trust, Jaipur), 1939.
of 500 Āmalaka would also lead to change in 9 Ram Prasad, Rajaballabha Nighantu, (Khemraj Srikrishna
consistency, efficacy, quality, colour and texture of Das, Sri Venkatswar Steam Mudranalaya, Bombay), 1911.
the product. All these are the gullies, which are