THE HISTORY OF SLAVERY IN AMERICAAN INTERACTIVE MULTI-MEDIA TUTORIAL            RBG Street Scholar              7/1/2012 U...
Page 1 of 60                                   Related RBG Wikizine                          RBG Black History Month 24/7/...
Page 2 of 60Companion Video Series:                                      Click Here to OpenTHE HISTORY OF SLAVERY IN AMERI...
Page 3 of 60                                      500 Years Later Clips                                   Click to open gi...
Page 4 of 60An animation showing when United States territories and states forbade or allowed slavery, 1789-1861.         ...
Page 5 of 60                           COMPANION DOCUMENTS/ MEDIA:Slavery and the Making                                  ...
Page 6 of 60                    The following text has modified from Wikipedia       (Image and video embellishment by thi...
Page 7 of 60Twelve million Africans were shipped to the Americas from the 16th to the 19thcenturies.[4][5] Of these, an es...
Page 8 of 60                             See RBG Video: Click Here to OpenSlaves on a Virginia plantation (The Old Plantat...
Page 9 of 60                                                  Shortly after the Elizabeth Key trial, in                   ...
Page 10 of 60But there was popular support for slavery and skillful lobbying by the colonists, and in1750 slavery again be...
Page 11 of 60THE HISTORY OF SLAVERY IN AMERICA: AN INTERACTIVE MULTI-MEDIA TUTORIALRBG Street Scholar/July 2012 Update
Page 12 of 601776 to 1850Second Middle PassageThe growing demand of cotton led many plantation owners west in search for m...
Page 13 of 60300,000 were transported, with Alabama and Mississippi receiving 100,000 each. Everydecade between 1810 and 1...
Page 14 of 60Once the trip was ended, slaves faced a life on the frontier significantly different fromtheir experiences ba...
Page 15 of 60According to both the Pulitzer Prize-winning historian David Brion Davis and historianEugene Genovese, treatm...
Page 16 of 60Bill of sale for the auction of the "Negro Boy Jacob" for "Eighty Dollars and a half" tosatisfy a money judge...
Page 17 of 60Plantation owners would sometimes hang their slaves because the slave was causingmore trouble than he was wor...
Page 18 of 60By law, slave owners could be fined for not punishing recaptured runaway slaves. Slavecodes authorized, indem...
Page 19 of 60Some slave women were used for breeding more slaves. Plantation owners would haveintimate relations with a fe...
Page 20 of 60Receipt for $500.00 payment for slave, 1840. (US$10,300 adjusted for inflation as of 2007.)"Recd of Judge S. ...
Page 21 of 60chef. Two sons trained as carpenters. Three of his four surviving mixed-race childrenwith Sally Hemings passe...
Page 22 of 60                                              Slave Codes                                       To help regul...
Page 23 of 60slavery among white Southerners, who profited greatly from the system of enslavedlabor. These slave owners be...
Page 24 of 60Slave uprisings that used armed force (1700–1859) include:Part of a series of articles on...         New Yor...
Page 25 of 60Rising tensionsThe economic value of plantation slavery was magnified in 1793 with the invention ofthe cotton...
Page 26 of 60Just as demand for slaves was increasing, the supply was restricted. The United StatesConstitution, adopted i...
Page 27 of 60Internal Slave TradeSlave traders business in Atlanta, Georgia, 1864. (Note building with sign reading"Auctio...
Page 28 of 60largest slave market and important shipping—was the third largest city in the countryand the wealthiest.Becau...
Page 29 of 60likewise divided north and south. By the late 1850s only the Democratic Party was anational institution, alth...
Page 30 of 60  Total Slave Population in US 1790-1860, by State[70]  Census                 1790     1800        1810     ...
Page 31 of 60  Missouri       -        -           -        10,222   25,096     58,240   87,422     114,931  Nebraska     ...
Page 32 of 60      Excluding slaves, the 1860 U.S. population was 27,167,529, yielding about 1 in       70 free persons (...
Page 33 of 60If a white person assemble with negroes for the purpose of instructing them to read orwrite, or if he associa...
Page 34 of 60not bar slavery from a territory; and people of African descent imported into the UnitedStates and held as sl...
Page 35 of 60Civil WarThe consequent American Civil War, beginning in 1861, led to the end of chattel slaveryin America. N...
Page 36 of 601862, when it became clear that this would be a long war, the question of what to doabout slavery became more...
Page 37 of 601862 on, the line of Shermans march, etc. So many African Americans fled to Unionlines that commanders create...
Page 38 of 60SharecroppingAn 1867 federal law prohibited a descendant form of slavery known as sharecropping ordebt bondag...
Page 39 of 60Some of the schools took years to reach a high standard, but they managed to getthousands of teachers started...
Page 40 of 60We have the wolf by the ear, and we can neither hold him, nor safely let him go. Justiceis in one scale, and ...
Page 41 of 60civilization, and refinement. It constitutes the very mud-sill of society and of politicalgovernment; and you...
Page 42 of 60statehood in 1850 to 1867.[105] Slavery required the posting of a bond by the slaveholder and enslavement occ...
Page 43 of 60Indian slavery after the Emancipation ProclamationA few captives from other tribes who were used as slaves we...
THE HISTORY OF SLAVERY IN AMERICA: AN INTERACTIVE MULTI-MEDIA TUTORIAL RBG Street Scholar/July 2012 Update
THE HISTORY OF SLAVERY IN AMERICA: AN INTERACTIVE MULTI-MEDIA TUTORIAL RBG Street Scholar/July 2012 Update
THE HISTORY OF SLAVERY IN AMERICA: AN INTERACTIVE MULTI-MEDIA TUTORIAL RBG Street Scholar/July 2012 Update
THE HISTORY OF SLAVERY IN AMERICA: AN INTERACTIVE MULTI-MEDIA TUTORIAL RBG Street Scholar/July 2012 Update
THE HISTORY OF SLAVERY IN AMERICA: AN INTERACTIVE MULTI-MEDIA TUTORIAL RBG Street Scholar/July 2012 Update
THE HISTORY OF SLAVERY IN AMERICA: AN INTERACTIVE MULTI-MEDIA TUTORIAL RBG Street Scholar/July 2012 Update
THE HISTORY OF SLAVERY IN AMERICA: AN INTERACTIVE MULTI-MEDIA TUTORIAL RBG Street Scholar/July 2012 Update
THE HISTORY OF SLAVERY IN AMERICA: AN INTERACTIVE MULTI-MEDIA TUTORIAL RBG Street Scholar/July 2012 Update
THE HISTORY OF SLAVERY IN AMERICA: AN INTERACTIVE MULTI-MEDIA TUTORIAL RBG Street Scholar/July 2012 Update
THE HISTORY OF SLAVERY IN AMERICA: AN INTERACTIVE MULTI-MEDIA TUTORIAL RBG Street Scholar/July 2012 Update
THE HISTORY OF SLAVERY IN AMERICA: AN INTERACTIVE MULTI-MEDIA TUTORIAL RBG Street Scholar/July 2012 Update
THE HISTORY OF SLAVERY IN AMERICA: AN INTERACTIVE MULTI-MEDIA TUTORIAL RBG Street Scholar/July 2012 Update
THE HISTORY OF SLAVERY IN AMERICA: AN INTERACTIVE MULTI-MEDIA TUTORIAL RBG Street Scholar/July 2012 Update
THE HISTORY OF SLAVERY IN AMERICA: AN INTERACTIVE MULTI-MEDIA TUTORIAL RBG Street Scholar/July 2012 Update
THE HISTORY OF SLAVERY IN AMERICA: AN INTERACTIVE MULTI-MEDIA TUTORIAL RBG Street Scholar/July 2012 Update
THE HISTORY OF SLAVERY IN AMERICA: AN INTERACTIVE MULTI-MEDIA TUTORIAL RBG Street Scholar/July 2012 Update
THE HISTORY OF SLAVERY IN AMERICA: AN INTERACTIVE MULTI-MEDIA TUTORIAL RBG Street Scholar/July 2012 Update
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THE HISTORY OF SLAVERY IN AMERICA: AN INTERACTIVE MULTI-MEDIA TUTORIAL RBG Street Scholar/July 2012 Update

  1. 1. THE HISTORY OF SLAVERY IN AMERICAAN INTERACTIVE MULTI-MEDIA TUTORIAL RBG Street Scholar 7/1/2012 Updates
  2. 2. Page 1 of 60 Related RBG Wikizine RBG Black History Month 24/7/365 Wikizine ICEBREAKER mp3 / Click and Play or Download play Dr. Amos Wilson — Histroy as an Instrument of Power Our Enslaved Ancestors tell their Stories: Click and play and/or Download Play Mr Hughs — Voices of Our Enslaved Ancestors play Mr Hugehs Cont. and Beating — Voices …play Laura — Voices of Our Enslaved Ancestorplay Painful Beating and Resistance — Voices…THE HISTORY OF SLAVERY IN AMERICA: AN INTERACTIVE MULTI-MEDIA TUTORIALRBG Street Scholar/July 2012 Update
  3. 3. Page 2 of 60Companion Video Series: Click Here to OpenTHE HISTORY OF SLAVERY IN AMERICA: AN INTERACTIVE MULTI-MEDIA TUTORIALRBG Street Scholar/July 2012 Update
  4. 4. Page 3 of 60 500 Years Later Clips Click to open gif animationTHE HISTORY OF SLAVERY IN AMERICA: AN INTERACTIVE MULTI-MEDIA TUTORIALRBG Street Scholar/July 2012 Update
  5. 5. Page 4 of 60An animation showing when United States territories and states forbade or allowed slavery, 1789-1861. RBG- The Ojays Ship Ahoy-The CaptureTHE HISTORY OF SLAVERY IN AMERICA: AN INTERACTIVE MULTI-MEDIA TUTORIALRBG Street Scholar/July 2012 Update
  6. 6. Page 5 of 60 COMPANION DOCUMENTS/ MEDIA:Slavery and the Making The RBG Family Maafaof America, Program 1: & Reparations Video The Downward Spiral Conference Page RBG Reparations Series-Essays on Topics of SlaveryTHE HISTORY OF SLAVERY IN AMERICA: AN INTERACTIVE MULTI-MEDIA TUTORIALRBG Street Scholar/July 2012 Update
  7. 7. Page 6 of 60 The following text has modified from Wikipedia (Image and video embellishment by this editor for enhanced educational purposes) Peter, a man who was enslaved in Baton Rouge, Louisiana, 1863, whose scars resulted from violent abuse by a plantation overseer. Photo on file with U.S. National Archives and Records Administration, online at archives.gov among others. [3]. Slavery in the United States lasted as a legal institution until the passage of the Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution in 1865. It had its origins with the first English colonization of North America in Virginia in 1607, although African slaves were brought to Spanish Florida as early as the 1560s.[1] Most slaves were black and were held by whites, although some Native Americans and free blacks also held slaves; there was a small number of white slaves as well. Slaves were spread to the areas where there was good quality soil for large plantations of high value cash crops, such as cotton, sugar, and coffee. The majority of slaveholders were in the southern United States, where most slaves were engaged inan efficient machine-like gang system of agriculture, with farms of fifteen or more slavesproving to be far more productive than farms without slaves. Also, these large groups ofslaves were thought to work more efficiently if guarded by a managerial class calledoverseers to ensure that the slaves did not waste a second of movement.From 1654 until 1865, slavery for life was legal within the boundaries of much of thepresent United States.[2] Before the widespread establishment of chattel slavery(outright ownership of the slave), much labor was organized under a system of bondedlabor known as indentured servitude. This typically lasted for several years for white andblack alike, and it was a means of using labor to pay the costs of transporting people tothe colonies.[3] By the 18th century, court rulings established the racial basis of theAmerican incarnation of slavery to apply chiefly to Black Africans and people of Africandescent, and occasionally to Native Americans. In part because of the success oftobacco as a cash crop in the Southern colonies, its labor-intensive character causedplanters to import more slaves for labor by the end of the 17th century than did thenorthern colonies. The South had a significantly high number and proportion of slaves inthe population.[3]THE HISTORY OF SLAVERY IN AMERICA: AN INTERACTIVE MULTI-MEDIA TUTORIALRBG Street Scholar/July 2012 Update
  8. 8. Page 7 of 60Twelve million Africans were shipped to the Americas from the 16th to the 19thcenturies.[4][5] Of these, an estimated 645,000 were brought to what is now the UnitedStates. The largest number were shipped to Brazil (see slavery in Brazil).[6] The slavepopulation in the United States had grown to four million by the 1860 Census.[7]Slavery was one of the principal issues leading to the American Civil War. After theUnion prevailed in the war, slavery was abolished throughout the United States with theadoption of the Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution.[8]Colonial AmericaThe first record of African slavery in Colonial America was made in 1619. A Britishpirate ship under the Dutch flag, the White Lion, had captured 20 Angolan slaves in abattle with a Portuguese ship, the São João Baptista, bound for Veracruz, Mexico[9]. TheAngolans were from the kingdoms of Ndongo and Kongo, and spoke languages of theBantu group[9]. The White Lion had been damaged first by the battle and then moreseverely in a great storm during the late summer when it came ashore at Old PointComfort, site of present day Fort Monroe in Virginia. Though the colony was in themiddle of a period later known as "The Great Migration" (1618–1623), during which itspopulation grew from 450 to 4,000 residents, extremely high mortality rates fromdisease, malnutrition, and war with Native Americans kept the population of able-bodiedlaborers low[10]. With the Dutch ship being in severe need of repairs and supplies andthe colonists being in need of able-bodied workers, the human cargo was traded forfood and services.In addition to African slaves, Europeans, mostly Irish,[11] Scottish,[12] English, andGermans,[13] were brought over in substantial numbers as indentured servants,[14]particularly in the British Thirteen Colonies.[15] Over half of all white immigrants to theEnglish colonies of North America during the 17th and 18th centuries might have beenindentured servants.[16] In the 18th century numerous Europeans traveled to thecolonies as redemptioners.[17] The white citizens of Virginia, who had arrived fromBritain, decided to treat the first Africans in Virginia as indentured servants. As withEuropean indentured servants, the Africans were freed after a stated period and giventhe use of land and supplies by their former owners. Anthony Johnson, a formerindentured servant from Africa, became a landowner on the Eastern Shore and a slave-owner.[18] The major problem with indentured servants was that, in time, they would befreed, but they were unlikely to become prosperous. The best lands in the tidewaterregions were already in the hands of wealthy plantation families by 1650, and the formerservants became an underclass. Bacons Rebellion showed that the poor laborers andfarmers could prove a dangerous element to the wealthy landowners. By switching topure chattel slavery, new white laborers and small farmers were mostly limited to thosewho could afford to immigrate and support themselves. In addition, improving economicconditions in England meant that fewer laborers wanted to migrate to the colonies asindentured servants, so the planters needed to find new sources of labor.THE HISTORY OF SLAVERY IN AMERICA: AN INTERACTIVE MULTI-MEDIA TUTORIALRBG Street Scholar/July 2012 Update
  9. 9. Page 8 of 60 See RBG Video: Click Here to OpenSlaves on a Virginia plantation (The Old Plantation, c. 1790)The transformation from indentured servitude to racial slavery happened gradually.There were no laws regarding slavery early in Virginias history. However, by 1640, theVirginia courts had sentenced at least one black servant to slavery.In 1654, John Casor, a black man, became the first legally recognized slave in thepresent United States. A court in Northampton County ruled against Casor, declaringhim property for life, "owned" by the black colonist Anthony Johnson. Since personswith African origins were not English citizens by birth, they were not necessarily coveredby English Common Law. Elizabeth Key Grinstead successfully gained her freedom inthe Virginia courts in 1656 by making her case as the baptized Christian daughter offree Englishman Thomas Key.[19]THE HISTORY OF SLAVERY IN AMERICA: AN INTERACTIVE MULTI-MEDIA TUTORIALRBG Street Scholar/July 2012 Update
  10. 10. Page 9 of 60 Shortly after the Elizabeth Key trial, in 1662 Virginia passed a law on partus, stating that any children of an enslaved mother would follow her status and automatically be slaves, no matter if the father was a freeborn Englishman. This institutionalized the power relationships and confined the possible scandal of mixed-race children to within the slave quarters. The Virginia Slave codes of 1705 further defined as slaves those people imported from nations that were not Christian, as well as Native Americans who were sold to colonists by other Native Americans. See: Native Americans in the United States In 1735, the trustees of the colony of Georgia passed a law to prohibit slavery, which was then legal in the 12 other colonies. It was meant to eliminate the risk of slave rebellions and make Georgiabetter able to defend against attacks from the Spanish to the south. It also supportedthe vision of Georgias original charter - to turn some of Englands poor into hardworkingsmall farmers. [20][21]The protestant scottish highlanders who settled what is now Darien GA added a moralanti-slavery argument, which was rare at the time, in their 1739 "Petition of theInhabitants of New Inverness":It is shocking to human Nature, that any Race of Mankind and their Posterity should besentancd to perpetualSlavery; nor in Justice can we think otherwise of it, that they are thrown amongst us tobe our Scourge one Day or other for our Sins: And as Freedom must be as dear to themas it is to us, what a Scene of Horror must it bring about! And the longer it isunexecuted, the bloody Scene must be the greater.—Inhabitants of New Inverness , [20][22]THE HISTORY OF SLAVERY IN AMERICA: AN INTERACTIVE MULTI-MEDIA TUTORIALRBG Street Scholar/July 2012 Update
  11. 11. Page 10 of 60But there was popular support for slavery and skillful lobbying by the colonists, and in1750 slavery again became legal in Georgia.During most of the British colonial period, slavery existed in all the colonies. Peopleenslaved in the North typically worked as house servants, artisans, laborers andcraftsmen, with the greater number in cities. Early on, slaves in the South workedprimarily in agriculture, on farms and plantations growing indigo, rice, and tobacco;cotton became a major crop after the 1790s. Tobacco was very labor intensive, as wasrice cultivation.[23] In South Carolina in 1720 about 65% of the population consisted ofslaves.[24] Slaves were used by rich farmers and plantation owners who cultivate cropsfor commercial export operations. Backwoods subsistence farmers, a later wave ofsettlers, seldom owned slaves.Some of the British colonies attempted to abolish the international slave trade, fearingthat the importation of new Africans would be disruptive. Virginia bills to that effect werevetoed by the British Privy Council; Rhode Island forbade the import of slaves in 1774.All of the colonies except Georgia had banned or limited the African slave trade by1786; Georgia did so in 1798 - although some of these laws were later repealed.[25]The British West Africa Squadrons slave trade suppression activities were assisted byforces from the United States Navy, starting in 1820 with the USS Cyane. Initially, thisconsisted of a few ships. With the Webster-Ashburton Treaty of 1842, the relationshipwas formalised and they jointly ran the Africa Squadron.[26]THE HISTORY OF SLAVERY IN AMERICA: AN INTERACTIVE MULTI-MEDIA TUTORIALRBG Street Scholar/July 2012 Update
  12. 12. Page 11 of 60THE HISTORY OF SLAVERY IN AMERICA: AN INTERACTIVE MULTI-MEDIA TUTORIALRBG Street Scholar/July 2012 Update
  13. 13. Page 12 of 601776 to 1850Second Middle PassageThe growing demand of cotton led many plantation owners west in search for moresuitable land. It was for this reason that slavery did not spread to the north, insteadspreading west.[27] Historian Peter Kolchin wrote, "By breaking up existing families andforcing slaves to relocate far from everyone and everything they knew" this migration"replicated (if on a reduced level) many of [the] horrors" of the Atlantic slave trade.[28]Historian Ira Berlin called this forced migration the Second Middle Passage.Characterizing it as the "central event” in the life of a slave between the AmericanRevolution and the Civil War, Berlin wrote that whether they were uprooted themselvesor simply lived in fear that they or their families would be involuntarily moved, "themassive deportation traumatized black people, both slave and free."[29]Although complete statistics are lacking, it is estimated that 1,000,000 slaves movedwest from the Old South between 1790 and 1860. Most of the slaves were moved fromMaryland, Virginia, and the Carolinas. Originally the points of destination were Kentuckyand Tennessee, but after 1810 the states of the Deep South: Georgia, Alabama,Mississippi, Louisiana and Texas received the most. This corresponded to the massiveexpansion of cotton cultivation in that region, which needed labor. In the 1830s, almostTHE HISTORY OF SLAVERY IN AMERICA: AN INTERACTIVE MULTI-MEDIA TUTORIALRBG Street Scholar/July 2012 Update
  14. 14. Page 13 of 60300,000 were transported, with Alabama and Mississippi receiving 100,000 each. Everydecade between 1810 and 1860 had at least 100,000 slaves moved from their state oforigin. In the final decade before the Civil War, 250,000 were moved. Michael Tadman,in a 1989 book Speculators and Slaves: Masters, Traders, and Slaves in the Old South,indicates that 60-70% of interregional migrations were the result of the sale of slaves. In1820 a child in the Upper South had a 30% chance of being sold south by 1860.[30]Slave traders were responsible for the majority of the slaves that moved west. Only aminority moved with their families and existing owner. Slave traders had little interest inpurchasing or transporting intact slave families, although in the interest of creating a"self-reproducing labor force", equal numbers of men and women were transported.Berlin wrote, "The internal slave trade became the largest enterprise in the Southoutside the plantation itself, and probably the most advanced in its employment ofmodern transportation, finance, and publicity." The slave trade industry developed itsown unique language with terms such as "prime hands, bucks, breeding wenches, andfancy girls" coming into common use.[31] The expansion of the interstate slave tradecontributed to the "economic revival of once depressed seaboard states" as demandaccelerated the value of the slaves who were subject to sale.[32]Some traders moved their "chattels" by sea, with Norfolk to New Orleans being the mostcommon route, but most slaves were forced to walk. Regular migration routes wereestablished and were served by a network of slave pens, yards, and warehousesneeded as temporary housing for the slaves. As the trek advanced, some slaves weresold and new ones purchased. Berlin concluded, "In all, the slave trade, with its hubsand regional centers, its spurs and circuits, reached into every cranny of southernsociety. Few southerners, black or white, were untouched."[33]The death rate for the slaves on their way to their new destination across the AmericanSouth was much less than that of the captives across the Atlantic Ocean. Mortality wasstill higher than the normal death rate. Berlin summarizes the experience:... the Second Middle Passage was extraordinarily lonely, debilitating, and dispiriting.Capturing the mournful character of one southward marching coffle, an observercharacterized it as "a procession of men, women, and children resembling that of afuneral." Indeed, with men and women dying on the march or being sold and resold,slaves became not merely commodified but cut off from nearly every humanattachment....Murder and mayhem made the Second Middle Passage almost as dangerous fortraders as it was for slaves, which was why the men were chained tightly and guardedclosely. ... The coffles that marched slaves southward – like the slave ships that carriedtheir ancestors westward – became mobile fortresses, and under such circumstances,flight was more common than revolt. Slaves found it easier – and far less perilous – toslip into the night and follow the North Star to the fabled land of freedom than toconfront their heavily armed overlords.[34]THE HISTORY OF SLAVERY IN AMERICA: AN INTERACTIVE MULTI-MEDIA TUTORIALRBG Street Scholar/July 2012 Update
  15. 15. Page 14 of 60Once the trip was ended, slaves faced a life on the frontier significantly different fromtheir experiences back east. Clearing trees and starting crops on virgin fields was harshand backbreaking work. A combination of inadequate nutrition, bad water, andexhaustion from both the journey and the work weakened the newly arrived slaves andproduced casualties. The preferred locations of the new plantations at rivers edges,with mosquitoes and other environmental challenges, threatened the survival of slaves.They had acquired only limited immunities in their previous homes. The death rate wassuch that, in the first few years of hewing a plantation out of the wilderness, someplanters preferred whenever possible to use rented slaves rather than their own.[35]The harsh conditions on the frontier increased slave resistance and led to much morereliance on violence by the owners and overseers. Many of the slaves were new tocotton fields and unaccustomed to the "sunrise-to-sunset gang labor" required by theirnew life. Slaves were driven much harder than when they were involved in growingtobacco or wheat back east. Slaves also had less time and opportunity to improve thequality of their lives by raising their own livestock or tending vegetable gardens, foreither their own consumption or trade, as they could in the eastern south.[36]In Louisiana it was sugar, rather than cotton, that was the main crop. Between 1810 and1830 the number of slaves increased from under 10,000 to over 42,000. New Orleansbecame nationally important as a slave port and by the 1840s had the largest slavemarket in the country. Dealing with sugar cane was even more physically demandingthan growing cotton. Planters preferred young males, who represented two-thirds of theslave purchases. The largely young, unmarried male slave force made the reliance onviolence by the owners “especially savage.”[37]Treatment of slaves Historian Kenneth M. Stampp describes the role of coercion in slavery, "Without the power to punish, which the state conferred upon the master, bondage could not have existed. By comparison, all other techniques of control were of secondary importance."[38] Stampp further notes that while rewards sometimes led slaves to perform adequately, most agreed with an Arkansas slaveholder, who wrote: Now, I speak what I know, when I say it is like ‘casting pearls before swine to try to persuade a negro to work. He must be made to work, and should always be given to understand that if he fails to perform his duty he will be punished for it.[38]THE HISTORY OF SLAVERY IN AMERICA: AN INTERACTIVE MULTI-MEDIA TUTORIALRBG Street Scholar/July 2012 Update
  16. 16. Page 15 of 60According to both the Pulitzer Prize-winning historian David Brion Davis and historianEugene Genovese, treatment of slaves was both harsh and inhumane. Whetherlaboring or walking about in public, people living as slaves were regulated by legallyauthorized violence. Davis makes the point that, while some aspects of slavery took ona "welfare capitalist" look,Yet we must never forget that these same "welfare capitalist" plantations in the DeepSouth were essentially ruled by terror. Even the most kindly and humane masters knewthat only the threat of violence could force gangs of field hands to work from dawn todusk "with the discipline," as one contemporary observer put it, "of a regular trainedarmy." Frequent public floggings reminded every slave of the penalty for inefficientlabor, disorderly conduct, or refusal to accept the authority of a superior.[39]THE HISTORY OF SLAVERY IN AMERICA: AN INTERACTIVE MULTI-MEDIA TUTORIALRBG Street Scholar/July 2012 Update
  17. 17. Page 16 of 60Bill of sale for the auction of the "Negro Boy Jacob" for "Eighty Dollars and a half" tosatisfy a money judgement against the "property" of his owner, Prettyman Boyce.October 10, 1807Slaves that worked and lived on plantations were commonly punished. This punishmentcould come from the plantation owner or master, his wife, children (white males), andmost often by the overseer. Slaves were punished with a variety of objects andinstruments. Some of these included: whips, placed in chains and shackles, variouscontraptions such as metal collars, being hanged, and even forced to walk atreadmill.[40] Those who inflicted pain upon the slaves also used weapons such asknives, guns, field tools, and objects found nearby. The Whip was the most commonform of punishment performed on a slave. One slave said that, “The only punishmentthat I ever heard or knew of being administered slaves was whipping,” although heknew several that had been beaten to death for offenses such as sassing a whiteperson, hitting another negro, fussing, or fighting in their quarters.[41] Slave overseerswere authorized to whip and brutalize non-compliant slaves. According to an account bya plantation overseer to a visitor, "Some Negroes are determined never to let a whiteman whip them and will resist you, when you attempt it; of course you must kill them inthat case".[42] A former slave describes his witness to females being whipped. “Theyusually screamed and prayed, though a few never made a sound.” [43] If the womenwere pregnant they often dug a hole for them to place their bellies in while beingwhipped. After many of the slaves were whipped they would further torment the slavesby bursting the blisters and rubbing them with turpentine and red pepper. Otherincidents reported that after being beaten they would take a brick, grind it up into apowder, mix it with lard and rub it all over them.[41]Metal collars were also commonly used so that the slave would be reminded of hiswrongdoings. Many collars were thick and heavy; they would often have spikesprotruding, hassling the slave while doing fieldwork and preventing them from sleepinglying down. Louis Cain, a former slave describes his witness to another slave beingpunished, “One nigger run to the woods to be a jungle nigger, but massa cotched himwith the dog and took a hot iron and brands him. Then he put a bell on him, in a woodenframe what slip over the shoulders and under the arms. He made that nigger wear thebell a year and took it off on Christmas for a present to him. It sho’ did make a goodnigger out of him.” [41]THE HISTORY OF SLAVERY IN AMERICA: AN INTERACTIVE MULTI-MEDIA TUTORIALRBG Street Scholar/July 2012 Update
  18. 18. Page 17 of 60Plantation owners would sometimes hang their slaves because the slave was causingmore trouble than he was worth or the owner didn’t deem them valuable any more]Slaves were punished for a variety of reasons, most of the time it was for working tooslow, breaking a law such as running away, leaving the plantation without permission, ornot following orders given to them. Myers and Massy describe the extent of manypunishers, “The punishment of deviant slaves was decentralized, based on plantations,and crafted so as not to impede their value as laborers.” [44] Laws made to punish thewhites for punishing their slaves were often weakly enforced or could be easily avoided.An example being in the case Smith v. Hancock, here the defendant was justified inpunishing his slave with physical abuse because he showed the courts that the slavewas attending an unlawful meeting, discussing rebellion, that he refused to surrender,and resisted the arresting officer by force.[45] Whites often punished slaves in front ofothers to make an example out of them. A man named Harding describes an incidentwhere a woman assisted several men in a small rebellion, “The women he hoisted upby the thumbs, whipp’d and slashed her with knives before the other slaves till shedied.” [46] Men and women were sometimes punished differently than the other sex,according to the 1789 report of the Committee of the Privy Council, males were oftenshackled and women and girls were left freely to go about.[46]THE HISTORY OF SLAVERY IN AMERICA: AN INTERACTIVE MULTI-MEDIA TUTORIALRBG Street Scholar/July 2012 Update
  19. 19. Page 18 of 60By law, slave owners could be fined for not punishing recaptured runaway slaves. Slavecodes authorized, indemnified or even required the use of violence, and weredenounced by abolitionists for their brutality. Both slaves and free blacks were regulatedby the Black Codes and had their movements monitored by slave patrols conscriptedfrom the white population which were allowed to use summary punishment againstescapees, sometimes maiming or killing them. In addition to physical abuse andmurder, slaves were at constant risk of losing members of their families if their ownersdecided to trade them for profit, punishment, or to pay debts. A few slaves retaliated bymurdering owners and overseers, burning barns, killing horses, or staging workslowdowns.[47] Stampp, without contesting Genoveses assertions concerning theviolence and sexual exploitation faced by slaves, does question the appropriateness ofa Marxian approach in analyzing the owner-slave relationship.[48]Genovese claims that because the slaves were the legal property of their owners, it wasnot unusual for enslaved black women to be raped by their owners, members of theirowners families, or their owners friends. Children who resulted from such rapes wereslaves as well because they took the status of their mothers, unless freed by theslaveholder. Nell Irwin Painter and other historians have also documented that Southernhistory went "across the color line." Contemporary accounts by Mary Chesnut andFanny Kemble, both married in the planter class, as well as accounts by former slavesgathered under the Works Progress Administration (WPA), all attested to the abuse ofwomen slaves by white men of the owning and overseer class.However, the Nobel economist Robert Fogel controversially describes as a myth thebelief that slave-breeding and sexual exploitation destroyed black families. He arguesthat the family was the basic unit of social organization under slavery, and to theeconomic interest of slave owners to encourage the stability of slave families, and mostof them did so. Most slave sales were either of whole families or of individuals at an agewhen it would have been normal for them to leave the family.[49] However, eyewitnesstestimony from former slaves does not support Fogels view. Frederick Douglass, whogrew up as a slave in Maryland, reported the systematic separation of slave familiesand widespread rape of slave women to boost slave numbers.[50]In the early 1930s, members of the Federal Writers Project interviewed former slaves,and in doing so, produced the only known original recordings of former slaves. In 2007,the interviews were remastered and reproduced on modern CDs and in book form inconjunction with the Library of Congress, Smithsonian Productions and a national radioproject. In the book and CD oral history project called Remembering Slavery: AfricanAmericans Talk About Their Personal Experiences of Slavery and Emancipation, theeditors wrote,As masters applied their stamp to the domestic life of the slave quarter, slaves struggledto maintain the integrity of their families. Slaveholders had no legal obligation to respectthe sanctity of the slaves marriage bed, and slave women—married or single — had noformal protection against their owners sexual advances. ...Without legal protection andsubject to the masters whim, the slave family was always at risk." [51]THE HISTORY OF SLAVERY IN AMERICA: AN INTERACTIVE MULTI-MEDIA TUTORIALRBG Street Scholar/July 2012 Update
  20. 20. Page 19 of 60Some slave women were used for breeding more slaves. Plantation owners would haveintimate relations with a female slave in order to produce more slaves. Some slaveswere even forced to have sex with others to increase population and increase theamount of slave product on the market. RBG ON GREAT WHITE LIES AND SLAVE SHIPSThe book includes examples of enslaved families torn apart when family members weresold out of state and it contains examples of sexual violations of the enslaved people byindividuals who held power over them.THE HISTORY OF SLAVERY IN AMERICA: AN INTERACTIVE MULTI-MEDIA TUTORIALRBG Street Scholar/July 2012 Update
  21. 21. Page 20 of 60Receipt for $500.00 payment for slave, 1840. (US$10,300 adjusted for inflation as of 2007.)"Recd of Judge S. Williams his notes for five hundred Dollars in full payment for a negroman named Ned which negro I warrant to be sound and well and I do bind myself bythese presents to forever warrant and defend the right and Title of the said negro to thesaid Williams his heirs or assigns against the legal claims of all persons whatsoever.Witness my hand and seal this day and year above written. Eliza Wallace [seal]"According to Genovese, slaves were fed, clothed, housed and provided medical care inthe most minimal manner. It was common to pay small bonuses during the Christmasseason, and some slave owners permitted their slaves to keep earnings and gamblingprofits. (One slave, Denmark Vesey, is known to have won a lottery and bought hisfreedom.) In many households, treatment of slaves varied with the slaves skin color.Darker-skinned slaves worked in the fields, while lighter-skinned house servants hadcomparatively better clothing, food and housing.[47]As in President Thomas Jeffersons household, the presence of lighter-skinned slavesas household servants was not merely an issue of skin color. Sometimes planters usedmixed-race slaves as house servants or favored artisans because they were theirchildren or other relatives. Several of Jeffersons household slaves were children of hisfather-in-law John Wayles and the enslaved woman Betty Hemings, who were broughtto the marriage by Jeffersons wife. In turn the widower Jefferson had a long relationshipwith Betty and John Wayles daughter Sally Hemings, a much younger enslaved womanwho was mostly of white ancestry and half-sister to his late wife. The Hemings childrengrew up to be closely involved in Jeffersons household staff activities; one became hisTHE HISTORY OF SLAVERY IN AMERICA: AN INTERACTIVE MULTI-MEDIA TUTORIALRBG Street Scholar/July 2012 Update
  22. 22. Page 21 of 60chef. Two sons trained as carpenters. Three of his four surviving mixed-race childrenwith Sally Hemings passed into white society as adults.[52]Planters who had mixed-race children sometimes arranged for their education, even inschools in the North, or as apprentices in crafts. Others settled property on them. Somefreed the children and their mothers. While fewer than in the Upper South, free blacks inthe Deep South were more often mixed-race children of planters and were sometimesthe recipients of transfers of property and social capital. For instance, WilberforceUniversity, founded by Methodist and African Methodist Episcopal (AME)representatives in Ohio in 1856 for the education of African-American youth, was in itsfirst years largely supported by wealthy southern planters who paid for the education oftheir mixed-race children. When the war broke out, the school lost most of its 200students.[53] The college closed for a couple of years before the AME Church bought itand began to operate it.Fogel argues that the material conditions of the lives of slaves compared favorably withthose of free industrial workers. They were not good by modern standards, but this factemphasizes the hard lot of all workers, free or slave, during the first half of the 19thcentury. Over the course of his lifetime, the typical slave field hand received about 90%of the income he produced.[49] In a survey, 58% of historians and 42% of economistsdisagreed with the proposition that the material condition of slaves compared favorablywith those of free industrial workers.[49]Slaves were considered legal non-persons except if they committed crimes. AnAlabama court asserted that slaves "are rational beings, they are capable of committingcrimes; and in reference to acts which are crimes, are regarded as persons. Becausethey are slaves, they are incapable of performing civil acts, and, in reference to all such,they are things, not persons."[54]In 1811, Arthur William Hodge was the first slave owner executed for the murder of aslave in the British West Indies.[55] However, he was not, as some have claimed, the firstwhite person to have been lawfully executed for the killing of a slave.[56] Recordsindicate at least two earlier incidents. On November 23, 1739, in Williamsburg, Virginia,two white men, Charles Quin and David White, were hanged for the murder of anotherwhite mans black slave; and on April 21, 1775, the Fredericksburg newspaper, theVirginia Gazette reported that a white man, William Pitman, had been hanged for themurder of his own black slave.[57]THE HISTORY OF SLAVERY IN AMERICA: AN INTERACTIVE MULTI-MEDIA TUTORIALRBG Street Scholar/July 2012 Update
  23. 23. Page 22 of 60 Slave Codes To help regulate the relationship between slave and owner, including legal support for keeping the slave as property, slave codes were established. While each state would have its own, most of the ideas were shared throughout the slave states. In the codes for the District of Columbia, a slave is defined as “a human being, who is by law deprived of his or her liberty for life, and is the property of another.”[58] A paragraph from the Black Code of South Carolina, still valid in 1863, declared death as the penalty for him who dared "to aid any slave in running away or departing from his masters or employers service."[59] Codes from other states placed limits on relations allowed between black and white people. Louisianas Code Noir did not allow interracial marriage, and if children were a result a fine of three hundred livres would have to be paid. This code also stated children of a slave "shall share the condition of their mother”[60] if the child’s parents had different masters theywould stay with the mother, and if the father was free and the mother a slave thechildren would also be slaves.Abolitionist movementBeginning in the 1750s, there was widespread sentiment during the AmericanRevolution that slavery was a social evil (for the country as a whole and for the whites)and should eventually be abolished. All the Northern states passed emancipation actsbetween 1780 and 1804; most of these arranged for gradual emancipation and aspecial status for freedmen, so there were still a dozen "permanent apprentices" in NewJersey in 1860.[62]The Massachusetts Constitution of 1780 declared all men "born free and equal"; theslave Quock Walker sued for his freedom on this basis and won his freedom, thusabolishing slavery in Massachusetts.Throughout the first half of the 19th century, a movement to end slavery grew instrength throughout the United States. This struggle took place amid strong support forTHE HISTORY OF SLAVERY IN AMERICA: AN INTERACTIVE MULTI-MEDIA TUTORIALRBG Street Scholar/July 2012 Update
  24. 24. Page 23 of 60slavery among white Southerners, who profited greatly from the system of enslavedlabor. These slave owners began to refer to slavery as the "peculiar institution" in adefensive attempt to differentiate it from other examples of forced labor. Henry Clay (1777–1852), one of three founders of the American Colonization Society, the vehicle for returning black Americans to greater freedom in Africa, founding Liberia.[63] In the early part of the 19th century, a variety of organizations were established advocating the movement of black people from the United States to locations where they would enjoy greater freedom; some endorsed colonization, while others advocated emigration. During the 1820s and 1830s the AmericanColonization Society (A.C.S.) was the primary vehicle for proposals to return blackAmericans to greater freedom and equality in Africa,[63] and in 1821 the A.C.S.established colony of Liberia, assisting thousands of former African-American slavesand free black people (with legislated limits) to move there from the United States. Manywhite people saw this as preferable to emancipation in America, with A.C.S founderHenry Clay believing; "unconquerable prejudice resulting from their color, they nevercould amalgamate with the free whites of this country". Slaveholders opposed freedomfor blacks, but saw repatriation as a way of avoiding rebellions.After 1830, a religious movement led by William Lloyd Garrison declared slavery to be apersonal sin and demanded the owners repent immediately and start the process ofemancipation. The movement was highly controversial and was a factor in causing theAmerican Civil War.Very few abolitionists, such as John Brown, favored the use of armed force to fomentuprisings among the slaves; others tried to use the legal system.Influential leaders of the abolition movement (1810–60) included:  William Lloyd Garrison - published The Liberator newspaper  Harriet Beecher Stowe - author of Uncle Toms Cabin  Frederick Douglass - nations most powerful anti-slavery speaker, a former slave. Most famous for his book Narrative in the Life of Frederick Douglass.  Harriet Tubman - helped 350 slaves escape from the South, became known as a "conductor" on the Underground Railroad.  Robert Purvis - mixed-race abolitionist who used wealth for the black race, active in Philadelphia and Anti-Slavery Society, helped hundreds of slaves on Underground Railroad  Charles Henry Langston - mixed-race abolitionist in Oberlin, Ohio; one of two people tried for Oberlin-Wellington Rescue, which gained national attentionTHE HISTORY OF SLAVERY IN AMERICA: AN INTERACTIVE MULTI-MEDIA TUTORIALRBG Street Scholar/July 2012 Update
  25. 25. Page 24 of 60Slave uprisings that used armed force (1700–1859) include:Part of a series of articles on...  New York Revolt of 1712  The Stono Rebellion (1739) in South Carolina  New York Slave Insurrection of 1741  Gabriels Rebellion (1800) in Virginia  Louisiana Territory Slave Rebellion, led by Charles Deslondes (1811)  George Boxley Rebellion (1815) in Virginia  Denmark Vesey Uprising in South Carolina1712 New York Slave Revolt (1822)(New York City, Suppressed)  Nat Turners Rebellion (1831) in Virginia1733 St. John Slave Revolt(Saint John, Suppressed)1739 Stono Rebellion(South Carolina, Suppressed)1741 New York Conspiracy(New York City, Suppressed)1760 Tackys War(Jamaica, Suppressed)1791–1804 Haitian Revolution(Saint-Domingue, Victorious)1800 Gabriel Prosser(Virginia, Suppressed)1805 Chatham Manor(Virginia, Suppressed)1811 German Coast Uprising(Territory of Orleans,Suppressed)1815 George Boxley(Virginia, Suppressed)1822 Denmark Vesey(South Carolina, Suppressed)1831 Nat Turners rebellion(Virginia, Suppressed)1831–1832 Baptist War(Jamaica, Suppressed)1839 Amistad, ship rebellion(Off the Cuban coast,Victorious)1841 Creole, ship rebellion(Off the Southern U.S. coast,Victorious)1859 John Browns Raid(Virginia, Suppressed)THE HISTORY OF SLAVERY IN AMERICA: AN INTERACTIVE MULTI-MEDIA TUTORIALRBG Street Scholar/July 2012 Update
  26. 26. Page 25 of 60Rising tensionsThe economic value of plantation slavery was magnified in 1793 with the invention ofthe cotton gin by Eli Whitney, a device designed to separate cotton fibers fromseedpods and the sometimes sticky seeds. The invention revolutionized the cottonindustry by increasing fiftyfold the quantity of cotton that could be processed in a day.The result was the explosive growth of the cotton industry and greatly increased thedemand for slave labor in the South.[64]At the same time, the northern states banned slavery, though, as Alexis de Toquevillenoted in Democracy in America (1835), the prohibition did not always mean that theslaves were freed. Toqueville noted that as Northern states provided for gradualemancipation, they generally outlawed the sale of slaves within the state. This meantthat the only way to sell slaves before they were freed was to move them South.Toqueville does not document that such transfers actually occurred much.[65] In fact, theemancipation of slaves in the North led to the growth in the population of northern freeblacks, from several hundreds in the 1770s to nearly 50,000 by 1810.[66]THE HISTORY OF SLAVERY IN AMERICA: AN INTERACTIVE MULTI-MEDIA TUTORIALRBG Street Scholar/July 2012 Update
  27. 27. Page 26 of 60Just as demand for slaves was increasing, the supply was restricted. The United StatesConstitution, adopted in 1787, prevented Congress from banning the importation ofslaves until 1808. On January 1, 1808, Congress banned further imports. Any newslaves would have to be descendants of ones currently in the United States. However,the internal American slave trade and the involvement in the international slave trade orthe outfitting of ships for that trade by U.S. citizens were not banned. Though there werecertainly violations of this law, slavery in America became, more or less, self-sustaining.The War of 1812 and slaveryDuring the War of 1812, British Royal Navy commanders of the blockading fleet, basedat the Bermuda dockyard, were given instructions to encourage the defection ofAmerican slaves by offering freedom, as they did during the Revolutionary War.Thousands of black slaves went over to the Crown with their families, and wererecruited into the (3rd Colonial Battalion) Royal Marines on occupied Tangier Island, inthe Chesapeake. A further company of colonial marines was raised at the Bermudadockyard, where many freed slaves, men women and children, had been given refugeand employment. It was kept as a defensive force in case of an attack.These former slaves fought for Britain throughout the Atlantic campaign, including theattack on Washington D.C.and the Louisiana Campaign, and most were later re-enlistedinto British West India regiments, or settled in Trinidad in August, 1816, where sevenhundred of these ex-marines were granted land (they reportedly organised themselvesin villages along the lines of military companies). Many other freed American slaveswere recruited directly into existing West Indian regiments, or newly created BritishArmy units. A few thousand freed slaves were later settled at Nova Scotia by the British.Slaveholders primarily in the South experienced considerable "loss of property" as tensof thousands of slaves escaped to British lines or ships for freedom, despite thedifficulties. The planters complacency about slave "contentment" was shocked byseeing slaves would risk so much to be free.[67] Afterward, when some freed slaves hadbeen settled at Bermuda, slaveholders such as Major Pierce Butler of South Carolinatried to persuade them to return to the United States, to no avail.THE HISTORY OF SLAVERY IN AMERICA: AN INTERACTIVE MULTI-MEDIA TUTORIALRBG Street Scholar/July 2012 Update
  28. 28. Page 27 of 60Internal Slave TradeSlave traders business in Atlanta, Georgia, 1864. (Note building with sign reading"Auction & Negro Sales".)With the movement in Virginia and the Carolinas away from tobacco cultivation andtoward mixed agriculture, which was less labor intensive, planters in those states hadexcess slave labor. They hired out some slaves for occasional labor, but planters alsobegan to sell enslaved African Americans to traders who took them to markets in theDeep South for their expanding plantations. The internal slave trade and forcedmigration of enslaved African Americans continued for another half-century. Tens ofthousands of slaves were transported from the Upper South, including Kentucky andTennessee which became slave-selling states in these decades, to the Deep South.Thousands of African American families were broken up in the sales, which firstconcentrated on male laborers. The scale of the internal slave trade contributedsubstantially to the wealth of the Deep South. In 1840, New Orleans—which had theTHE HISTORY OF SLAVERY IN AMERICA: AN INTERACTIVE MULTI-MEDIA TUTORIALRBG Street Scholar/July 2012 Update
  29. 29. Page 28 of 60largest slave market and important shipping—was the third largest city in the countryand the wealthiest.Because of the three-fifths compromise in the U.S. Constitution, slaveholders exertedtheir power through the Federal Government and passed Federal fugitive slave laws.Refugees from slavery fled the South across the Ohio River and other parts of theMason-Dixon Line dividing North from South, to the North via the UndergroundRailroad. The physical presence of African Americans in Cincinnati, Oberlin, and otherNorthern towns agitated some white Northerners, though others helped hide formerslaves from their former owners, and others helped them reach freedom in Canada.After 1854, Republicans fumed that the Slave Power, especially the pro-slaveryDemocratic Party, controlled two of the three branches of the Federal government.Most Northeastern states became free states through local emancipation. Thesettlement of the Midwestern states after the Revolution led to their decisions in the1820s not to allow slavery. A Northern block of free states united into one contiguousgeographic area which shared an anti-slavery culture. The boundary was the Mason-Dixon Line (between slave-state Maryland and free-state Pennsylvania) and the OhioRiver.The slave trade (though not the legality of slavery) was abolished by Congress in theDistrict of Columbia as part of the Compromise of 1850.Religious institutionsPresumption created and legitimized American slavery. Religious leaders in the yearsleading up to the Civil War were unable to provide a definitive answer on the mostdifficult question of the period: "Does the Bible condemn or condone slavery." HistorianMark Noll in The Civil War as a Theological Crisis writes that a “fundamentaldisagreement existed over what the Bible had to say about slavery at the very momentwhen disputes over slavery were creating the most serious crisis in the nations history”(p. 29). He attributes much of that to a certainty of black racial inferiority that was "soseriously fixed in the minds of white Americans, including most abolitionists..., that itoverwhelmed biblical testimony about race, even though most Protestant Americansclaimed that Scripture was in fact their supreme authority in adjudicating suchmatters.”[68]:p.73North and South grew further apart in 1845 when the Baptist Church and otherdenominations split into Northern and Southern organizations. The Southern BaptistConvention formed on the premise that the Bible sanctions slavery and that it wasacceptable for Christians to own slaves. (In the 20th century, the Southern BaptistConvention renounced this interpretation.) Currently American Baptist numericalstrength is greatest in the former slave-holding states.[69] Northern Baptists opposedslavery. In 1844, the Home Mission Society declared that a person could not be amissionary and still keep slaves as property. The Methodist and Presbyterian churchesTHE HISTORY OF SLAVERY IN AMERICA: AN INTERACTIVE MULTI-MEDIA TUTORIALRBG Street Scholar/July 2012 Update
  30. 30. Page 29 of 60likewise divided north and south. By the late 1850s only the Democratic Party was anational institution, although it split in the 1860 election.Distribution of slavesDistribution of slaves in 1820Census # Free Total % free Total US % black # SlavesYear blacks black blacks population of total1790 697,681 59,527 757,208 7.9% 3,929,214 19%1800 893,602 108,435 1,002,037 10.8% 5,308,483 19%1810 1,191,362 186,446 1,377,808 13.5% 7,239,881 19%1820 1,538,022 233,634 1,771,656 13.2% 9,638,453 18%1830 2,009,043 319,599 2,328,642 13.7% 12,860,702 18%1840 2,487,355 386,293 2,873,648 13.4% 17,063,353 17%1850 3,204,313 434,495 3,638,808 11.9% 23,191,876 16%1860 3,953,760 488,070 4,441,830 11.0% 31,443,321 14%1870 0 4,880,009 4,880,009 100% 38,558,371 13%Source: http://www.census.gov/population/documentation/twps0056/tab01.xlsTHE HISTORY OF SLAVERY IN AMERICA: AN INTERACTIVE MULTI-MEDIA TUTORIALRBG Street Scholar/July 2012 Update
  31. 31. Page 30 of 60 Total Slave Population in US 1790-1860, by State[70] Census 1790 1800 1810 1820 1830 1840 1850 1860 Year 694,2 887,6 1,130,7 1,529,0 1,987,4 2,482,7 3,200,6 3,950,5 All States 07 12 81 12 28 98 00 46 Alabama - - - 47,449 117,549 253,532 342,844 435,080 Arkansas - - - - 4,576 19,935 47,100 111,115 California - - - - - - - - Connecticut 2,648 951 310 97 25 54 - - Delaware 8,887 6,153 4,177 4,509 3,292 2,605 2,290 1,798 Florida - - - - - 25,717 39,310 61,745 29,26 59,69 Georgia 105,218 149,656 217,531 280,944 381,682 462,198 4 9 Illinois - - - 917 747 331 - - Indiana - - - 190 3 3 - - Iowa - - - - - 16 - - Kansas - - - - - - - 2 12,43 40,34 Kentucky 80,561 126,732 165,213 182,258 210,981 225,483 0 3 Louisiana - - - 69,064 109,588 168,452 244,809 331,726 Maine - - - - 2 - - - 103,0 105,6 Maryland 111,502 107,398 102,994 89,737 90,368 87,189 36 35 Massachus - - - - 1 - - - etts Michigan - - - - 32 - - - Minnesota - - - - - - - - Mississippi - - - 32,814 65,659 195,211 309,878 436,631THE HISTORY OF SLAVERY IN AMERICA: AN INTERACTIVE MULTI-MEDIA TUTORIALRBG Street Scholar/July 2012 Update
  32. 32. Page 31 of 60 Missouri - - - 10,222 25,096 58,240 87,422 114,931 Nebraska - - - - - - - 15 Nevada - - - - - - - - New 157 8 - - 3 1 - - Hampshire 11,42 12,42 New Jersey 10,851 7,557 2,254 674 236 18 3 2 21,19 20,61 New York 15,017 10,088 75 4 - - 3 3 North 100,7 133,2 168,824 205,017 245,601 245,817 288,548 331,059 Carolina 83 96 Ohio - - - - 6 3 - - Oregon - - - - - - - - Pennsylvani 3,707 1,706 795 211 403 64 - - a Rhode 958 380 108 48 17 5 - - Island South 107,0 146,1 196,365 251,783 315,401 327,038 384,984 402,406 Carolina 94 51 13,58 Tennessee - 44,535 80,107 141,603 183,059 239,459 275,719 4 Texas - - - - - - 58,161 182,566 Vermont - - - - - - - - 292,6 346,6 Virginia 392,518 425,153 469,757 449,087 472,528 490,865 27 71 Wisconsin - - - - - 11 4 -Distribution of slaveholdersAs of the 1860 census, one may compute the following statistics on slaveholding:[71]  Enumerating slave schedules by County, 393,975 named persons held 3,950,546 unnamed slaves, for an average of about ten slaves per holder. As some large holders held slaves in multiple counties and are thus multiply counted, this slightly overestimates the number of slaveholders.THE HISTORY OF SLAVERY IN AMERICA: AN INTERACTIVE MULTI-MEDIA TUTORIALRBG Street Scholar/July 2012 Update
  33. 33. Page 32 of 60  Excluding slaves, the 1860 U.S. population was 27,167,529, yielding about 1 in 70 free persons (1.5%) being slaveholders.  The distribution of slaveholders was very unequal: holders of 200 or more slaves, constituting less than 1% of all US slaveholders (fewer than 4,000 persons, 1 in 7,000 free persons, or 0.015% of the population) held an estimated 20–30% of all slaves (800,000 to 1,200,000 slaves).19 holders of 500 or more slaves have been identified.[72] The largest slaveholder wasJoshua John Ward, of Georgetown, South Carolina, who in 1850 held 1,092 slaves,[73]and whose heirs in 1860 held 1,130 or 1,131 slaves[72][73] – he was dubbed "the king ofthe rice planters",[73] and one of his plantations is now part of Brookgreen Gardens.Nat Turner, anti-literacy laws In 1831, a bloody slave rebellion took place in Southampton County, Virginia. A slave named Nat Turner, who was able to read and write and had "visions," started what became known as Nat Turners Rebellion or the Southampton Insurrection. With the goal of freeing himself and others, Turner and his followers killed approximately fifty men, women and children, but they were eventually subdued by the militia.Nat Turner and his followers were hanged, and Turners body was flayed. The militiaalso killed more than a hundred slaves who had not been involved in the rebellion.Across the South, harsh new laws were enacted in the aftermath of the 1831 TurnerRebellion to curtail the already limited rights of African Americans. Typical was thefollowing Virginia law against educating slaves, free blacks and children of whites andblacks:[74]. . . [E]very assemblage of negroes for the purpose of instruction in reading or writing, orin the night time for any purpose, shall be an unlawful assembly. Any justice may issuehis warrant to any office or other person, requiring him to enter any place where suchassemblage may be, and seize any negro therein; and he, or any other justice, mayorder such negro to be punished with stripes.THE HISTORY OF SLAVERY IN AMERICA: AN INTERACTIVE MULTI-MEDIA TUTORIALRBG Street Scholar/July 2012 Update
  34. 34. Page 33 of 60If a white person assemble with negroes for the purpose of instructing them to read orwrite, or if he associate with them in an unlawful assembly, he shall be confined in jailnot exceeding six months and fined not exceeding one hundred dollars; and any justicemay require him to enter into a recognizance, with sufficient security, to appear beforethe circuit, county or corporation court, of the county or corporation where the offencewas committed, at its next term, to answer therefore[sic], and in the mean time to keepthe peace and be of good behavior.[75]These laws were often defied by individuals, among whom was noted futureConfederate General Stonewall Jackson[citation needed].1850sBleeding KansasAfter the passage of the Kansas-Nebraska Act, 1854, the border wars broke out inKansas Territory, where the question of whether it would be admitted to the Union as aslave or free state was left to the inhabitants. Abolitionist John Brown was active in therebellion and killing in "Bleeding Kansas" as were many white Southerners. At the sametime, fears that the Slave Power was seizing full control of the national governmentswept anti-slavery Republicans into office. Dred Scott Dred Scott was a 46 or 47-year old slave who sued for his freedom after the death of his owner on the grounds that he had lived in a territory where slavery was forbidden (the northern part of the Louisiana Purchase, from which slavery was excluded under the terms of the Missouri Compromise). Scott filed suit for freedom in 1846 and went through two state trials, the first denying and the second granting freedom. Eleven years later the Supreme Court denied Scott his freedom in a sweeping decision that set the United States on course for Civil War. The court ruled that Dred Scott was not a citizen who had a right to sue in the Federal courts, and that Congress had no constitutional power to pass the Missouri Compromise. The 1857 Dred Scott decision, decided 7-2, held that a slave did not become free when taken into a free state; Congress couldTHE HISTORY OF SLAVERY IN AMERICA: AN INTERACTIVE MULTI-MEDIA TUTORIALRBG Street Scholar/July 2012 Update
  35. 35. Page 34 of 60not bar slavery from a territory; and people of African descent imported into the UnitedStates and held as slaves, or their descendants could not be citizens. Furthermore, astate could not bar slaveowners from bringing slaves into that state. This decision, seenas unjust by many Republicans including Abraham Lincoln, was also seen as proof thatthe Slave Power had seized control of the Supreme Court. The decision, written byChief Justice Roger B. Taney, barred slaves and their descendants from citizenship.The decision enraged abolitionists and encouraged slave owners, helping to push thecountry towards civil war.[76]Civil War and Emancipation 1860 presidential election The divisions became fully exposed with the 1860 presidential election. The electorate split four ways. The Southern Democrats endorsed slavery, while the Republicans denounced it. The Northern Democrats said democracy required the people to decide on slavery locally. The Constitutional Union Party said the survival of the Union was at stake and everything else should be compromised. Lincoln, the Republican, won with a plurality of popular votes and a majority of electoral votes. Lincoln, however, did not appear on the ballots of ten southern states: thus his electionnecessarily split the nation along sectional lines. Many slave owners in the South fearedthat the real intent of the Republicans was the abolition of slavery in states where italready existed, and that the sudden emancipation of four million slaves would beproblematic for the slave owners and for the economy that drew its greatest profits fromthe labor of people who were not paid.They also argued that banning slavery in new states would upset what they saw as adelicate balance of free states and slave states. They feared that ending this balancecould lead to the domination of the industrial North with its preference for high tariffs onimported goods. The combination of these factors led the South to secede from theUnion, and thus began the American Civil War. Northern leaders had viewed the slaveryinterests as a threat politically, and with secession, they viewed the prospect of a newsouthern nation, the Confederate States of America, with control over the MississippiRiver and the West, as politically and militarily unacceptable.THE HISTORY OF SLAVERY IN AMERICA: AN INTERACTIVE MULTI-MEDIA TUTORIALRBG Street Scholar/July 2012 Update
  36. 36. Page 35 of 60Civil WarThe consequent American Civil War, beginning in 1861, led to the end of chattel slaveryin America. Not long after the war broke out, through a legal maneuver credited toUnion General Benjamin F. Butler, a lawyer by profession, slaves who came into Union"possession" were considered "contraband of war". General Butler ruled that they werenot subject to return to Confederate owners as they had been before the war. Soonword spread, and many slaves sought refuge in Union territory, desiring to be declared"contraband." Many of the "contrabands" joined the Union Army as workers or troops,forming entire regiments of the U.S. Colored Troops. Others went to refugee campssuch as the Grand Contraband Camp near Fort Monroe or fled to northern cities.General Butlers interpretation was reinforced when Congress passed the ConfiscationAct of 1861, which declared that any property used by the Confederate military,including slaves, could be confiscated by Union forces.Lincolns Emancipation Proclamation of January 1, 1863 was a powerful move thatpromised freedom for slaves in the Confederacy as soon as the Union armies reachedthem, and authorized the enlistment of African Americans in the Union Army. TheEmancipation Proclamation did not free slaves in the Union-allied slave-holding statesthat bordered the Confederacy. Since the Confederate States did not recognize theauthority of President Lincoln, and the proclamation did not apply in the border states, atfirst the proclamation freed only slaves who had escaped behind Union lines. Still, theproclamation made the abolition of slavery an official war goal that was implemented asthe Union took territory from the Confederacy. According to the Census of 1860, thispolicy would free nearly four million slaves, or over 12% of the total population of theUnited States.Simon Legree and Uncle Tom: A scene fromUncle Toms Cabin, historys most famousabolitionist novelThe Arizona Organic Act abolished slavery onFebruary 24, 1863 in the newly formed ArizonaTerritory. Tennessee and all of the border states(except Kentucky) abolished slavery by early1865. Thousands of slaves were freed by theoperation of the Emancipation Proclamation asUnion armies marched across the South.Emancipation as a reality came to the remainingsouthern slaves after the surrender of allConfederate troops in spring 1865.At the beginning of the war, some Unioncommanders thought they were supposed to return escaped slaves to their masters. ByTHE HISTORY OF SLAVERY IN AMERICA: AN INTERACTIVE MULTI-MEDIA TUTORIALRBG Street Scholar/July 2012 Update
  37. 37. Page 36 of 601862, when it became clear that this would be a long war, the question of what to doabout slavery became more general. The Southern economy and military effortdepended on slave labor. It began to seem unreasonable to protect slavery whileblockading Southern commerce and destroying Southern production. As oneCongressman put it, the slaves "…cannot be neutral. As laborers, if not as soldiers, theywill be allies of the rebels, or of the Union."[77] The same Congressman—and his fellowRadical Republicans—put pressure on Lincoln to rapidly emancipate the slaves,whereas moderate Republicans came to accept gradual, compensated emancipationand colonization.[78] Copperheads, the border states and War Democrats opposedemancipation, although the border states and War Democrats eventually accepted it aspart of total war needed to save the Union.In 1861, Lincoln expressed the fear that premature attempts at emancipation wouldmean the loss of the border states. He believed that "to lose Kentucky is nearly thesame as to lose the whole game."[79] At first, Lincoln reversed attempts at emancipationby Secretary of War Simon Cameron and Generals John C. Fremont (in Missouri) andDavid Hunter (in South Carolina, Georgia and Florida) in order to keep the loyalty of theborder states and the War Democrats.Lincoln mentioned his Emancipation Proclamation to members of his cabinet on July 21,1862. Secretary of State William H. Seward told Lincoln to wait for a victory beforeissuing the proclamation, as to do otherwise would seem like "our last shriek on theretreat".[80] In September 1862 the Battle of Antietam provided this opportunity, and thesubsequent War Governors Conference added support for the proclamation.[81] Lincolnhad already published a letter[82] encouraging the border states especially to acceptemancipation as necessary to save the Union. Lincoln later said that slavery was"somehow the cause of the war".[83] Lincoln issued his preliminary EmancipationProclamation on September 22, 1862, and said that a final proclamation would beissued if his gradual plan based on compensated emancipation and voluntarycolonization was rejected. Only the District of Columbia accepted Lincolns gradual plan,and Lincoln issued his final Emancipation Proclamation on January 1, 1863. In his letterto Hodges, Lincoln explained his belief that "If slavery is not wrong, nothing is wrong …And yet I have never understood that the Presidency conferred upon me an unrestrictedright to act officially upon this judgment and feeling ... I claim not to have controlledevents, but confess plainly that events have controlled me."[84]Since the Emancipation Proclamation was based on the Presidents war powers, it onlyincluded territory held by Confederates at the time. However, the Proclamation becamea symbol of the Unions growing commitment to add emancipation to the Unionsdefinition of liberty.[85] Lincoln also played a leading role in getting Congress to vote forthe Thirteenth Amendment,[86] which made emancipation universal and permanent.Enslaved African Americans did not wait for Lincolns action before escaping andseeking freedom behind Union lines. From early years of the war, hundreds ofthousands of African Americans escaped to Union lines, especially in Union-controlledareas like Norfolk and the Hampton Roads region in 1862 Virginia, Tennessee fromTHE HISTORY OF SLAVERY IN AMERICA: AN INTERACTIVE MULTI-MEDIA TUTORIALRBG Street Scholar/July 2012 Update
  38. 38. Page 37 of 601862 on, the line of Shermans march, etc. So many African Americans fled to Unionlines that commanders created camps and schools for them, where both adults andchildren learned to read and write. The American Missionary Association entered thewar effort by sending teachers south to such contraband camps, for instance,establishing schools in Norfolk and on nearby plantations. In addition, nearly 200,000African-American men served with distinction as soldiers and sailors with Union troops.Most of those were escaped slaves.Confederates enslaved captured black Union soldiers, and black soldiers especiallywere shot when trying to surrender at the Fort Pillow Massacre.[87] This led to abreakdown of the prisoner exchange program, and the growth of prison camps such asAndersonville prison in Georgia, where almost 13,000 Union prisoners of war died ofdisease and starvation.[88]In spite of the Souths shortage of manpower, until 1865, most Southern leadersopposed arming slaves as soldiers. However,a few Confederates discussed armingslaves since the early stages of the war, and some free blacks had even offered to fightfor the South. In 1862 Georgian Congressman Warren Akin supported the enrolling ofslaves with the promise of emancipation, as did the Alabama legislature. Support fordoing so also grew in other Southern states. A few all black Confederate militia units,most notably the 1st Louisiana Native Guard, were formed in Louisiana at the start ofthe war, but were disbanded in 1862.[89] In early March, 1865, Virginia endorsed a bill toenlist black soldiers, and on March 13 the Confederate Congress did the same.[90]There still were over 250,000 slaves in Texas. Word did not reach Texas about thecollapse of the Confederacy until June 19, 1865. African Americans and otherscelebrate that day as Juneteenth, the day of freedom, in Texas, Oklahoma and someother states. It commemorates the date when the news finally reached slaves atGalveston, Texas.Legally, the last 40,000 or so slaves were freed in Kentucky[91] by the final ratification ofthe Thirteenth Amendment to the Constitution in December 1865. Slaves still held inNew Jersey, Delaware, West Virginia, Maryland, Missouri and Washington, D.C. alsobecame legally free on this date.Reconstruction to presentDuring Reconstruction, it was a serious question whether slavery had been permanentlyabolished or whether some form of semi-slavery would appear after the Union armiesleft. Over time a large civil rights movement arose to bring full civil rights and equalityunder the law to all Americans.THE HISTORY OF SLAVERY IN AMERICA: AN INTERACTIVE MULTI-MEDIA TUTORIALRBG Street Scholar/July 2012 Update
  39. 39. Page 38 of 60SharecroppingAn 1867 federal law prohibited a descendant form of slavery known as sharecropping ordebt bondage, which still existed in the New Mexico Territory as a legacy of Spanishimperial rule. Between 1903 and 1944, the Supreme Court ruled on several casesinvolving debt bondage of black Americans, declaring these arrangementsunconstitutional. In actual practice, however, sharecropping arrangements oftenresulted in peonage for both black and white farmers in the South.Convict leasingWith emancipation a legal reality, white Southerners were concerned with bothcontrolling the newly freed slaves and keeping them in the labor force at the lowestlevel. The system of convict leasing began during Reconstruction and was fullyimplemented in the 1880s. This system allowed private contractors to purchase theservices of convicts from the state or local governments for a specific time period.African Americans, due to “vigorous and selective enforcement of laws anddiscriminatory sentencing” made up the vast majority of the convicts leased.[92] WriterDouglas A. Blackmon writes of the system:It was a form of bondage distinctly different from that of the antebellum South in that formost men, and the relatively few women drawn in, this slavery did not last a lifetime anddid not automatically extend from one generation to the next. But it was nonethelessslavery -- a system in which armies of free men, guilty of no crimes and entitled by lawto freedom, were compelled to labor without compensation, were repeatedly bought andsold, and were forced to do the bidding of white masters through the regular applicationof extraordinary physical coercion.[93]Educational issuesThe anti-literacy laws after 1832 contributed greatly to the problem of widespreadilliteracy facing the freedmen and other African Americans after Emancipation and theCivil War 35 years later. The problem of illiteracy and need for education was seen asone of the greatest challenges confronting these people as they sought to join the freeenterprise system and support themselves during Reconstruction and thereafter.Consequently, many black and white religious organizations, former Union Army officersand soldiers, and wealthy philanthropists were inspired to create and fund educationalefforts specifically for the betterment of African Americans in the South. Blacks startedtheir own schools even before the end of the war. Northerners helped create numerousnormal schools, such as those that became Hampton University and TuskegeeUniversity, to generate teachers. Blacks held teaching as a high calling, with educationthe first priority for children and adults. Many of the most talented went into the field.THE HISTORY OF SLAVERY IN AMERICA: AN INTERACTIVE MULTI-MEDIA TUTORIALRBG Street Scholar/July 2012 Update
  40. 40. Page 39 of 60Some of the schools took years to reach a high standard, but they managed to getthousands of teachers started. As W. E. B. Du Bois noted, the black colleges were notperfect, but "in a single generation they put thirty thousand black teachers in the South"and "wiped out the illiteracy of the majority of black people in the land."[94]Northern philanthropists continued to support black education in the 20th century, evenas tensions rose within the black community, exemplified by Dr. Booker T. Washingtonand Dr. W. E. B. Du Bois, as to the proper emphasis between industrial and classicalacademic education at the college level. Collaborating with Dr. Booker T. Washington inthe early decades of the 20th century, philanthropist Julius Rosenwald providedmatching funds for community efforts to build rural schools for black children. Heinsisted on white and black cooperation in the effort, wanting to ensure that white-controlled school boards made a commitment to maintain the schools. By the 1930slocal parents had helped raise funds (sometimes donating labor and land) to create over5,000 rural schools in the South. Other philanthropists such as Henry H. Rogers andAndrew Carnegie, each of whom had arisen from modest roots to become wealthy,used matching fund grants to stimulate local development of libraries and schools.ApologiesOn February 24, 2007, the Virginia General Assembly passed House Joint ResolutionNumber 728 acknowledging "with profound regret the involuntary servitude of Africansand the exploitation of Native Americans, and call for reconciliation among allVirginians."[95] With the passing of this resolution, Virginia became the first state toacknowledge through the states governing body their states negative involvement inslavery. The passing of this resolution came on the heels of the 400th anniversarycelebration of the city of Jamestown, Virginia, which was one of the first slave ports ofthe American colonies.On July 30, 2008, the United States House of Representatives passed a resolutionapologizing for American slavery and subsequent discriminatory laws.[96] The U.S.Senate unanimously passed a similar resolution on June 18, 2009; it also explicitlystates that it cannot be used for restitution claims.[97]Arguments used to justify slaverySee also: Proslavery in the antebellum United States"A necessary evil"In the 19th century, proponents of slavery often defended the institution as a "necessaryevil". It was feared that emancipation would have more harmful social and economicconsequences than the continuation of slavery. In 1820, Thomas Jefferson wrote in aletter that with slavery:THE HISTORY OF SLAVERY IN AMERICA: AN INTERACTIVE MULTI-MEDIA TUTORIALRBG Street Scholar/July 2012 Update
  41. 41. Page 40 of 60We have the wolf by the ear, and we can neither hold him, nor safely let him go. Justiceis in one scale, and self-preservation in the other.[98]Robert E. Lee wrote in 1856:There are few, I believe, in this enlightened age, who will not acknowledge that slaveryas an institution is a moral and political evil. It is idle to expatiate on its disadvantages. Ithink it is a greater evil to the white than to the colored race. While my feelings arestrongly enlisted in behalf of the latter, my sympathies are more deeply engaged for theformer. The blacks are immeasurably better off here than in Africa, morally, physically,and socially. The painful discipline they are undergoing is necessary for their furtherinstruction as a race, and will prepare them, I hope, for better things. How long theirservitude may be necessary is known and ordered by a merciful Providence.[99]Alexis de Tocqueville, in Democracy in America, also expressed an opposition toslavery, but felt that the existence of a multiracial society without slavery untenable, andobserved prejudice against negroes increasing as they were granted more rights (forexample, in northern states). He considered the attitudes of white southerners, and theconcentration of the black population in the south–due to exportation resulting fromrestrictions in the north, and climatic and economic reasons–that was bringing the whiteand black population to a state of equilibrium, as a danger to both races. Thus, becauseof the racial differences between master and slave, the latter could not beemancipated.[100]"A positive good"However, as the abolition agitation increased and the planting system expanded,apologies for slavery became more faint in the South. Then apologies were supersededby claims that slavery was a beneficial scheme of labor control. John C. Calhoun, in afamous speech in the Senate in 1837, declared that slavery was "instead of an evil, agood—a positive good." Calhoun supported his view with the following reasoning: inevery civilized society one portion of the community must live on the labor of another;learning, science, and the arts are built upon leisure; the African slave, kindly treated byhis master and mistress and looked after in his old age, is better off than the freelaborers of Europe; and under the slave system conflicts between capital and labor areavoided. The advantages of slavery in this respect, he concluded, "will become moreand more manifest, if left undisturbed by interference from without, as the countryadvances in wealth and numbers."[101]Others who also moved from the idea of necessary evil to positive good are JamesHenry Hammond and George Fitzhugh. Hammond, like Calhoun, believed slavery wasneeded to build the rest of society. In a speech to the Senate on March 4, 1858,Hammond developed his Mudsill Theory defending his view on slavery stating, “Such aclass you must have, or you would not have that other class which leads progress,THE HISTORY OF SLAVERY IN AMERICA: AN INTERACTIVE MULTI-MEDIA TUTORIALRBG Street Scholar/July 2012 Update
  42. 42. Page 41 of 60civilization, and refinement. It constitutes the very mud-sill of society and of politicalgovernment; and you might as well attempt to build a house in the air, as to build eitherthe one or the other, except on this mud-sill.” He argued that the hired laborers of theNorth are slaves too: “The difference… is, that our slaves are hired for life and wellcompensated; there is no starvation, no begging, no want of employment,” while thosein the North had to search for employment.[102] George Fitzhugh wrote that, “the Negrois but a grown up child, and must be governed as a child.” In "The Universal Law ofSlavery" Fitzhugh argues that slavery provides everything necessary for life and that theslave is unable to survive in a free world because he is lazy, and cannot compete withthe intelligent European white race.[103]Native AmericansFor more details on this topic, see Slavery among Native Americans in the UnitedStates. Enslavement of Native Americans During the 17th and 18th century, Indian slavery, the enslavement of Native Americans by European colonists, was common. Many of these Native slaves were exported to off- shore colonies, especially the "sugar islands" of the Caribbean. Historian Alan Gallay estimates that from 1670– 1715, British slave traders sold between 24,000 and 51,000 Native Americans from what is now the southern part of the U.S.[104] Slavery of Native Americans was organized in colonial and Mexican California through Franciscan missions, theoretically entitled to ten years of Native labor, but in practice maintaining them in perpetual servitude, until their charge was revoked in the mid-1830s. Following the 1847–1848 invasion by U.S. troops, Native Californians were enslaved in the new state fromTHE HISTORY OF SLAVERY IN AMERICA: AN INTERACTIVE MULTI-MEDIA TUTORIALRBG Street Scholar/July 2012 Update
  43. 43. Page 42 of 60statehood in 1850 to 1867.[105] Slavery required the posting of a bond by the slaveholder and enslavement occurred through raids and a four-month servitude imposed asa punishment for Indian "vagrancy".[106]Slavery among Native AmericansThe Haida and Tlingit Indians who lived along southeast Alaskas coast weretraditionally known as fierce warriors and slave-traders, raiding as far as California.Slavery was hereditary after slaves were taken as prisoners of war. Among somePacific Northwest tribes, about a quarter of the population were slaves.[107][108] Otherslave-owning tribes of North America were, for example, Comanche of Texas, Creek ofGeorgia, the fishing societies, such as the Yurok, that lived along the coast from what isnow Alaska to California, the Pawnee, and Klamath.[23]After 1800, the Cherokees and some other tribes started buying and using black slaves,a practice they continued after being relocated to Indian Territory in the 1830s.[109]The nature of slavery in Cherokee society often mirrored that of white slave-owningsociety. The law barred intermarriage of Cherokees and blacks, whether slave or free.Cherokee who aided slaves were punished with one hundred lashes on the back. InCherokee society, blacks were barred from holding office, bearing arms, and owningproperty, and they made it illegal to teach blacks to read and write.[110][111]By contrast, the Seminoles welcomed into their nation African Americans who hadescaped slavery (Black Seminoles).THE HISTORY OF SLAVERY IN AMERICA: AN INTERACTIVE MULTI-MEDIA TUTORIALRBG Street Scholar/July 2012 Update
  44. 44. Page 43 of 60Indian slavery after the Emancipation ProclamationA few captives from other tribes who were used as slaves were not freed when African-American slaves were emancipated. Ute Woman, a Ute captured by the Arapaho andlater sold to a Cheyenne, was one example. Used as a prostitute for sale to Americansoldiers at Cantonment in the Indian Territory, she lived in slavery until about 1880when she died of a hemorrhage resulting from "excessive sexual intercourse".[112]Barbary statesAccording to Robert Davis, between 1 million and 1.25 million Europeans were capturedby Barbary pirates and sold as slaves in North Africa and Ottoman Empire between the16th and 19th centuries.[113][114] Because of the large numbers of Britons captured by theBarbary States and in other venues, captivity was the other side of exploration andempire. Captivity narratives originated as a literary form in the 17th century. They werewidely published and read, preceding those of colonists captured by American Indiansin North America.[115] Slave-taking persisted into the 19th century when Barbary pirateswould capture ships and enslave the crew. Between 1609 and 1616, England alone had466 merchant ships lost to Barbary pirates.[116]United States commercial ships were not immune from pirate attacks. In 1783, theUnited States made peace with, and gained recognition from, the British monarchy. In1784 the first American ship was seized by pirates from Morocco. By late 1793, a dozenAmerican ships had been captured, goods stripped and everyone enslaved. After someserious debate, the government created the United States Navy in March 1794. Thisnew military presence helped to stiffen American resolve to resist the continuation oftribute payments, leading to the two Barbary Wars along the North African coast: theFirst Barbary War from 1801 to 1805[117] and the Second Barbary War in 1815.Payments in ransom and tribute to the Barbary states had amounted to 20% of UnitedStates government annual revenues in 1800.[118] It was not until 1815 that navalvictories ended tribute payments by the U.S. Some European nations continued annualpayments until the 1830s.[119]Free black people and slaverySome slaveholders were black or had some black ancestry. In 1830 there were 3,775such slaveholders in the South, with 80% of them located in Louisiana, South Carolina,Virginia, and Maryland. There were economic differences between free blacks of theUpper South and Deep South, with the latter fewer in number, but wealthier andtypically of mixed race. Half of the black slaveholders lived in cities rather than thecountryside, with most in New Orleans and Charleston. Especially New Orleans had alarge, relatively wealthy free black population (gens de couleur) composed of people ofmixed race, who had become a third class between whites and enslaved blacks underFrench and Spanish rule. Relatively few slaveholders were “substantial planters.” Ofthose who were, most were of mixed race, often endowed by white fathers with someTHE HISTORY OF SLAVERY IN AMERICA: AN INTERACTIVE MULTI-MEDIA TUTORIALRBG Street Scholar/July 2012 Update

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