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  • 1. Ecosystems: Need to Know
    • Distribution, characteristics and adaptation of three ecosystems (coniferous and rain forests and savannah grasslands)
    • Human activity and impact on each ecosystem.
  • 2. Ecosystems: Keywords
    • Biodiversity
    • Coniferous woodland
    • Ecosystem
    • Hydrology
    • Savanna Grassland
    • Slash and burn
    • Soil
    • Tropical Rain Forest
    • Deforestation
    • Desertification
    • Sustainable Developemnt
  • 3. What is an Ecosystem?
    • A community of plants and animals which interact with each other and with the non-living environment.
  • 4. Living Creatures Ecosystem Links Vegetation Energy from the sun Rocks and Soil Climate
  • 5.  
  • 6.  
  • 7.  
  • 8. Nutrient cycle
  • 9. Nutrient Cycle Twigs and leaves fall to the ground and become ‘litter’ Decomposition (breaking down) of litter by termites, fungi and bacteria Nutrients enter the soil Soil is fertile Dense vegetation
  • 10.  
  • 11. What are the worlds major ecosystems (biomes)?
  • 12.  
  • 13. Coniferous forest otherwise known as: Taiga or Boreal
  • 14.  
  • 15. Reasons for distribution of Coniferous Forest
    • Very cold winters
    • Strong winds
    • Short warm summers
    • Low annual precipitation
    Only a few types of tree (pine, spruce) can survive the cold = no biodiversity
  • 16.  
  • 17.  
  • 18. Plant adaptations
    • Conical shape (flexible, bend in strong winds)
    • Downward sloping branches (snow slides off)
    • Needle leaves (Water loss by transpiration reduced)
    • Thick Bark (Protects from cold, sap contains anti freeze)
    • Evergreen (Must be ready for short growing seasons
  • 19.  
  • 20. Animal Adaptations
    • Colour change
    • Fur
    • Hibernation
    • Dig for food
  • 21.  
  • 22. Human Impacts
    • Deforestation
    • Tourism
    • Acid Rain
  • 23.  
  • 24.  
  • 25.  
  • 26. Tropical Rainforest Location
  • 27. Tropical Rainforest Climate
    • Hot all year round
    • Wet all year
    • High annual rainfall
    • No Seasons
    • Vegetation needs both of these
    • Extensive species eg mahogany and teak (massive bio diversity)
    • Only restriction to growth is access to sunlight
  • 28.
    • Leads to five layers
    • Great density of vegetation
    • Great height
    • Massive biodiversity
    • Evergreen trees (constant growth)
    • Thin Barks
    • Adaptations to reach sunlight
  • 29. Soils - Latosols
    • Deep soil
    • Red in colour
    • However high rainfall creates similar conditions to podsols, thin humus, rapid leaching then deposition
    • Minerals held in large quantity of leaf litter which is rapidly recycled
  • 30. Traditional Human Impact
    • Traditionally impact minimal
    • Access difficult
    • Hot, humid climate with many pests
    • Latosol soil soon found to be infertile on removal of vegetation
    • Highly specialised nomadic cultures only survived well
  • 31.  
  • 32.
    • RESOURCES
    • TRANSPORT
    • FARMING
    • SETTLEMENTS
    Modern Human Impact
  • 33. RESOURCES
  • 34. TRANSPORT
  • 35. SETTLEMENTS
  • 36. FARMING
  • 37.
    • RESOURCES
    • TRANSPORT
    • FARMING
    • SETTLEMENTS
    Modern Human Impact Leads To DEFFORESTATION
  • 38.  
  • 39.  
  • 40. Consequences
  • 41. What is Sustainable development?
  • 42. What is sustainable development?
    • "Development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs." - The United Nations World Commission on Environment and Development
  • 43. Liana project
    • Founded in 1995, the Liana Project coordinates the efforts of skilled people within the forest communities of the Brazilian Government’s Extractive Reserves.
    • By creating locally controlled micro-enterprises that use sustainably harvested vines and natural fibers to make furniture and decorative goods, the project integrates forest conservation, local economic development, and the preservation of traditional skills.
  • 44. There are six aims
    • Improve quality of life of locals
    • Provide secure income for locals
    • Develop ways of increasing production without debt
    • To conserve the environment
    • To encourage re-use
    • To develop technology which is appropriate to the skills, wealth and needs of locals
  • 45.  
  • 46.  
  • 47.  
  • 48.  
  • 49.  
  • 50.  
  • 51.  
  • 52.  
  • 53.  
  • 54. Products made with amazonian fibres
  • 55. You MUST know a full case study for human impact in a Tropical rainforest – recommend AMAZON
  • 56. Where do we find tropical grasslands?
  • 57. Climate Graph for Serengeti, Tanzania
  • 58.  
  • 59.  
  • 60. Tropical Grassland/Savanna
    • Tall tufted grasses with the occasional tree or shrub
    • Close to streams and rivers cover including trees may increase
    • Moderate biodiversity
    • Two main layers of vegetation
    • Extensive animal life
  • 61.  
  • 62. Savanna Soil
    • Hot temps = high evaporation rates
    • Upward movement of water carries dissolved minerals eg calcium
    • Minerals deposited in upper layers = rich soil
    • Litter layer large especially at the start of the dry season
    • Decomposition rapid in wet season, much slower in dry season
  • 63. Adaptation
  • 64.
    • Areas of bare ground
    • Drought Resistance – deciduous trees that lose leaves during dry season. b
  • 65.  
  • 66.  
  • 67. Scavengers – an essential part of the food chain
  • 68. Flora of tropical grasslands
  • 69. How is this plant adapted to its environment?
  • 70. How has this tree adapted to the climate?
  • 71.  
  • 72.  
  • 73.  
  • 74.  
  • 75.  
  • 76.  
  • 77. ECOTOURISM
  • 78.  
  • 79.  
  • 80.  
  • 81. Case Study: The Serengeti
  • 82. The biggest threat facing tropical grasslands is desertification
  • 83. DESERTIFICATION
    • What is desertification ?
    Desertification is when a desert gradually spreads to the surrounding areas of semi-desert
  • 84. DESERTIFICATION
    • What is desertification ?
    Desertification is when a desert gradually spreads to the surrounding areas of semi-desert As tropical grassland buffers the edge of many deserts it is particularly vulnerable to desertification
  • 85.  
  • 86.  
  • 87. What might cause desertification? Brainstorm your ideas
  • 88.  
  • 89.  
  • 90.  
  • 91. MEMORY MAPS Drought in the Sahel
  • 92.
    • * * * * NEWS FLASH * * * *
    • MONDAY 22 ND MARCH 1973
    • DROUGHTS HAVE PLAGUED THE LAND HERE IN THE SAHEL STRETCHING FROM WEST AFRICA EASTWARDS FOR FIVE YEARS BUT IS DROUGHT HERE REALLY THE PROBLEM?
    • LAND USE PRACTISES HAVE CAUSED THE DEATHS OF MORE THAN 100,000 PEOPLE
    • OVER 12 MILLION CATTLE HAVE DIED
    • SOCIAL ORGANISATIONS HAVE BEEN DISRUPTED ON A NATIONAL SCALE
  • 93. The SAHEL The Sahel is located in the southern region of the Sahara desert, Africa.
  • 94.
    • The Sahel regions are areas which experience
    • desertification.
  • 95.
    • Why does the Sahel suffer from desertification?
    DESERTIFICATION Increase in population Increase in cattle Deforestation for fire wood Grassland grazed more intensively Roots no longer hold soil together Roots may be eaten as well as grass Leaves no longer protect soil from weather Less vegetation means less protection from weather Loose top soil blown away by wind (Soil Erosion) = Loose top soil blown away by wind (Soil Erosion) = DESERTIFICATION
  • 96.  
  • 97.  
  • 98.  
  • 99.