THE HISTORY OF SLAVERY IN AMERICA: AN INTERACTIVE MULTI-MEDIA TUTORIAL RBG Street Scholar/July 2012 Update
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THE HISTORY OF SLAVERY IN AMERICA: AN INTERACTIVE MULTI-MEDIA TUTORIAL

THE HISTORY OF SLAVERY IN AMERICA: AN INTERACTIVE MULTI-MEDIA TUTORIAL
RBG Street Scholar/July 2012 Update

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THE HISTORY OF SLAVERY IN AMERICA: AN INTERACTIVE MULTI-MEDIA TUTORIAL RBG Street Scholar/July 2012 Update Document Transcript

  • 1. THE HISTORY OF SLAVERY IN AMERICAAN INTERACTIVE MULTI-MEDIA TUTORIAL RBG Street Scholar 7/1/2012 Updates
  • 2. Page 1 of 60 Related RBG Wikizine RBG Black History Month 24/7/365 Wikizine ICEBREAKER mp3 / Click and Play or Download play Dr. Amos Wilson — Histroy as an Instrument of Power Our Enslaved Ancestors tell their Stories: Click and play and/or Download Play Mr Hughs — Voices of Our Enslaved Ancestors play Mr Hugehs Cont. and Beating — Voices …play Laura — Voices of Our Enslaved Ancestorplay Painful Beating and Resistance — Voices…THE HISTORY OF SLAVERY IN AMERICA: AN INTERACTIVE MULTI-MEDIA TUTORIALRBG Street Scholar/July 2012 Update
  • 3. Page 2 of 60Companion Video Series: Click Here to OpenTHE HISTORY OF SLAVERY IN AMERICA: AN INTERACTIVE MULTI-MEDIA TUTORIALRBG Street Scholar/July 2012 Update
  • 4. Page 3 of 60 500 Years Later Clips Click to open gif animationTHE HISTORY OF SLAVERY IN AMERICA: AN INTERACTIVE MULTI-MEDIA TUTORIALRBG Street Scholar/July 2012 Update
  • 5. Page 4 of 60An animation showing when United States territories and states forbade or allowed slavery, 1789-1861. RBG- The Ojays Ship Ahoy-The CaptureTHE HISTORY OF SLAVERY IN AMERICA: AN INTERACTIVE MULTI-MEDIA TUTORIALRBG Street Scholar/July 2012 Update
  • 6. Page 5 of 60 COMPANION DOCUMENTS/ MEDIA:Slavery and the Making The RBG Family Maafaof America, Program 1: & Reparations Video The Downward Spiral Conference Page RBG Reparations Series-Essays on Topics of SlaveryTHE HISTORY OF SLAVERY IN AMERICA: AN INTERACTIVE MULTI-MEDIA TUTORIALRBG Street Scholar/July 2012 Update
  • 7. Page 6 of 60 The following text has modified from Wikipedia (Image and video embellishment by this editor for enhanced educational purposes) Peter, a man who was enslaved in Baton Rouge, Louisiana, 1863, whose scars resulted from violent abuse by a plantation overseer. Photo on file with U.S. National Archives and Records Administration, online at archives.gov among others. [3]. Slavery in the United States lasted as a legal institution until the passage of the Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution in 1865. It had its origins with the first English colonization of North America in Virginia in 1607, although African slaves were brought to Spanish Florida as early as the 1560s.[1] Most slaves were black and were held by whites, although some Native Americans and free blacks also held slaves; there was a small number of white slaves as well. Slaves were spread to the areas where there was good quality soil for large plantations of high value cash crops, such as cotton, sugar, and coffee. The majority of slaveholders were in the southern United States, where most slaves were engaged inan efficient machine-like gang system of agriculture, with farms of fifteen or more slavesproving to be far more productive than farms without slaves. Also, these large groups ofslaves were thought to work more efficiently if guarded by a managerial class calledoverseers to ensure that the slaves did not waste a second of movement.From 1654 until 1865, slavery for life was legal within the boundaries of much of thepresent United States.[2] Before the widespread establishment of chattel slavery(outright ownership of the slave), much labor was organized under a system of bondedlabor known as indentured servitude. This typically lasted for several years for white andblack alike, and it was a means of using labor to pay the costs of transporting people tothe colonies.[3] By the 18th century, court rulings established the racial basis of theAmerican incarnation of slavery to apply chiefly to Black Africans and people of Africandescent, and occasionally to Native Americans. In part because of the success oftobacco as a cash crop in the Southern colonies, its labor-intensive character causedplanters to import more slaves for labor by the end of the 17th century than did thenorthern colonies. The South had a significantly high number and proportion of slaves inthe population.[3]THE HISTORY OF SLAVERY IN AMERICA: AN INTERACTIVE MULTI-MEDIA TUTORIALRBG Street Scholar/July 2012 Update
  • 8. Page 7 of 60Twelve million Africans were shipped to the Americas from the 16th to the 19thcenturies.[4][5] Of these, an estimated 645,000 were brought to what is now the UnitedStates. The largest number were shipped to Brazil (see slavery in Brazil).[6] The slavepopulation in the United States had grown to four million by the 1860 Census.[7]Slavery was one of the principal issues leading to the American Civil War. After theUnion prevailed in the war, slavery was abolished throughout the United States with theadoption of the Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution.[8]Colonial AmericaThe first record of African slavery in Colonial America was made in 1619. A Britishpirate ship under the Dutch flag, the White Lion, had captured 20 Angolan slaves in abattle with a Portuguese ship, the São João Baptista, bound for Veracruz, Mexico[9]. TheAngolans were from the kingdoms of Ndongo and Kongo, and spoke languages of theBantu group[9]. The White Lion had been damaged first by the battle and then moreseverely in a great storm during the late summer when it came ashore at Old PointComfort, site of present day Fort Monroe in Virginia. Though the colony was in themiddle of a period later known as "The Great Migration" (1618–1623), during which itspopulation grew from 450 to 4,000 residents, extremely high mortality rates fromdisease, malnutrition, and war with Native Americans kept the population of able-bodiedlaborers low[10]. With the Dutch ship being in severe need of repairs and supplies andthe colonists being in need of able-bodied workers, the human cargo was traded forfood and services.In addition to African slaves, Europeans, mostly Irish,[11] Scottish,[12] English, andGermans,[13] were brought over in substantial numbers as indentured servants,[14]particularly in the British Thirteen Colonies.[15] Over half of all white immigrants to theEnglish colonies of North America during the 17th and 18th centuries might have beenindentured servants.[16] In the 18th century numerous Europeans traveled to thecolonies as redemptioners.[17] The white citizens of Virginia, who had arrived fromBritain, decided to treat the first Africans in Virginia as indentured servants. As withEuropean indentured servants, the Africans were freed after a stated period and giventhe use of land and supplies by their former owners. Anthony Johnson, a formerindentured servant from Africa, became a landowner on the Eastern Shore and a slave-owner.[18] The major problem with indentured servants was that, in time, they would befreed, but they were unlikely to become prosperous. The best lands in the tidewaterregions were already in the hands of wealthy plantation families by 1650, and the formerservants became an underclass. Bacons Rebellion showed that the poor laborers andfarmers could prove a dangerous element to the wealthy landowners. By switching topure chattel slavery, new white laborers and small farmers were mostly limited to thosewho could afford to immigrate and support themselves. In addition, improving economicconditions in England meant that fewer laborers wanted to migrate to the colonies asindentured servants, so the planters needed to find new sources of labor.THE HISTORY OF SLAVERY IN AMERICA: AN INTERACTIVE MULTI-MEDIA TUTORIALRBG Street Scholar/July 2012 Update
  • 9. Page 8 of 60 See RBG Video: Click Here to OpenSlaves on a Virginia plantation (The Old Plantation, c. 1790)The transformation from indentured servitude to racial slavery happened gradually.There were no laws regarding slavery early in Virginias history. However, by 1640, theVirginia courts had sentenced at least one black servant to slavery.In 1654, John Casor, a black man, became the first legally recognized slave in thepresent United States. A court in Northampton County ruled against Casor, declaringhim property for life, "owned" by the black colonist Anthony Johnson. Since personswith African origins were not English citizens by birth, they were not necessarily coveredby English Common Law. Elizabeth Key Grinstead successfully gained her freedom inthe Virginia courts in 1656 by making her case as the baptized Christian daughter offree Englishman Thomas Key.[19]THE HISTORY OF SLAVERY IN AMERICA: AN INTERACTIVE MULTI-MEDIA TUTORIALRBG Street Scholar/July 2012 Update
  • 10. Page 9 of 60 Shortly after the Elizabeth Key trial, in 1662 Virginia passed a law on partus, stating that any children of an enslaved mother would follow her status and automatically be slaves, no matter if the father was a freeborn Englishman. This institutionalized the power relationships and confined the possible scandal of mixed-race children to within the slave quarters. The Virginia Slave codes of 1705 further defined as slaves those people imported from nations that were not Christian, as well as Native Americans who were sold to colonists by other Native Americans. See: Native Americans in the United States In 1735, the trustees of the colony of Georgia passed a law to prohibit slavery, which was then legal in the 12 other colonies. It was meant to eliminate the risk of slave rebellions and make Georgiabetter able to defend against attacks from the Spanish to the south. It also supportedthe vision of Georgias original charter - to turn some of Englands poor into hardworkingsmall farmers. [20][21]The protestant scottish highlanders who settled what is now Darien GA added a moralanti-slavery argument, which was rare at the time, in their 1739 "Petition of theInhabitants of New Inverness":It is shocking to human Nature, that any Race of Mankind and their Posterity should besentancd to perpetualSlavery; nor in Justice can we think otherwise of it, that they are thrown amongst us tobe our Scourge one Day or other for our Sins: And as Freedom must be as dear to themas it is to us, what a Scene of Horror must it bring about! And the longer it isunexecuted, the bloody Scene must be the greater.—Inhabitants of New Inverness , [20][22]THE HISTORY OF SLAVERY IN AMERICA: AN INTERACTIVE MULTI-MEDIA TUTORIALRBG Street Scholar/July 2012 Update
  • 11. Page 10 of 60But there was popular support for slavery and skillful lobbying by the colonists, and in1750 slavery again became legal in Georgia.During most of the British colonial period, slavery existed in all the colonies. Peopleenslaved in the North typically worked as house servants, artisans, laborers andcraftsmen, with the greater number in cities. Early on, slaves in the South workedprimarily in agriculture, on farms and plantations growing indigo, rice, and tobacco;cotton became a major crop after the 1790s. Tobacco was very labor intensive, as wasrice cultivation.[23] In South Carolina in 1720 about 65% of the population consisted ofslaves.[24] Slaves were used by rich farmers and plantation owners who cultivate cropsfor commercial export operations. Backwoods subsistence farmers, a later wave ofsettlers, seldom owned slaves.Some of the British colonies attempted to abolish the international slave trade, fearingthat the importation of new Africans would be disruptive. Virginia bills to that effect werevetoed by the British Privy Council; Rhode Island forbade the import of slaves in 1774.All of the colonies except Georgia had banned or limited the African slave trade by1786; Georgia did so in 1798 - although some of these laws were later repealed.[25]The British West Africa Squadrons slave trade suppression activities were assisted byforces from the United States Navy, starting in 1820 with the USS Cyane. Initially, thisconsisted of a few ships. With the Webster-Ashburton Treaty of 1842, the relationshipwas formalised and they jointly ran the Africa Squadron.[26]THE HISTORY OF SLAVERY IN AMERICA: AN INTERACTIVE MULTI-MEDIA TUTORIALRBG Street Scholar/July 2012 Update
  • 12. Page 11 of 60THE HISTORY OF SLAVERY IN AMERICA: AN INTERACTIVE MULTI-MEDIA TUTORIALRBG Street Scholar/July 2012 Update
  • 13. Page 12 of 601776 to 1850Second Middle PassageThe growing demand of cotton led many plantation owners west in search for moresuitable land. It was for this reason that slavery did not spread to the north, insteadspreading west.[27] Historian Peter Kolchin wrote, "By breaking up existing families andforcing slaves to relocate far from everyone and everything they knew" this migration"replicated (if on a reduced level) many of [the] horrors" of the Atlantic slave trade.[28]Historian Ira Berlin called this forced migration the Second Middle Passage.Characterizing it as the "central event” in the life of a slave between the AmericanRevolution and the Civil War, Berlin wrote that whether they were uprooted themselvesor simply lived in fear that they or their families would be involuntarily moved, "themassive deportation traumatized black people, both slave and free."[29]Although complete statistics are lacking, it is estimated that 1,000,000 slaves movedwest from the Old South between 1790 and 1860. Most of the slaves were moved fromMaryland, Virginia, and the Carolinas. Originally the points of destination were Kentuckyand Tennessee, but after 1810 the states of the Deep South: Georgia, Alabama,Mississippi, Louisiana and Texas received the most. This corresponded to the massiveexpansion of cotton cultivation in that region, which needed labor. In the 1830s, almostTHE HISTORY OF SLAVERY IN AMERICA: AN INTERACTIVE MULTI-MEDIA TUTORIALRBG Street Scholar/July 2012 Update
  • 14. Page 13 of 60300,000 were transported, with Alabama and Mississippi receiving 100,000 each. Everydecade between 1810 and 1860 had at least 100,000 slaves moved from their state oforigin. In the final decade before the Civil War, 250,000 were moved. Michael Tadman,in a 1989 book Speculators and Slaves: Masters, Traders, and Slaves in the Old South,indicates that 60-70% of interregional migrations were the result of the sale of slaves. In1820 a child in the Upper South had a 30% chance of being sold south by 1860.[30]Slave traders were responsible for the majority of the slaves that moved west. Only aminority moved with their families and existing owner. Slave traders had little interest inpurchasing or transporting intact slave families, although in the interest of creating a"self-reproducing labor force", equal numbers of men and women were transported.Berlin wrote, "The internal slave trade became the largest enterprise in the Southoutside the plantation itself, and probably the most advanced in its employment ofmodern transportation, finance, and publicity." The slave trade industry developed itsown unique language with terms such as "prime hands, bucks, breeding wenches, andfancy girls" coming into common use.[31] The expansion of the interstate slave tradecontributed to the "economic revival of once depressed seaboard states" as demandaccelerated the value of the slaves who were subject to sale.[32]Some traders moved their "chattels" by sea, with Norfolk to New Orleans being the mostcommon route, but most slaves were forced to walk. Regular migration routes wereestablished and were served by a network of slave pens, yards, and warehousesneeded as temporary housing for the slaves. As the trek advanced, some slaves weresold and new ones purchased. Berlin concluded, "In all, the slave trade, with its hubsand regional centers, its spurs and circuits, reached into every cranny of southernsociety. Few southerners, black or white, were untouched."[33]The death rate for the slaves on their way to their new destination across the AmericanSouth was much less than that of the captives across the Atlantic Ocean. Mortality wasstill higher than the normal death rate. Berlin summarizes the experience:... the Second Middle Passage was extraordinarily lonely, debilitating, and dispiriting.Capturing the mournful character of one southward marching coffle, an observercharacterized it as "a procession of men, women, and children resembling that of afuneral." Indeed, with men and women dying on the march or being sold and resold,slaves became not merely commodified but cut off from nearly every humanattachment....Murder and mayhem made the Second Middle Passage almost as dangerous fortraders as it was for slaves, which was why the men were chained tightly and guardedclosely. ... The coffles that marched slaves southward – like the slave ships that carriedtheir ancestors westward – became mobile fortresses, and under such circumstances,flight was more common than revolt. Slaves found it easier – and far less perilous – toslip into the night and follow the North Star to the fabled land of freedom than toconfront their heavily armed overlords.[34]THE HISTORY OF SLAVERY IN AMERICA: AN INTERACTIVE MULTI-MEDIA TUTORIALRBG Street Scholar/July 2012 Update
  • 15. Page 14 of 60Once the trip was ended, slaves faced a life on the frontier significantly different fromtheir experiences back east. Clearing trees and starting crops on virgin fields was harshand backbreaking work. A combination of inadequate nutrition, bad water, andexhaustion from both the journey and the work weakened the newly arrived slaves andproduced casualties. The preferred locations of the new plantations at rivers edges,with mosquitoes and other environmental challenges, threatened the survival of slaves.They had acquired only limited immunities in their previous homes. The death rate wassuch that, in the first few years of hewing a plantation out of the wilderness, someplanters preferred whenever possible to use rented slaves rather than their own.[35]The harsh conditions on the frontier increased slave resistance and led to much morereliance on violence by the owners and overseers. Many of the slaves were new tocotton fields and unaccustomed to the "sunrise-to-sunset gang labor" required by theirnew life. Slaves were driven much harder than when they were involved in growingtobacco or wheat back east. Slaves also had less time and opportunity to improve thequality of their lives by raising their own livestock or tending vegetable gardens, foreither their own consumption or trade, as they could in the eastern south.[36]In Louisiana it was sugar, rather than cotton, that was the main crop. Between 1810 and1830 the number of slaves increased from under 10,000 to over 42,000. New Orleansbecame nationally important as a slave port and by the 1840s had the largest slavemarket in the country. Dealing with sugar cane was even more physically demandingthan growing cotton. Planters preferred young males, who represented two-thirds of theslave purchases. The largely young, unmarried male slave force made the reliance onviolence by the owners “especially savage.”[37]Treatment of slaves Historian Kenneth M. Stampp describes the role of coercion in slavery, "Without the power to punish, which the state conferred upon the master, bondage could not have existed. By comparison, all other techniques of control were of secondary importance."[38] Stampp further notes that while rewards sometimes led slaves to perform adequately, most agreed with an Arkansas slaveholder, who wrote: Now, I speak what I know, when I say it is like ‘casting pearls before swine to try to persuade a negro to work. He must be made to work, and should always be given to understand that if he fails to perform his duty he will be punished for it.[38]THE HISTORY OF SLAVERY IN AMERICA: AN INTERACTIVE MULTI-MEDIA TUTORIALRBG Street Scholar/July 2012 Update
  • 16. Page 15 of 60According to both the Pulitzer Prize-winning historian David Brion Davis and historianEugene Genovese, treatment of slaves was both harsh and inhumane. Whetherlaboring or walking about in public, people living as slaves were regulated by legallyauthorized violence. Davis makes the point that, while some aspects of slavery took ona "welfare capitalist" look,Yet we must never forget that these same "welfare capitalist" plantations in the DeepSouth were essentially ruled by terror. Even the most kindly and humane masters knewthat only the threat of violence could force gangs of field hands to work from dawn todusk "with the discipline," as one contemporary observer put it, "of a regular trainedarmy." Frequent public floggings reminded every slave of the penalty for inefficientlabor, disorderly conduct, or refusal to accept the authority of a superior.[39]THE HISTORY OF SLAVERY IN AMERICA: AN INTERACTIVE MULTI-MEDIA TUTORIALRBG Street Scholar/July 2012 Update
  • 17. Page 16 of 60Bill of sale for the auction of the "Negro Boy Jacob" for "Eighty Dollars and a half" tosatisfy a money judgement against the "property" of his owner, Prettyman Boyce.October 10, 1807Slaves that worked and lived on plantations were commonly punished. This punishmentcould come from the plantation owner or master, his wife, children (white males), andmost often by the overseer. Slaves were punished with a variety of objects andinstruments. Some of these included: whips, placed in chains and shackles, variouscontraptions such as metal collars, being hanged, and even forced to walk atreadmill.[40] Those who inflicted pain upon the slaves also used weapons such asknives, guns, field tools, and objects found nearby. The Whip was the most commonform of punishment performed on a slave. One slave said that, “The only punishmentthat I ever heard or knew of being administered slaves was whipping,” although heknew several that had been beaten to death for offenses such as sassing a whiteperson, hitting another negro, fussing, or fighting in their quarters.[41] Slave overseerswere authorized to whip and brutalize non-compliant slaves. According to an account bya plantation overseer to a visitor, "Some Negroes are determined never to let a whiteman whip them and will resist you, when you attempt it; of course you must kill them inthat case".[42] A former slave describes his witness to females being whipped. “Theyusually screamed and prayed, though a few never made a sound.” [43] If the womenwere pregnant they often dug a hole for them to place their bellies in while beingwhipped. After many of the slaves were whipped they would further torment the slavesby bursting the blisters and rubbing them with turpentine and red pepper. Otherincidents reported that after being beaten they would take a brick, grind it up into apowder, mix it with lard and rub it all over them.[41]Metal collars were also commonly used so that the slave would be reminded of hiswrongdoings. Many collars were thick and heavy; they would often have spikesprotruding, hassling the slave while doing fieldwork and preventing them from sleepinglying down. Louis Cain, a former slave describes his witness to another slave beingpunished, “One nigger run to the woods to be a jungle nigger, but massa cotched himwith the dog and took a hot iron and brands him. Then he put a bell on him, in a woodenframe what slip over the shoulders and under the arms. He made that nigger wear thebell a year and took it off on Christmas for a present to him. It sho’ did make a goodnigger out of him.” [41]THE HISTORY OF SLAVERY IN AMERICA: AN INTERACTIVE MULTI-MEDIA TUTORIALRBG Street Scholar/July 2012 Update
  • 18. Page 17 of 60Plantation owners would sometimes hang their slaves because the slave was causingmore trouble than he was worth or the owner didn’t deem them valuable any more]Slaves were punished for a variety of reasons, most of the time it was for working tooslow, breaking a law such as running away, leaving the plantation without permission, ornot following orders given to them. Myers and Massy describe the extent of manypunishers, “The punishment of deviant slaves was decentralized, based on plantations,and crafted so as not to impede their value as laborers.” [44] Laws made to punish thewhites for punishing their slaves were often weakly enforced or could be easily avoided.An example being in the case Smith v. Hancock, here the defendant was justified inpunishing his slave with physical abuse because he showed the courts that the slavewas attending an unlawful meeting, discussing rebellion, that he refused to surrender,and resisted the arresting officer by force.[45] Whites often punished slaves in front ofothers to make an example out of them. A man named Harding describes an incidentwhere a woman assisted several men in a small rebellion, “The women he hoisted upby the thumbs, whipp’d and slashed her with knives before the other slaves till shedied.” [46] Men and women were sometimes punished differently than the other sex,according to the 1789 report of the Committee of the Privy Council, males were oftenshackled and women and girls were left freely to go about.[46]THE HISTORY OF SLAVERY IN AMERICA: AN INTERACTIVE MULTI-MEDIA TUTORIALRBG Street Scholar/July 2012 Update
  • 19. Page 18 of 60By law, slave owners could be fined for not punishing recaptured runaway slaves. Slavecodes authorized, indemnified or even required the use of violence, and weredenounced by abolitionists for their brutality. Both slaves and free blacks were regulatedby the Black Codes and had their movements monitored by slave patrols conscriptedfrom the white population which were allowed to use summary punishment againstescapees, sometimes maiming or killing them. In addition to physical abuse andmurder, slaves were at constant risk of losing members of their families if their ownersdecided to trade them for profit, punishment, or to pay debts. A few slaves retaliated bymurdering owners and overseers, burning barns, killing horses, or staging workslowdowns.[47] Stampp, without contesting Genoveses assertions concerning theviolence and sexual exploitation faced by slaves, does question the appropriateness ofa Marxian approach in analyzing the owner-slave relationship.[48]Genovese claims that because the slaves were the legal property of their owners, it wasnot unusual for enslaved black women to be raped by their owners, members of theirowners families, or their owners friends. Children who resulted from such rapes wereslaves as well because they took the status of their mothers, unless freed by theslaveholder. Nell Irwin Painter and other historians have also documented that Southernhistory went "across the color line." Contemporary accounts by Mary Chesnut andFanny Kemble, both married in the planter class, as well as accounts by former slavesgathered under the Works Progress Administration (WPA), all attested to the abuse ofwomen slaves by white men of the owning and overseer class.However, the Nobel economist Robert Fogel controversially describes as a myth thebelief that slave-breeding and sexual exploitation destroyed black families. He arguesthat the family was the basic unit of social organization under slavery, and to theeconomic interest of slave owners to encourage the stability of slave families, and mostof them did so. Most slave sales were either of whole families or of individuals at an agewhen it would have been normal for them to leave the family.[49] However, eyewitnesstestimony from former slaves does not support Fogels view. Frederick Douglass, whogrew up as a slave in Maryland, reported the systematic separation of slave familiesand widespread rape of slave women to boost slave numbers.[50]In the early 1930s, members of the Federal Writers Project interviewed former slaves,and in doing so, produced the only known original recordings of former slaves. In 2007,the interviews were remastered and reproduced on modern CDs and in book form inconjunction with the Library of Congress, Smithsonian Productions and a national radioproject. In the book and CD oral history project called Remembering Slavery: AfricanAmericans Talk About Their Personal Experiences of Slavery and Emancipation, theeditors wrote,As masters applied their stamp to the domestic life of the slave quarter, slaves struggledto maintain the integrity of their families. Slaveholders had no legal obligation to respectthe sanctity of the slaves marriage bed, and slave women—married or single — had noformal protection against their owners sexual advances. ...Without legal protection andsubject to the masters whim, the slave family was always at risk." [51]THE HISTORY OF SLAVERY IN AMERICA: AN INTERACTIVE MULTI-MEDIA TUTORIALRBG Street Scholar/July 2012 Update
  • 20. Page 19 of 60Some slave women were used for breeding more slaves. Plantation owners would haveintimate relations with a female slave in order to produce more slaves. Some slaveswere even forced to have sex with others to increase population and increase theamount of slave product on the market. RBG ON GREAT WHITE LIES AND SLAVE SHIPSThe book includes examples of enslaved families torn apart when family members weresold out of state and it contains examples of sexual violations of the enslaved people byindividuals who held power over them.THE HISTORY OF SLAVERY IN AMERICA: AN INTERACTIVE MULTI-MEDIA TUTORIALRBG Street Scholar/July 2012 Update
  • 21. Page 20 of 60Receipt for $500.00 payment for slave, 1840. (US$10,300 adjusted for inflation as of 2007.)"Recd of Judge S. Williams his notes for five hundred Dollars in full payment for a negroman named Ned which negro I warrant to be sound and well and I do bind myself bythese presents to forever warrant and defend the right and Title of the said negro to thesaid Williams his heirs or assigns against the legal claims of all persons whatsoever.Witness my hand and seal this day and year above written. Eliza Wallace [seal]"According to Genovese, slaves were fed, clothed, housed and provided medical care inthe most minimal manner. It was common to pay small bonuses during the Christmasseason, and some slave owners permitted their slaves to keep earnings and gamblingprofits. (One slave, Denmark Vesey, is known to have won a lottery and bought hisfreedom.) In many households, treatment of slaves varied with the slaves skin color.Darker-skinned slaves worked in the fields, while lighter-skinned house servants hadcomparatively better clothing, food and housing.[47]As in President Thomas Jeffersons household, the presence of lighter-skinned slavesas household servants was not merely an issue of skin color. Sometimes planters usedmixed-race slaves as house servants or favored artisans because they were theirchildren or other relatives. Several of Jeffersons household slaves were children of hisfather-in-law John Wayles and the enslaved woman Betty Hemings, who were broughtto the marriage by Jeffersons wife. In turn the widower Jefferson had a long relationshipwith Betty and John Wayles daughter Sally Hemings, a much younger enslaved womanwho was mostly of white ancestry and half-sister to his late wife. The Hemings childrengrew up to be closely involved in Jeffersons household staff activities; one became hisTHE HISTORY OF SLAVERY IN AMERICA: AN INTERACTIVE MULTI-MEDIA TUTORIALRBG Street Scholar/July 2012 Update
  • 22. Page 21 of 60chef. Two sons trained as carpenters. Three of his four surviving mixed-race childrenwith Sally Hemings passed into white society as adults.[52]Planters who had mixed-race children sometimes arranged for their education, even inschools in the North, or as apprentices in crafts. Others settled property on them. Somefreed the children and their mothers. While fewer than in the Upper South, free blacks inthe Deep South were more often mixed-race children of planters and were sometimesthe recipients of transfers of property and social capital. For instance, WilberforceUniversity, founded by Methodist and African Methodist Episcopal (AME)representatives in Ohio in 1856 for the education of African-American youth, was in itsfirst years largely supported by wealthy southern planters who paid for the education oftheir mixed-race children. When the war broke out, the school lost most of its 200students.[53] The college closed for a couple of years before the AME Church bought itand began to operate it.Fogel argues that the material conditions of the lives of slaves compared favorably withthose of free industrial workers. They were not good by modern standards, but this factemphasizes the hard lot of all workers, free or slave, during the first half of the 19thcentury. Over the course of his lifetime, the typical slave field hand received about 90%of the income he produced.[49] In a survey, 58% of historians and 42% of economistsdisagreed with the proposition that the material condition of slaves compared favorablywith those of free industrial workers.[49]Slaves were considered legal non-persons except if they committed crimes. AnAlabama court asserted that slaves "are rational beings, they are capable of committingcrimes; and in reference to acts which are crimes, are regarded as persons. Becausethey are slaves, they are incapable of performing civil acts, and, in reference to all such,they are things, not persons."[54]In 1811, Arthur William Hodge was the first slave owner executed for the murder of aslave in the British West Indies.[55] However, he was not, as some have claimed, the firstwhite person to have been lawfully executed for the killing of a slave.[56] Recordsindicate at least two earlier incidents. On November 23, 1739, in Williamsburg, Virginia,two white men, Charles Quin and David White, were hanged for the murder of anotherwhite mans black slave; and on April 21, 1775, the Fredericksburg newspaper, theVirginia Gazette reported that a white man, William Pitman, had been hanged for themurder of his own black slave.[57]THE HISTORY OF SLAVERY IN AMERICA: AN INTERACTIVE MULTI-MEDIA TUTORIALRBG Street Scholar/July 2012 Update
  • 23. Page 22 of 60 Slave Codes To help regulate the relationship between slave and owner, including legal support for keeping the slave as property, slave codes were established. While each state would have its own, most of the ideas were shared throughout the slave states. In the codes for the District of Columbia, a slave is defined as “a human being, who is by law deprived of his or her liberty for life, and is the property of another.”[58] A paragraph from the Black Code of South Carolina, still valid in 1863, declared death as the penalty for him who dared "to aid any slave in running away or departing from his masters or employers service."[59] Codes from other states placed limits on relations allowed between black and white people. Louisianas Code Noir did not allow interracial marriage, and if children were a result a fine of three hundred livres would have to be paid. This code also stated children of a slave "shall share the condition of their mother”[60] if the child’s parents had different masters theywould stay with the mother, and if the father was free and the mother a slave thechildren would also be slaves.Abolitionist movementBeginning in the 1750s, there was widespread sentiment during the AmericanRevolution that slavery was a social evil (for the country as a whole and for the whites)and should eventually be abolished. All the Northern states passed emancipation actsbetween 1780 and 1804; most of these arranged for gradual emancipation and aspecial status for freedmen, so there were still a dozen "permanent apprentices" in NewJersey in 1860.[62]The Massachusetts Constitution of 1780 declared all men "born free and equal"; theslave Quock Walker sued for his freedom on this basis and won his freedom, thusabolishing slavery in Massachusetts.Throughout the first half of the 19th century, a movement to end slavery grew instrength throughout the United States. This struggle took place amid strong support forTHE HISTORY OF SLAVERY IN AMERICA: AN INTERACTIVE MULTI-MEDIA TUTORIALRBG Street Scholar/July 2012 Update
  • 24. Page 23 of 60slavery among white Southerners, who profited greatly from the system of enslavedlabor. These slave owners began to refer to slavery as the "peculiar institution" in adefensive attempt to differentiate it from other examples of forced labor. Henry Clay (1777–1852), one of three founders of the American Colonization Society, the vehicle for returning black Americans to greater freedom in Africa, founding Liberia.[63] In the early part of the 19th century, a variety of organizations were established advocating the movement of black people from the United States to locations where they would enjoy greater freedom; some endorsed colonization, while others advocated emigration. During the 1820s and 1830s the AmericanColonization Society (A.C.S.) was the primary vehicle for proposals to return blackAmericans to greater freedom and equality in Africa,[63] and in 1821 the A.C.S.established colony of Liberia, assisting thousands of former African-American slavesand free black people (with legislated limits) to move there from the United States. Manywhite people saw this as preferable to emancipation in America, with A.C.S founderHenry Clay believing; "unconquerable prejudice resulting from their color, they nevercould amalgamate with the free whites of this country". Slaveholders opposed freedomfor blacks, but saw repatriation as a way of avoiding rebellions.After 1830, a religious movement led by William Lloyd Garrison declared slavery to be apersonal sin and demanded the owners repent immediately and start the process ofemancipation. The movement was highly controversial and was a factor in causing theAmerican Civil War.Very few abolitionists, such as John Brown, favored the use of armed force to fomentuprisings among the slaves; others tried to use the legal system.Influential leaders of the abolition movement (1810–60) included:  William Lloyd Garrison - published The Liberator newspaper  Harriet Beecher Stowe - author of Uncle Toms Cabin  Frederick Douglass - nations most powerful anti-slavery speaker, a former slave. Most famous for his book Narrative in the Life of Frederick Douglass.  Harriet Tubman - helped 350 slaves escape from the South, became known as a "conductor" on the Underground Railroad.  Robert Purvis - mixed-race abolitionist who used wealth for the black race, active in Philadelphia and Anti-Slavery Society, helped hundreds of slaves on Underground Railroad  Charles Henry Langston - mixed-race abolitionist in Oberlin, Ohio; one of two people tried for Oberlin-Wellington Rescue, which gained national attentionTHE HISTORY OF SLAVERY IN AMERICA: AN INTERACTIVE MULTI-MEDIA TUTORIALRBG Street Scholar/July 2012 Update
  • 25. Page 24 of 60Slave uprisings that used armed force (1700–1859) include:Part of a series of articles on...  New York Revolt of 1712  The Stono Rebellion (1739) in South Carolina  New York Slave Insurrection of 1741  Gabriels Rebellion (1800) in Virginia  Louisiana Territory Slave Rebellion, led by Charles Deslondes (1811)  George Boxley Rebellion (1815) in Virginia  Denmark Vesey Uprising in South Carolina1712 New York Slave Revolt (1822)(New York City, Suppressed)  Nat Turners Rebellion (1831) in Virginia1733 St. John Slave Revolt(Saint John, Suppressed)1739 Stono Rebellion(South Carolina, Suppressed)1741 New York Conspiracy(New York City, Suppressed)1760 Tackys War(Jamaica, Suppressed)1791–1804 Haitian Revolution(Saint-Domingue, Victorious)1800 Gabriel Prosser(Virginia, Suppressed)1805 Chatham Manor(Virginia, Suppressed)1811 German Coast Uprising(Territory of Orleans,Suppressed)1815 George Boxley(Virginia, Suppressed)1822 Denmark Vesey(South Carolina, Suppressed)1831 Nat Turners rebellion(Virginia, Suppressed)1831–1832 Baptist War(Jamaica, Suppressed)1839 Amistad, ship rebellion(Off the Cuban coast,Victorious)1841 Creole, ship rebellion(Off the Southern U.S. coast,Victorious)1859 John Browns Raid(Virginia, Suppressed)THE HISTORY OF SLAVERY IN AMERICA: AN INTERACTIVE MULTI-MEDIA TUTORIALRBG Street Scholar/July 2012 Update
  • 26. Page 25 of 60Rising tensionsThe economic value of plantation slavery was magnified in 1793 with the invention ofthe cotton gin by Eli Whitney, a device designed to separate cotton fibers fromseedpods and the sometimes sticky seeds. The invention revolutionized the cottonindustry by increasing fiftyfold the quantity of cotton that could be processed in a day.The result was the explosive growth of the cotton industry and greatly increased thedemand for slave labor in the South.[64]At the same time, the northern states banned slavery, though, as Alexis de Toquevillenoted in Democracy in America (1835), the prohibition did not always mean that theslaves were freed. Toqueville noted that as Northern states provided for gradualemancipation, they generally outlawed the sale of slaves within the state. This meantthat the only way to sell slaves before they were freed was to move them South.Toqueville does not document that such transfers actually occurred much.[65] In fact, theemancipation of slaves in the North led to the growth in the population of northern freeblacks, from several hundreds in the 1770s to nearly 50,000 by 1810.[66]THE HISTORY OF SLAVERY IN AMERICA: AN INTERACTIVE MULTI-MEDIA TUTORIALRBG Street Scholar/July 2012 Update
  • 27. Page 26 of 60Just as demand for slaves was increasing, the supply was restricted. The United StatesConstitution, adopted in 1787, prevented Congress from banning the importation ofslaves until 1808. On January 1, 1808, Congress banned further imports. Any newslaves would have to be descendants of ones currently in the United States. However,the internal American slave trade and the involvement in the international slave trade orthe outfitting of ships for that trade by U.S. citizens were not banned. Though there werecertainly violations of this law, slavery in America became, more or less, self-sustaining.The War of 1812 and slaveryDuring the War of 1812, British Royal Navy commanders of the blockading fleet, basedat the Bermuda dockyard, were given instructions to encourage the defection ofAmerican slaves by offering freedom, as they did during the Revolutionary War.Thousands of black slaves went over to the Crown with their families, and wererecruited into the (3rd Colonial Battalion) Royal Marines on occupied Tangier Island, inthe Chesapeake. A further company of colonial marines was raised at the Bermudadockyard, where many freed slaves, men women and children, had been given refugeand employment. It was kept as a defensive force in case of an attack.These former slaves fought for Britain throughout the Atlantic campaign, including theattack on Washington D.C.and the Louisiana Campaign, and most were later re-enlistedinto British West India regiments, or settled in Trinidad in August, 1816, where sevenhundred of these ex-marines were granted land (they reportedly organised themselvesin villages along the lines of military companies). Many other freed American slaveswere recruited directly into existing West Indian regiments, or newly created BritishArmy units. A few thousand freed slaves were later settled at Nova Scotia by the British.Slaveholders primarily in the South experienced considerable "loss of property" as tensof thousands of slaves escaped to British lines or ships for freedom, despite thedifficulties. The planters complacency about slave "contentment" was shocked byseeing slaves would risk so much to be free.[67] Afterward, when some freed slaves hadbeen settled at Bermuda, slaveholders such as Major Pierce Butler of South Carolinatried to persuade them to return to the United States, to no avail.THE HISTORY OF SLAVERY IN AMERICA: AN INTERACTIVE MULTI-MEDIA TUTORIALRBG Street Scholar/July 2012 Update
  • 28. Page 27 of 60Internal Slave TradeSlave traders business in Atlanta, Georgia, 1864. (Note building with sign reading"Auction & Negro Sales".)With the movement in Virginia and the Carolinas away from tobacco cultivation andtoward mixed agriculture, which was less labor intensive, planters in those states hadexcess slave labor. They hired out some slaves for occasional labor, but planters alsobegan to sell enslaved African Americans to traders who took them to markets in theDeep South for their expanding plantations. The internal slave trade and forcedmigration of enslaved African Americans continued for another half-century. Tens ofthousands of slaves were transported from the Upper South, including Kentucky andTennessee which became slave-selling states in these decades, to the Deep South.Thousands of African American families were broken up in the sales, which firstconcentrated on male laborers. The scale of the internal slave trade contributedsubstantially to the wealth of the Deep South. In 1840, New Orleans—which had theTHE HISTORY OF SLAVERY IN AMERICA: AN INTERACTIVE MULTI-MEDIA TUTORIALRBG Street Scholar/July 2012 Update
  • 29. Page 28 of 60largest slave market and important shipping—was the third largest city in the countryand the wealthiest.Because of the three-fifths compromise in the U.S. Constitution, slaveholders exertedtheir power through the Federal Government and passed Federal fugitive slave laws.Refugees from slavery fled the South across the Ohio River and other parts of theMason-Dixon Line dividing North from South, to the North via the UndergroundRailroad. The physical presence of African Americans in Cincinnati, Oberlin, and otherNorthern towns agitated some white Northerners, though others helped hide formerslaves from their former owners, and others helped them reach freedom in Canada.After 1854, Republicans fumed that the Slave Power, especially the pro-slaveryDemocratic Party, controlled two of the three branches of the Federal government.Most Northeastern states became free states through local emancipation. Thesettlement of the Midwestern states after the Revolution led to their decisions in the1820s not to allow slavery. A Northern block of free states united into one contiguousgeographic area which shared an anti-slavery culture. The boundary was the Mason-Dixon Line (between slave-state Maryland and free-state Pennsylvania) and the OhioRiver.The slave trade (though not the legality of slavery) was abolished by Congress in theDistrict of Columbia as part of the Compromise of 1850.Religious institutionsPresumption created and legitimized American slavery. Religious leaders in the yearsleading up to the Civil War were unable to provide a definitive answer on the mostdifficult question of the period: "Does the Bible condemn or condone slavery." HistorianMark Noll in The Civil War as a Theological Crisis writes that a “fundamentaldisagreement existed over what the Bible had to say about slavery at the very momentwhen disputes over slavery were creating the most serious crisis in the nations history”(p. 29). He attributes much of that to a certainty of black racial inferiority that was "soseriously fixed in the minds of white Americans, including most abolitionists..., that itoverwhelmed biblical testimony about race, even though most Protestant Americansclaimed that Scripture was in fact their supreme authority in adjudicating suchmatters.”[68]:p.73North and South grew further apart in 1845 when the Baptist Church and otherdenominations split into Northern and Southern organizations. The Southern BaptistConvention formed on the premise that the Bible sanctions slavery and that it wasacceptable for Christians to own slaves. (In the 20th century, the Southern BaptistConvention renounced this interpretation.) Currently American Baptist numericalstrength is greatest in the former slave-holding states.[69] Northern Baptists opposedslavery. In 1844, the Home Mission Society declared that a person could not be amissionary and still keep slaves as property. The Methodist and Presbyterian churchesTHE HISTORY OF SLAVERY IN AMERICA: AN INTERACTIVE MULTI-MEDIA TUTORIALRBG Street Scholar/July 2012 Update
  • 30. Page 29 of 60likewise divided north and south. By the late 1850s only the Democratic Party was anational institution, although it split in the 1860 election.Distribution of slavesDistribution of slaves in 1820Census # Free Total % free Total US % black # SlavesYear blacks black blacks population of total1790 697,681 59,527 757,208 7.9% 3,929,214 19%1800 893,602 108,435 1,002,037 10.8% 5,308,483 19%1810 1,191,362 186,446 1,377,808 13.5% 7,239,881 19%1820 1,538,022 233,634 1,771,656 13.2% 9,638,453 18%1830 2,009,043 319,599 2,328,642 13.7% 12,860,702 18%1840 2,487,355 386,293 2,873,648 13.4% 17,063,353 17%1850 3,204,313 434,495 3,638,808 11.9% 23,191,876 16%1860 3,953,760 488,070 4,441,830 11.0% 31,443,321 14%1870 0 4,880,009 4,880,009 100% 38,558,371 13%Source: http://www.census.gov/population/documentation/twps0056/tab01.xlsTHE HISTORY OF SLAVERY IN AMERICA: AN INTERACTIVE MULTI-MEDIA TUTORIALRBG Street Scholar/July 2012 Update
  • 31. Page 30 of 60 Total Slave Population in US 1790-1860, by State[70] Census 1790 1800 1810 1820 1830 1840 1850 1860 Year 694,2 887,6 1,130,7 1,529,0 1,987,4 2,482,7 3,200,6 3,950,5 All States 07 12 81 12 28 98 00 46 Alabama - - - 47,449 117,549 253,532 342,844 435,080 Arkansas - - - - 4,576 19,935 47,100 111,115 California - - - - - - - - Connecticut 2,648 951 310 97 25 54 - - Delaware 8,887 6,153 4,177 4,509 3,292 2,605 2,290 1,798 Florida - - - - - 25,717 39,310 61,745 29,26 59,69 Georgia 105,218 149,656 217,531 280,944 381,682 462,198 4 9 Illinois - - - 917 747 331 - - Indiana - - - 190 3 3 - - Iowa - - - - - 16 - - Kansas - - - - - - - 2 12,43 40,34 Kentucky 80,561 126,732 165,213 182,258 210,981 225,483 0 3 Louisiana - - - 69,064 109,588 168,452 244,809 331,726 Maine - - - - 2 - - - 103,0 105,6 Maryland 111,502 107,398 102,994 89,737 90,368 87,189 36 35 Massachus - - - - 1 - - - etts Michigan - - - - 32 - - - Minnesota - - - - - - - - Mississippi - - - 32,814 65,659 195,211 309,878 436,631THE HISTORY OF SLAVERY IN AMERICA: AN INTERACTIVE MULTI-MEDIA TUTORIALRBG Street Scholar/July 2012 Update
  • 32. Page 31 of 60 Missouri - - - 10,222 25,096 58,240 87,422 114,931 Nebraska - - - - - - - 15 Nevada - - - - - - - - New 157 8 - - 3 1 - - Hampshire 11,42 12,42 New Jersey 10,851 7,557 2,254 674 236 18 3 2 21,19 20,61 New York 15,017 10,088 75 4 - - 3 3 North 100,7 133,2 168,824 205,017 245,601 245,817 288,548 331,059 Carolina 83 96 Ohio - - - - 6 3 - - Oregon - - - - - - - - Pennsylvani 3,707 1,706 795 211 403 64 - - a Rhode 958 380 108 48 17 5 - - Island South 107,0 146,1 196,365 251,783 315,401 327,038 384,984 402,406 Carolina 94 51 13,58 Tennessee - 44,535 80,107 141,603 183,059 239,459 275,719 4 Texas - - - - - - 58,161 182,566 Vermont - - - - - - - - 292,6 346,6 Virginia 392,518 425,153 469,757 449,087 472,528 490,865 27 71 Wisconsin - - - - - 11 4 -Distribution of slaveholdersAs of the 1860 census, one may compute the following statistics on slaveholding:[71]  Enumerating slave schedules by County, 393,975 named persons held 3,950,546 unnamed slaves, for an average of about ten slaves per holder. As some large holders held slaves in multiple counties and are thus multiply counted, this slightly overestimates the number of slaveholders.THE HISTORY OF SLAVERY IN AMERICA: AN INTERACTIVE MULTI-MEDIA TUTORIALRBG Street Scholar/July 2012 Update
  • 33. Page 32 of 60  Excluding slaves, the 1860 U.S. population was 27,167,529, yielding about 1 in 70 free persons (1.5%) being slaveholders.  The distribution of slaveholders was very unequal: holders of 200 or more slaves, constituting less than 1% of all US slaveholders (fewer than 4,000 persons, 1 in 7,000 free persons, or 0.015% of the population) held an estimated 20–30% of all slaves (800,000 to 1,200,000 slaves).19 holders of 500 or more slaves have been identified.[72] The largest slaveholder wasJoshua John Ward, of Georgetown, South Carolina, who in 1850 held 1,092 slaves,[73]and whose heirs in 1860 held 1,130 or 1,131 slaves[72][73] – he was dubbed "the king ofthe rice planters",[73] and one of his plantations is now part of Brookgreen Gardens.Nat Turner, anti-literacy laws In 1831, a bloody slave rebellion took place in Southampton County, Virginia. A slave named Nat Turner, who was able to read and write and had "visions," started what became known as Nat Turners Rebellion or the Southampton Insurrection. With the goal of freeing himself and others, Turner and his followers killed approximately fifty men, women and children, but they were eventually subdued by the militia.Nat Turner and his followers were hanged, and Turners body was flayed. The militiaalso killed more than a hundred slaves who had not been involved in the rebellion.Across the South, harsh new laws were enacted in the aftermath of the 1831 TurnerRebellion to curtail the already limited rights of African Americans. Typical was thefollowing Virginia law against educating slaves, free blacks and children of whites andblacks:[74]. . . [E]very assemblage of negroes for the purpose of instruction in reading or writing, orin the night time for any purpose, shall be an unlawful assembly. Any justice may issuehis warrant to any office or other person, requiring him to enter any place where suchassemblage may be, and seize any negro therein; and he, or any other justice, mayorder such negro to be punished with stripes.THE HISTORY OF SLAVERY IN AMERICA: AN INTERACTIVE MULTI-MEDIA TUTORIALRBG Street Scholar/July 2012 Update
  • 34. Page 33 of 60If a white person assemble with negroes for the purpose of instructing them to read orwrite, or if he associate with them in an unlawful assembly, he shall be confined in jailnot exceeding six months and fined not exceeding one hundred dollars; and any justicemay require him to enter into a recognizance, with sufficient security, to appear beforethe circuit, county or corporation court, of the county or corporation where the offencewas committed, at its next term, to answer therefore[sic], and in the mean time to keepthe peace and be of good behavior.[75]These laws were often defied by individuals, among whom was noted futureConfederate General Stonewall Jackson[citation needed].1850sBleeding KansasAfter the passage of the Kansas-Nebraska Act, 1854, the border wars broke out inKansas Territory, where the question of whether it would be admitted to the Union as aslave or free state was left to the inhabitants. Abolitionist John Brown was active in therebellion and killing in "Bleeding Kansas" as were many white Southerners. At the sametime, fears that the Slave Power was seizing full control of the national governmentswept anti-slavery Republicans into office. Dred Scott Dred Scott was a 46 or 47-year old slave who sued for his freedom after the death of his owner on the grounds that he had lived in a territory where slavery was forbidden (the northern part of the Louisiana Purchase, from which slavery was excluded under the terms of the Missouri Compromise). Scott filed suit for freedom in 1846 and went through two state trials, the first denying and the second granting freedom. Eleven years later the Supreme Court denied Scott his freedom in a sweeping decision that set the United States on course for Civil War. The court ruled that Dred Scott was not a citizen who had a right to sue in the Federal courts, and that Congress had no constitutional power to pass the Missouri Compromise. The 1857 Dred Scott decision, decided 7-2, held that a slave did not become free when taken into a free state; Congress couldTHE HISTORY OF SLAVERY IN AMERICA: AN INTERACTIVE MULTI-MEDIA TUTORIALRBG Street Scholar/July 2012 Update
  • 35. Page 34 of 60not bar slavery from a territory; and people of African descent imported into the UnitedStates and held as slaves, or their descendants could not be citizens. Furthermore, astate could not bar slaveowners from bringing slaves into that state. This decision, seenas unjust by many Republicans including Abraham Lincoln, was also seen as proof thatthe Slave Power had seized control of the Supreme Court. The decision, written byChief Justice Roger B. Taney, barred slaves and their descendants from citizenship.The decision enraged abolitionists and encouraged slave owners, helping to push thecountry towards civil war.[76]Civil War and Emancipation 1860 presidential election The divisions became fully exposed with the 1860 presidential election. The electorate split four ways. The Southern Democrats endorsed slavery, while the Republicans denounced it. The Northern Democrats said democracy required the people to decide on slavery locally. The Constitutional Union Party said the survival of the Union was at stake and everything else should be compromised. Lincoln, the Republican, won with a plurality of popular votes and a majority of electoral votes. Lincoln, however, did not appear on the ballots of ten southern states: thus his electionnecessarily split the nation along sectional lines. Many slave owners in the South fearedthat the real intent of the Republicans was the abolition of slavery in states where italready existed, and that the sudden emancipation of four million slaves would beproblematic for the slave owners and for the economy that drew its greatest profits fromthe labor of people who were not paid.They also argued that banning slavery in new states would upset what they saw as adelicate balance of free states and slave states. They feared that ending this balancecould lead to the domination of the industrial North with its preference for high tariffs onimported goods. The combination of these factors led the South to secede from theUnion, and thus began the American Civil War. Northern leaders had viewed the slaveryinterests as a threat politically, and with secession, they viewed the prospect of a newsouthern nation, the Confederate States of America, with control over the MississippiRiver and the West, as politically and militarily unacceptable.THE HISTORY OF SLAVERY IN AMERICA: AN INTERACTIVE MULTI-MEDIA TUTORIALRBG Street Scholar/July 2012 Update
  • 36. Page 35 of 60Civil WarThe consequent American Civil War, beginning in 1861, led to the end of chattel slaveryin America. Not long after the war broke out, through a legal maneuver credited toUnion General Benjamin F. Butler, a lawyer by profession, slaves who came into Union"possession" were considered "contraband of war". General Butler ruled that they werenot subject to return to Confederate owners as they had been before the war. Soonword spread, and many slaves sought refuge in Union territory, desiring to be declared"contraband." Many of the "contrabands" joined the Union Army as workers or troops,forming entire regiments of the U.S. Colored Troops. Others went to refugee campssuch as the Grand Contraband Camp near Fort Monroe or fled to northern cities.General Butlers interpretation was reinforced when Congress passed the ConfiscationAct of 1861, which declared that any property used by the Confederate military,including slaves, could be confiscated by Union forces.Lincolns Emancipation Proclamation of January 1, 1863 was a powerful move thatpromised freedom for slaves in the Confederacy as soon as the Union armies reachedthem, and authorized the enlistment of African Americans in the Union Army. TheEmancipation Proclamation did not free slaves in the Union-allied slave-holding statesthat bordered the Confederacy. Since the Confederate States did not recognize theauthority of President Lincoln, and the proclamation did not apply in the border states, atfirst the proclamation freed only slaves who had escaped behind Union lines. Still, theproclamation made the abolition of slavery an official war goal that was implemented asthe Union took territory from the Confederacy. According to the Census of 1860, thispolicy would free nearly four million slaves, or over 12% of the total population of theUnited States.Simon Legree and Uncle Tom: A scene fromUncle Toms Cabin, historys most famousabolitionist novelThe Arizona Organic Act abolished slavery onFebruary 24, 1863 in the newly formed ArizonaTerritory. Tennessee and all of the border states(except Kentucky) abolished slavery by early1865. Thousands of slaves were freed by theoperation of the Emancipation Proclamation asUnion armies marched across the South.Emancipation as a reality came to the remainingsouthern slaves after the surrender of allConfederate troops in spring 1865.At the beginning of the war, some Unioncommanders thought they were supposed to return escaped slaves to their masters. ByTHE HISTORY OF SLAVERY IN AMERICA: AN INTERACTIVE MULTI-MEDIA TUTORIALRBG Street Scholar/July 2012 Update
  • 37. Page 36 of 601862, when it became clear that this would be a long war, the question of what to doabout slavery became more general. The Southern economy and military effortdepended on slave labor. It began to seem unreasonable to protect slavery whileblockading Southern commerce and destroying Southern production. As oneCongressman put it, the slaves "…cannot be neutral. As laborers, if not as soldiers, theywill be allies of the rebels, or of the Union."[77] The same Congressman—and his fellowRadical Republicans—put pressure on Lincoln to rapidly emancipate the slaves,whereas moderate Republicans came to accept gradual, compensated emancipationand colonization.[78] Copperheads, the border states and War Democrats opposedemancipation, although the border states and War Democrats eventually accepted it aspart of total war needed to save the Union.In 1861, Lincoln expressed the fear that premature attempts at emancipation wouldmean the loss of the border states. He believed that "to lose Kentucky is nearly thesame as to lose the whole game."[79] At first, Lincoln reversed attempts at emancipationby Secretary of War Simon Cameron and Generals John C. Fremont (in Missouri) andDavid Hunter (in South Carolina, Georgia and Florida) in order to keep the loyalty of theborder states and the War Democrats.Lincoln mentioned his Emancipation Proclamation to members of his cabinet on July 21,1862. Secretary of State William H. Seward told Lincoln to wait for a victory beforeissuing the proclamation, as to do otherwise would seem like "our last shriek on theretreat".[80] In September 1862 the Battle of Antietam provided this opportunity, and thesubsequent War Governors Conference added support for the proclamation.[81] Lincolnhad already published a letter[82] encouraging the border states especially to acceptemancipation as necessary to save the Union. Lincoln later said that slavery was"somehow the cause of the war".[83] Lincoln issued his preliminary EmancipationProclamation on September 22, 1862, and said that a final proclamation would beissued if his gradual plan based on compensated emancipation and voluntarycolonization was rejected. Only the District of Columbia accepted Lincolns gradual plan,and Lincoln issued his final Emancipation Proclamation on January 1, 1863. In his letterto Hodges, Lincoln explained his belief that "If slavery is not wrong, nothing is wrong …And yet I have never understood that the Presidency conferred upon me an unrestrictedright to act officially upon this judgment and feeling ... I claim not to have controlledevents, but confess plainly that events have controlled me."[84]Since the Emancipation Proclamation was based on the Presidents war powers, it onlyincluded territory held by Confederates at the time. However, the Proclamation becamea symbol of the Unions growing commitment to add emancipation to the Unionsdefinition of liberty.[85] Lincoln also played a leading role in getting Congress to vote forthe Thirteenth Amendment,[86] which made emancipation universal and permanent.Enslaved African Americans did not wait for Lincolns action before escaping andseeking freedom behind Union lines. From early years of the war, hundreds ofthousands of African Americans escaped to Union lines, especially in Union-controlledareas like Norfolk and the Hampton Roads region in 1862 Virginia, Tennessee fromTHE HISTORY OF SLAVERY IN AMERICA: AN INTERACTIVE MULTI-MEDIA TUTORIALRBG Street Scholar/July 2012 Update
  • 38. Page 37 of 601862 on, the line of Shermans march, etc. So many African Americans fled to Unionlines that commanders created camps and schools for them, where both adults andchildren learned to read and write. The American Missionary Association entered thewar effort by sending teachers south to such contraband camps, for instance,establishing schools in Norfolk and on nearby plantations. In addition, nearly 200,000African-American men served with distinction as soldiers and sailors with Union troops.Most of those were escaped slaves.Confederates enslaved captured black Union soldiers, and black soldiers especiallywere shot when trying to surrender at the Fort Pillow Massacre.[87] This led to abreakdown of the prisoner exchange program, and the growth of prison camps such asAndersonville prison in Georgia, where almost 13,000 Union prisoners of war died ofdisease and starvation.[88]In spite of the Souths shortage of manpower, until 1865, most Southern leadersopposed arming slaves as soldiers. However,a few Confederates discussed armingslaves since the early stages of the war, and some free blacks had even offered to fightfor the South. In 1862 Georgian Congressman Warren Akin supported the enrolling ofslaves with the promise of emancipation, as did the Alabama legislature. Support fordoing so also grew in other Southern states. A few all black Confederate militia units,most notably the 1st Louisiana Native Guard, were formed in Louisiana at the start ofthe war, but were disbanded in 1862.[89] In early March, 1865, Virginia endorsed a bill toenlist black soldiers, and on March 13 the Confederate Congress did the same.[90]There still were over 250,000 slaves in Texas. Word did not reach Texas about thecollapse of the Confederacy until June 19, 1865. African Americans and otherscelebrate that day as Juneteenth, the day of freedom, in Texas, Oklahoma and someother states. It commemorates the date when the news finally reached slaves atGalveston, Texas.Legally, the last 40,000 or so slaves were freed in Kentucky[91] by the final ratification ofthe Thirteenth Amendment to the Constitution in December 1865. Slaves still held inNew Jersey, Delaware, West Virginia, Maryland, Missouri and Washington, D.C. alsobecame legally free on this date.Reconstruction to presentDuring Reconstruction, it was a serious question whether slavery had been permanentlyabolished or whether some form of semi-slavery would appear after the Union armiesleft. Over time a large civil rights movement arose to bring full civil rights and equalityunder the law to all Americans.THE HISTORY OF SLAVERY IN AMERICA: AN INTERACTIVE MULTI-MEDIA TUTORIALRBG Street Scholar/July 2012 Update
  • 39. Page 38 of 60SharecroppingAn 1867 federal law prohibited a descendant form of slavery known as sharecropping ordebt bondage, which still existed in the New Mexico Territory as a legacy of Spanishimperial rule. Between 1903 and 1944, the Supreme Court ruled on several casesinvolving debt bondage of black Americans, declaring these arrangementsunconstitutional. In actual practice, however, sharecropping arrangements oftenresulted in peonage for both black and white farmers in the South.Convict leasingWith emancipation a legal reality, white Southerners were concerned with bothcontrolling the newly freed slaves and keeping them in the labor force at the lowestlevel. The system of convict leasing began during Reconstruction and was fullyimplemented in the 1880s. This system allowed private contractors to purchase theservices of convicts from the state or local governments for a specific time period.African Americans, due to “vigorous and selective enforcement of laws anddiscriminatory sentencing” made up the vast majority of the convicts leased.[92] WriterDouglas A. Blackmon writes of the system:It was a form of bondage distinctly different from that of the antebellum South in that formost men, and the relatively few women drawn in, this slavery did not last a lifetime anddid not automatically extend from one generation to the next. But it was nonethelessslavery -- a system in which armies of free men, guilty of no crimes and entitled by lawto freedom, were compelled to labor without compensation, were repeatedly bought andsold, and were forced to do the bidding of white masters through the regular applicationof extraordinary physical coercion.[93]Educational issuesThe anti-literacy laws after 1832 contributed greatly to the problem of widespreadilliteracy facing the freedmen and other African Americans after Emancipation and theCivil War 35 years later. The problem of illiteracy and need for education was seen asone of the greatest challenges confronting these people as they sought to join the freeenterprise system and support themselves during Reconstruction and thereafter.Consequently, many black and white religious organizations, former Union Army officersand soldiers, and wealthy philanthropists were inspired to create and fund educationalefforts specifically for the betterment of African Americans in the South. Blacks startedtheir own schools even before the end of the war. Northerners helped create numerousnormal schools, such as those that became Hampton University and TuskegeeUniversity, to generate teachers. Blacks held teaching as a high calling, with educationthe first priority for children and adults. Many of the most talented went into the field.THE HISTORY OF SLAVERY IN AMERICA: AN INTERACTIVE MULTI-MEDIA TUTORIALRBG Street Scholar/July 2012 Update
  • 40. Page 39 of 60Some of the schools took years to reach a high standard, but they managed to getthousands of teachers started. As W. E. B. Du Bois noted, the black colleges were notperfect, but "in a single generation they put thirty thousand black teachers in the South"and "wiped out the illiteracy of the majority of black people in the land."[94]Northern philanthropists continued to support black education in the 20th century, evenas tensions rose within the black community, exemplified by Dr. Booker T. Washingtonand Dr. W. E. B. Du Bois, as to the proper emphasis between industrial and classicalacademic education at the college level. Collaborating with Dr. Booker T. Washington inthe early decades of the 20th century, philanthropist Julius Rosenwald providedmatching funds for community efforts to build rural schools for black children. Heinsisted on white and black cooperation in the effort, wanting to ensure that white-controlled school boards made a commitment to maintain the schools. By the 1930slocal parents had helped raise funds (sometimes donating labor and land) to create over5,000 rural schools in the South. Other philanthropists such as Henry H. Rogers andAndrew Carnegie, each of whom had arisen from modest roots to become wealthy,used matching fund grants to stimulate local development of libraries and schools.ApologiesOn February 24, 2007, the Virginia General Assembly passed House Joint ResolutionNumber 728 acknowledging "with profound regret the involuntary servitude of Africansand the exploitation of Native Americans, and call for reconciliation among allVirginians."[95] With the passing of this resolution, Virginia became the first state toacknowledge through the states governing body their states negative involvement inslavery. The passing of this resolution came on the heels of the 400th anniversarycelebration of the city of Jamestown, Virginia, which was one of the first slave ports ofthe American colonies.On July 30, 2008, the United States House of Representatives passed a resolutionapologizing for American slavery and subsequent discriminatory laws.[96] The U.S.Senate unanimously passed a similar resolution on June 18, 2009; it also explicitlystates that it cannot be used for restitution claims.[97]Arguments used to justify slaverySee also: Proslavery in the antebellum United States"A necessary evil"In the 19th century, proponents of slavery often defended the institution as a "necessaryevil". It was feared that emancipation would have more harmful social and economicconsequences than the continuation of slavery. In 1820, Thomas Jefferson wrote in aletter that with slavery:THE HISTORY OF SLAVERY IN AMERICA: AN INTERACTIVE MULTI-MEDIA TUTORIALRBG Street Scholar/July 2012 Update
  • 41. Page 40 of 60We have the wolf by the ear, and we can neither hold him, nor safely let him go. Justiceis in one scale, and self-preservation in the other.[98]Robert E. Lee wrote in 1856:There are few, I believe, in this enlightened age, who will not acknowledge that slaveryas an institution is a moral and political evil. It is idle to expatiate on its disadvantages. Ithink it is a greater evil to the white than to the colored race. While my feelings arestrongly enlisted in behalf of the latter, my sympathies are more deeply engaged for theformer. The blacks are immeasurably better off here than in Africa, morally, physically,and socially. The painful discipline they are undergoing is necessary for their furtherinstruction as a race, and will prepare them, I hope, for better things. How long theirservitude may be necessary is known and ordered by a merciful Providence.[99]Alexis de Tocqueville, in Democracy in America, also expressed an opposition toslavery, but felt that the existence of a multiracial society without slavery untenable, andobserved prejudice against negroes increasing as they were granted more rights (forexample, in northern states). He considered the attitudes of white southerners, and theconcentration of the black population in the south–due to exportation resulting fromrestrictions in the north, and climatic and economic reasons–that was bringing the whiteand black population to a state of equilibrium, as a danger to both races. Thus, becauseof the racial differences between master and slave, the latter could not beemancipated.[100]"A positive good"However, as the abolition agitation increased and the planting system expanded,apologies for slavery became more faint in the South. Then apologies were supersededby claims that slavery was a beneficial scheme of labor control. John C. Calhoun, in afamous speech in the Senate in 1837, declared that slavery was "instead of an evil, agood—a positive good." Calhoun supported his view with the following reasoning: inevery civilized society one portion of the community must live on the labor of another;learning, science, and the arts are built upon leisure; the African slave, kindly treated byhis master and mistress and looked after in his old age, is better off than the freelaborers of Europe; and under the slave system conflicts between capital and labor areavoided. The advantages of slavery in this respect, he concluded, "will become moreand more manifest, if left undisturbed by interference from without, as the countryadvances in wealth and numbers."[101]Others who also moved from the idea of necessary evil to positive good are JamesHenry Hammond and George Fitzhugh. Hammond, like Calhoun, believed slavery wasneeded to build the rest of society. In a speech to the Senate on March 4, 1858,Hammond developed his Mudsill Theory defending his view on slavery stating, “Such aclass you must have, or you would not have that other class which leads progress,THE HISTORY OF SLAVERY IN AMERICA: AN INTERACTIVE MULTI-MEDIA TUTORIALRBG Street Scholar/July 2012 Update
  • 42. Page 41 of 60civilization, and refinement. It constitutes the very mud-sill of society and of politicalgovernment; and you might as well attempt to build a house in the air, as to build eitherthe one or the other, except on this mud-sill.” He argued that the hired laborers of theNorth are slaves too: “The difference… is, that our slaves are hired for life and wellcompensated; there is no starvation, no begging, no want of employment,” while thosein the North had to search for employment.[102] George Fitzhugh wrote that, “the Negrois but a grown up child, and must be governed as a child.” In "The Universal Law ofSlavery" Fitzhugh argues that slavery provides everything necessary for life and that theslave is unable to survive in a free world because he is lazy, and cannot compete withthe intelligent European white race.[103]Native AmericansFor more details on this topic, see Slavery among Native Americans in the UnitedStates. Enslavement of Native Americans During the 17th and 18th century, Indian slavery, the enslavement of Native Americans by European colonists, was common. Many of these Native slaves were exported to off- shore colonies, especially the "sugar islands" of the Caribbean. Historian Alan Gallay estimates that from 1670– 1715, British slave traders sold between 24,000 and 51,000 Native Americans from what is now the southern part of the U.S.[104] Slavery of Native Americans was organized in colonial and Mexican California through Franciscan missions, theoretically entitled to ten years of Native labor, but in practice maintaining them in perpetual servitude, until their charge was revoked in the mid-1830s. Following the 1847–1848 invasion by U.S. troops, Native Californians were enslaved in the new state fromTHE HISTORY OF SLAVERY IN AMERICA: AN INTERACTIVE MULTI-MEDIA TUTORIALRBG Street Scholar/July 2012 Update
  • 43. Page 42 of 60statehood in 1850 to 1867.[105] Slavery required the posting of a bond by the slaveholder and enslavement occurred through raids and a four-month servitude imposed asa punishment for Indian "vagrancy".[106]Slavery among Native AmericansThe Haida and Tlingit Indians who lived along southeast Alaskas coast weretraditionally known as fierce warriors and slave-traders, raiding as far as California.Slavery was hereditary after slaves were taken as prisoners of war. Among somePacific Northwest tribes, about a quarter of the population were slaves.[107][108] Otherslave-owning tribes of North America were, for example, Comanche of Texas, Creek ofGeorgia, the fishing societies, such as the Yurok, that lived along the coast from what isnow Alaska to California, the Pawnee, and Klamath.[23]After 1800, the Cherokees and some other tribes started buying and using black slaves,a practice they continued after being relocated to Indian Territory in the 1830s.[109]The nature of slavery in Cherokee society often mirrored that of white slave-owningsociety. The law barred intermarriage of Cherokees and blacks, whether slave or free.Cherokee who aided slaves were punished with one hundred lashes on the back. InCherokee society, blacks were barred from holding office, bearing arms, and owningproperty, and they made it illegal to teach blacks to read and write.[110][111]By contrast, the Seminoles welcomed into their nation African Americans who hadescaped slavery (Black Seminoles).THE HISTORY OF SLAVERY IN AMERICA: AN INTERACTIVE MULTI-MEDIA TUTORIALRBG Street Scholar/July 2012 Update
  • 44. Page 43 of 60Indian slavery after the Emancipation ProclamationA few captives from other tribes who were used as slaves were not freed when African-American slaves were emancipated. Ute Woman, a Ute captured by the Arapaho andlater sold to a Cheyenne, was one example. Used as a prostitute for sale to Americansoldiers at Cantonment in the Indian Territory, she lived in slavery until about 1880when she died of a hemorrhage resulting from "excessive sexual intercourse".[112]Barbary statesAccording to Robert Davis, between 1 million and 1.25 million Europeans were capturedby Barbary pirates and sold as slaves in North Africa and Ottoman Empire between the16th and 19th centuries.[113][114] Because of the large numbers of Britons captured by theBarbary States and in other venues, captivity was the other side of exploration andempire. Captivity narratives originated as a literary form in the 17th century. They werewidely published and read, preceding those of colonists captured by American Indiansin North America.[115] Slave-taking persisted into the 19th century when Barbary pirateswould capture ships and enslave the crew. Between 1609 and 1616, England alone had466 merchant ships lost to Barbary pirates.[116]United States commercial ships were not immune from pirate attacks. In 1783, theUnited States made peace with, and gained recognition from, the British monarchy. In1784 the first American ship was seized by pirates from Morocco. By late 1793, a dozenAmerican ships had been captured, goods stripped and everyone enslaved. After someserious debate, the government created the United States Navy in March 1794. Thisnew military presence helped to stiffen American resolve to resist the continuation oftribute payments, leading to the two Barbary Wars along the North African coast: theFirst Barbary War from 1801 to 1805[117] and the Second Barbary War in 1815.Payments in ransom and tribute to the Barbary states had amounted to 20% of UnitedStates government annual revenues in 1800.[118] It was not until 1815 that navalvictories ended tribute payments by the U.S. Some European nations continued annualpayments until the 1830s.[119]Free black people and slaverySome slaveholders were black or had some black ancestry. In 1830 there were 3,775such slaveholders in the South, with 80% of them located in Louisiana, South Carolina,Virginia, and Maryland. There were economic differences between free blacks of theUpper South and Deep South, with the latter fewer in number, but wealthier andtypically of mixed race. Half of the black slaveholders lived in cities rather than thecountryside, with most in New Orleans and Charleston. Especially New Orleans had alarge, relatively wealthy free black population (gens de couleur) composed of people ofmixed race, who had become a third class between whites and enslaved blacks underFrench and Spanish rule. Relatively few slaveholders were “substantial planters.” Ofthose who were, most were of mixed race, often endowed by white fathers with someTHE HISTORY OF SLAVERY IN AMERICA: AN INTERACTIVE MULTI-MEDIA TUTORIALRBG Street Scholar/July 2012 Update
  • 45. Page 44 of 60property and social capital.[120] Historians John Hope Franklin and Loren Schweningerwrote:A large majority of profit-oriented free black slaveholders resided in the Lower South.For the most part, they were persons of mixed racial origin, often women who cohabitedor were mistresses of white men, or mulatto men ... . Provided land and slaves bywhites, they owned farms and plantations, worked their hands in the rice, cotton, andsugar fields, and like their white contemporaries were troubled with runaways.[121]Historian Ira Berlin wrote:In slave societies, nearly everyone – free and slave – aspired to enter the slaveholdingclass, and upon occasion some former slaves rose into slaveholders’ ranks. Theiracceptance was grudging, as they carried the stigma of bondage in their lineage and, inthe case of American slavery, color in their skin.[122]Free blacks were perceived “as a continual symbolic threat to slaveholders, challengingthe idea that ‘black’ and ‘slave’ were synonymous.” Free blacks were seen as potentialallies of fugitive slaves and “slaveholders bore witness to their fear and loathing of freeblacks in no uncertain terms."[123] For free blacks, who had only a precarious hold onfreedom, “slave ownership was not simply an economic convenience but indispensableevidence of the free blacks” determination to break with their slave past and their silentacceptance – if not approval – of slavery.”[124]Historian James Oakes notes that, “The evidence is overwhelming that the vast majorityof black slaveholders were free men who purchased members of their families or whoacted out of benevolence.”[125] After 1810 southern states made it increasingly difficultfor any slaveholders to free slaves. Often the purchasers of family members were leftwith no choice but to maintain, on paper, the owner-slave relationship. In the 1850s“there were increasing efforts to restrict the right to hold bondsmen on the grounds thatslaves should be kept ‘as far as possible under the control of white men only.”[126]In his 1985 statewide study of black slaveholders in South Carolina, Larry Kogerchallenged this benevolent view. He found that the majority of black slaveholdersappeared to hold slaves as a commercial decision. For instance, he noted that in 1850more than 80% of black slaveholders were of mixed race, but nearly 90% of their slaveswere classified as black.[127] He also noted the number of small artisans in Charlestonwho held slaves to help with their businesses.THE HISTORY OF SLAVERY IN AMERICA: AN INTERACTIVE MULTI-MEDIA TUTORIALRBG Street Scholar/July 2012 Update
  • 46. Page 45 of 60Historiography of American slaveryHistorian Peter Kolchin, writing in 1993, noted that until recently historians of slaveryconcentrated more on the behavior of slaveholders than on slaves. Part of this wasrelated to the fact that most slaveholders were literate and able to leave behind a writtenrecord of their perspective. Most slaves were illiterate and unable to create a writtenrecord. There were differences among scholars as to whether slavery should beconsidered a benign or a “harshly exploitive” institution.[128]Kolchin described the state of historiography in the early twentieth century as follows:During the first half of the twentieth century, a major component of this approach wasoften simply racism, manifest in the belief that blacks were, at best, imitative of whites.Thus Ulrich B. Phillips, the eras most celebrated and influential expert on slavery,combined a sophisticated portrait of the white planters life and behavior with crudepassing generalizations about the life and behavior of their black slaves.[128]Historians James Oliver Horton and Louise Horton described Phillips mindset,methodology and influence:His portrayal of blacks as passive, inferior people, whose African origins made themuncivilized, seemed to provide historical evidence for the theories of racial inferiority thatsupported racial segregation. Drawing evidence exclusively from plantation records,letters, southern newspapers, and other sources reflecting the slaveholders point ofview, Phillips depicted slave masters who provided for the welfare of their slaves andcontended that true affection existed between master and slave.[129]The racist attitude concerning slaves carried over into the historiography of the DunningSchool of reconstruction history, which dominated in the early 20th century. Writing in2005, historian Eric Foner states:Their account of the era rested, as one member of the Dunning school put it, on theassumption of “negro incapacity.” Finding it impossible to believe that blacks could everbe independent actors on the stage of history, with their own aspirations andmotivations, Dunning et al. portrayed African Americans either as “children”, ignorantdupes manipulated by unscrupulous whites, or as savages, their primal passionsunleashed by the end of slavery.[130]Beginning in the 1930s and 1940s, historiography moved away from the “overt” racismof the Phillips era. However, historians still emphasized the slave as an object. WhereasPhillips presented the slave as the object of benign attention by the owners, historianssuch as Kenneth Stampp changed the emphasis to the mistreatment and abuse of theslave.[131]THE HISTORY OF SLAVERY IN AMERICA: AN INTERACTIVE MULTI-MEDIA TUTORIALRBG Street Scholar/July 2012 Update
  • 47. Page 46 of 60In the culmination of the slave as victim, Historian Stanley M. Elkins in his 1959 work“Slavery: A Problem in American Institutional and Intellectual Life” compared UnitedStates slavery to the brutality of the Nazi concentration camps. He stated the institutiondestroyed the will of the slave, creating an “emasculated, docile Sambo” who identifiedtotally with the owner. Elkins thesis immediately was challenged by historians.Gradually historians recognized that in addition to the effects of the owner-slaverelationship, slaves did not live in a “totally closed environment but rather in one thatpermitted the emergence of enormous variety and allowed slaves to pursue importantrelationships with persons other than their master, including those to be found in theirfamilies, churches and communities.”Robert W. Fogel and Stanley L. Engerman in the 1970s, through their work "Time onthe Cross," presented the final attempt to salvage a version of the Sambo theory,picturing slaves as having internalized the Protestant work ethic of their owners.[132] Inportraying the more benign version of slavery, they also argue in their 1974 book thatthe material conditions under which the slaves lived and worked compared favorably tothose of free workers in the agriculture and industry of the time.In the 1970s and 1980s, historians made use of archaeological records, black folklore,and statistical data to describe a much more detailed and nuanced picture of slave life.Relying also on autobiographies of ex-slaves and former slave interviews conducted inthe 1930s by the Federal Writers Project, historians described slavery as the slavesexperienced it. Far from slaves being strictly victims or content, historians showedslaves as both resilient and autonomous in many of their activities. Despite the efforts atautonomy and their efforts to make a life within slavery, current historians recognize theprecariousness of the slaves situation. Slave children quickly learned that they weresubject to the direction of both their parents and their owners. They saw their parentsdisciplined just as they came to realize that they also could be physically or verballyabused by their owners. Historians writing during this era include John Blassingame(“Slave Community”), Eugene Genovese (“Roll, Jordon, Roll”), Leslie Howard Owens(“This Species of Property”), and Herbert Gutman (“The Black Family in Slavery andFreedom”).[133]Important work on slavery has continued; for instance, in 2003 Steven Hahn publishedthe Pulitze Prize-winning account (A Nation under Our Feet: Black Political Struggles inthe Rural South from Slavery to the Great Migration), which examined how slaves builtcommunity and political understanding even while enslaved, so they quickly began toform new associations and institutions when emancipated, including a black churchseparate from white control.THE HISTORY OF SLAVERY IN AMERICA: AN INTERACTIVE MULTI-MEDIA TUTORIALRBG Street Scholar/July 2012 Update
  • 48. Page 47 of 60Modern slaveryAlthough slave ownership by private individuals and businesses has been illegal in theUnited States since 1865, the Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitutionspecifically exempts the judiciary, permitting the enslavement of individuals "as apunishment for crime where of the party shall have been duly convicted".The United States Department of Labor occasionally prosecutes cases against peoplefor false imprisonment and involuntary servitude. These cases often involve illegalimmigrants who are forced to work as slaves in factories to pay off a debt claimed bythe people who transported them into the United States. Other cases have involveddomestic workers.[134]There have been incidents of slavery amongst illegal immigrants working in agriculture.The Immokalee region in southern Florida, which grows most of the tomatoes eaten inthe United States during the cold months, has had many cases of slavery. Since 1997,several prosecutions have resulted in over 1,000 slaves being freed.[135]The New York Times[136], ABC News[137], and The San Francisco Chronicle[138], amongothers, have reported on child and teenage sexual slavery in the United States. Thereare also reports on children working in organized criminal businesses and in legitimatebusinesses under both humane and inhumane conditions.In 2002, the U.S. Department of State repeated an earlier CIA estimate[139] that eachyear, about 50,000 women and children are brought against their will to the UnitedStates for sexual exploitation.[140] Former Secretary of State Colin Powell said that "Hereand abroad, the victims of trafficking toil under inhuman conditions -- in brothels,sweatshops, fields and even in private homes."[141]Notes 1. David Brion Davis, Inhuman Bondage: The Rise and Fall of Slavery in the New World. Oxford University Press. 2006. p. 124. 2. The shaping of Black America: forthcoming 400th celebration reminds America that Blacks came before The Mayflower and were among the founders of this country.(BLACK HISTORY)(Jamestown, VA)(Interview)(Excerpt) - Jet | Encyclopedia.com 3. The First Black Americans - US News and World Report 4. Ronald Segal (1995). The Black Diaspora: Five Centuries of the Black Experience Outside Africa. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux. pp. 4. ISBN 0- 374-11396-3. "It is now estimated that 11,863,000 slaves were shipped across the Atlantic. [Note in original: Paul E. Lovejoy, "The Impact of the Atlantic SlaveTHE HISTORY OF SLAVERY IN AMERICA: AN INTERACTIVE MULTI-MEDIA TUTORIALRBG Street Scholar/July 2012 Update
  • 49. Page 48 of 60 Trade on Africa: A Review of the Literature," in Journal of African History 30 (1989), p. 368.] ... It is widely conceded that further revisions are more likely to be upward than downward." 5. "Quick guide: The slave trade". bbc.co.uk. March 15, 2007. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/africa/6445941.stm. Retrieved 2007-11-23. 6. Stephen D. Behrendt, David Richardson, and David Eltis, W. E. B. Du Bois Institute for African and African-American Research, Harvard University. Based on "records for 27,233 voyages that set out to obtain slaves for the Americas". Stephen Behrendt (1999). "Transatlantic Slave Trade". Africana: The Encyclopedia of the African and African American Experience. New York: Basic Civitas Books. ISBN 0-465-00071-1. 7. Introduction - Social Aspects of the Civil War 8. Welcome to Encyclopædia Britannicas Guide to Black History 9. "Mystery of Va.s First Slaves Is Unlocked 400 Years Later". www.washingtonpost.com. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp- dyn/content/article/2006/09/02/AR2006090201097_pf.html. Retrieved 2009-04- 19. 10. "Virtual Jamestown--Timeline". www.virtualjamestown.org. http://www.virtualjamestown.org/timeline2.html. Retrieved 2009-04-19. 11. "The Irish in the Caribbean 1641-1837: An Overview" 12. "White Slavery, what the Scots already know" 13. Gottlieb Mittleberger, "Indentured Servitude", Faulkner University 14. Indentured Servitude in Colonial America, By Deanna Barker, Frontier Resources 15. "The curse of Cromwell", A Short History of Northern Ireland, BBC. Retrieved October 24, 2007. 16. White Servitude 17. Price & Associates: Immigrant Servants Database 18. Frontline: Famous Families 19. Taunya Lovell Banks, "Dangerous Woman: Elizabeth Keys Freedom Suit - Subjecthood and Racialized Identity in Seventeenth Century Colonial Virginia", Digital Commons Law, University of Maryland Law School, accessed 21 Apr 2009 20. Scott, Thomas Allan (1995-07). Cornerstones of Georgia history. University of Georgia Press. ISBN 0820317438, 9780820317434. http://books.google.com/books?id=0qdkKS2F42MC&lpg=PA114&dq=isbn%3A08 20317438&pg=PA26#v=onepage&q=&f=false. 21. "Thurmond: Why Georgias founder fought slavery". http://savannahnow.com/node/448938. Retrieved 2009-10-04. 22. http://en.wikisource.org/wiki/Petition_against_the_Introduction_of_Slavery 23. "Slavery in America", Encyclopedia Britannicas Guide to Black History. Retrieved October 24, 2007. 24. Trinkley, M. "Growth of South Carolinas Slave Population", South Carolina Information Highway. Retrieved October 24, 2007. 25. Morison and Commager: Growth of the American Republic, pp. 212-220. 26. Africa Squadron: The U.S. Navy and the Slave Trade, 1842-1861THE HISTORY OF SLAVERY IN AMERICA: AN INTERACTIVE MULTI-MEDIA TUTORIALRBG Street Scholar/July 2012 Update
  • 50. Page 49 of 60 27. Kolchin p. 96. In 1834, Alabama, Mississippi, and Louisiana grew half the nations cotton; by 1859, along with Georgia, they grew 78%. By 1859 cotton growth in the Carolinas had fallen to just 10% of the national total. Berlin p. 166. At the end of the War of 1812 there were less than 300,000 bales of cotton produced nationally. By 1820 this figure had increased to 600,000, and by 1850 it had reached 4,000,000. 28. Kolchin p. 96 29. Berlin, Generations of Captivity" pp. 161-162 30. Berlin, Generations of Captivity" pp. 168-169. Kolchin p. 96. Kolchin notes that Fogel and Engerman maintained that 84% of slaves moved with their families but "most other scholars assign far greater weight ... to slave sales." Ransome (p. 582) notes that Fogel and Engermann based their conclusions on the study of some counties in Maryland in the 1830s and attempt to extrapolate that as reflective of the entire South over the entire period. 31. Berlin, Generations of Captivity" pp. 166-169 32. Kolchin p. 98 33. Berlin, Generations of Captivity" pp. 168-171 34. Berlin, Generations of Captivity" pp. 172-173 35. Berlin, Generations of Captivity" p. 174 36. Berlin, Generations of Captivity" p. 175-177 37. Berlin, Generations of Captivity" pp. 179-180 38. Stampp, The Peculiar Institution p. 171 39. Davis p. 196 40. "Black peoples of America Slave punishments." History on the net. May 5, 2009. historyonthenew 2000-2009, Web. 10 oct 2009. <http://www.historyonthenet.com/Slave_Trade/punishments.htm>. . 41. ^ a b c Rawick, George P. "From Sundown to Sunup." Making of the Black Community 1. (1972): n. pag. Web. 21 Nov 2009. . 42. Howard Zinn A People’s History of the United States. New York, New York: Harper Collins Publications, 2003. 43. http://aae.greenwood.com/doc.aspx?i=14&fileID=2000db8f&chapterID=2000db8f -p2000db8f9970053001&path=/books/dps/ . 44. Myers, Martha, and James Massey. "Race, Labor, and Punishment in Postbellum Georgia." JSTOR 38.2 (1991): 267-286. Web. 18 Nov 2009. <http://www.jstor.org/. 45. http://aae.greenwood.com/doc.aspx?i=4&fileID=WHL0748&chapterID=WHL0748 -1046&path=/primarydoc/greenwood . 46. Lasgrayt, Deborah. Arnt I a Woman?: Female Slaves in the Plantation South. 2. New York: W.W. Norton & Company, Inc., 1999. Print. . 47. Genovese (1967) 48. Stampp, Kenneth M. "Interpreting the Slaveholders World: a Review." Stampp writes, "Genovese writes with verve, and certainly he is never dull. But, in my opinion, his attempt to demonstrate the superiority of the Marxian interpretation of history must be adjudged a failure. Some may explain this by arguing that the books point of view is not in fact very Marxian. My own explanation is that the antebellum South, with its essentially racial defense of slavery, and with itsTHE HISTORY OF SLAVERY IN AMERICA: AN INTERACTIVE MULTI-MEDIA TUTORIALRBG Street Scholar/July 2012 Update
  • 51. Page 50 of 60 emphasis on caste rather than class, is just about as unpromising a place for the application of a Marxian interpretation of history as one can imagine." 49. Weiss, T. "Review of Robert William Fogel and Stanley L. Engerman, "Time on the Cross: The Economics of American Negro Slavery", Economic History News Services - Book Reviews, November 16, 2001. Book review. Retrieved October 24, 2007. 50. Douglass, Frederick "Autobiography of Frederick Douglass, Autobiography of Frederick Douglass, 1845. Book. Retrieved June 10, 2008. 51. Remembering Slavery: African Americans Talk About Their Personal Experiences of Slavery and Emancipation edited by Ira Berlin, Marc Favreau, and Steven F. Miller, p. 122-3. ISBN 978-1595582287 52. Annette Gordon-Reed, The Hemingses of Monticello: An American Family, New York: W.W. Norton, 2008 53. James T. Campbell, Songs of Zion, New York: Oxford University Press, 1995, p.259-260, accessed 13 Jan 2009 54. Catterall, Helen T., Ed. 1926. Judicial Cases Concerning Slavery and the Negro, Washington, D.C.: Carnegie Institute, p. 247 55. John Andrew, The Hanging of Arthur Hodge[1], Xlibris, 2000, ISBN 0-7388-1930- 1. The assertion is probably correct; there appear to be no other records of any British slave owners being executed for holding slaves, and, given the excitement which the Hodge trial created, it seems improbable that another execution could have occurred without attracting attention. Slavery as an institution in the British West Indies only continued for another 23 years after Hodges death. 56. Vernon Pickering, A Concise History of the British Virgin Islands, ISBN 10- 0934139059, page 48 57. Blacks in Colonial America, p101, Oscar Reiss, McFarland & Company, 1997; Virginia Gazette, April 21, 1775, University of Mary Washington Department of Historic Preservation archives 58. "Slaves and the Courts, 1740-1860 Slave code for the District of Columbia, 1860."The Library of Congress. Retrieved on July 19, 2008 59. Mee, Arthur; Hammerton, J. A.; Innes, Arthur D., "Harmsworth history of the world, Volume 4", 1907, Carmelite House, London; (at section: "Social Fabric of the Ancient World, IV": in article: William Romaine Paterson: "The effects of the slave system: mans inhumanity to man its own retribution"); at page 2834; where the author cites this excerpt from the South Carolina Black Code after saying:"Christian slave states in the nineteenth century passed laws which are identical in spirit and almost in letter with the slave laws of Babylon. We saw that in Babylon death was the penalty for anyone who assisted a slave to escape. The Code declared that if a man has induced either a male or female slave from the house of a patrician or plebeian to leave the city, he shall be put to death." 60. "Louisianas Code Noir (1724)" Copyright: Blackpast.org. Retrieved on July 19, 2009 61. Sklar, Kathryn. "Women who speak for an Entire Nation". American British Women Compared at the World Anti-slavery Convention, London 1840. The Pacific Historical Review, Vol. 59, Wo. 4, November 1990. pp. 453-499.THE HISTORY OF SLAVERY IN AMERICA: AN INTERACTIVE MULTI-MEDIA TUTORIALRBG Street Scholar/July 2012 Update
  • 52. Page 51 of 60 62. Richard S. Newman, Transformation of American abolitionism: fighting slavery in the early Republic chapter 1 63. "Background on conflict in Liberia Paul Cuffee, advocated settling freed slaves in Africa. He gained support from free black leaders in the U.S., and members of Congress for an early emigration plan. From 1815-1816, he financed and captained a successful voyage to British-ruled Sierra Leone where he helped a small group of African-American immigrants establish themselves. Cuffee believed that African Americans could more easily "rise to be a people" in Africa than in the U.S. where slavery and legislated limits on black freedom were still in place. Although Cuffee died in 1817, his early efforts to help repatriate African Americans encouraged the American Colonization Society (ACS) to lead further settlements. The ACS was made up mostly of Quakers and slaveholders, who disagreed on the issue of slavery but found common ground in support of repatriation. Friends opposed slavery but believed blacks would face better chances for freedom in Africa than in the U.S. The slaveholders opposed freedom for blacks, but saw repatriation as a way of avoiding rebellions". http://www.fcnl.org/issues/item.php?item_id=731&issue_id=75.. 64. The Peoples Chronology, 1994 by James Trager 65. de Toqueville p. 367. 66. Berlin, "Generations of Captivity" p. 104 67. Simon Schama, Rough Crossings: Britain, the Slaves and the American Revolution, New York: HarperCollins, 2006, p.406 68. Noll, Mark. The Civil War as a Theological Crisis. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2006. ISBN 9780807830123. 69. Department of Geography and Meteorology, "Baptists as a Percentage of all Residents, 2000" Valparaiso University, Valparaiso, Indiana. 70. "Total Slave Population in US, 1790-1860, by State". http://fisher.lib.virginia.edu/collections/stats/histcensus/php/newlong.php. Retrieved 2007-12-28. 71. Large Slaveholders of 1860 and African American Surname Matches from 1870, by Tom Blake, 2001–2005 72. The Sixteen Largest American Slaveholders from 1860 Slave Census Schedules, Transcribed by Tom Blake, April to July 2001, (updated October, 2001 and December 2004 – now actually includes 19 holders) 73. Boundaries and Opportunities: Comparing Slave Family Formation in the Antebellum South, Damian Alan Pargas, Journal of Family History 2008; 33; 316, doi:10.1177/0363199008318919 74. Basu, B.D., Chatterjee, R., ed., History of Education in India under the rule of the East India Company, Calcutta: Modern Review Office, pp. 3–4, http://www.archive.org/details/historyofeducati00basurich, retrieved 2009-03-09 75. The Code of Virginia, Richmond: William F. Ritchie, 1849, pp. 747–748 76. Don E. Fehrenbacher, The Dred Scott Case: Its Significance in American Law and Politics (New York: Oxford University Press, 1978) 77. McPherson, Battle Cry of Freedom page 495 78. McPherson, Battle Cry page 355, 494–6, quote from George Julian on 495. 79. Lincolns letter to O. H. Browning, September 22, 1861THE HISTORY OF SLAVERY IN AMERICA: AN INTERACTIVE MULTI-MEDIA TUTORIALRBG Street Scholar/July 2012 Update
  • 53. Page 52 of 60 80. Stephen B. Oates, Abraham Lincoln: The Man Behind the Myths, page 106 81. Images of America: Altoona, by Sr. Anne Francis Pulling, 2001, 10. 82. Letter to Greeley, August 22, 1862 83. Abraham Lincoln, Second Inaugural Address, March 4, 1865 84. Lincolns Letter to A. G. Hodges, April 4, 1864 85. James McPherson, The War that Never Goes Away 86. James McPherson, Drawn With the Sword, from the article Who Freed the Slaves? 87. Bruce Catton, Never Call Retreat, page 335 88. James McPherson, Battle Cry of Freedom, pages 791–798 89. Bergeron, Arthur W., Jr. Louisianans in the Civil War, "Louisianas Free Men of Color in Gray", University of Missouri Press, 2002, p. 107-109. 90. Jay Winik, April 1865. The Month that Saved America, p.51-59 91. E. Merton Coulter, The Civil War and Readjustment in Kentucky (1926) pp 268- 270. 92. Litwack (1998) p. 271 93. Blackmon (2008) p. 4 94. James D. Anderson, The Education of Blacks in the South, 1860-1935, Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1988, pp.244-245 95. ODell, Larry (2007-02-25). "Virginia Apologizes for Role in Slavery". The Washington Post. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp- dyn/content/article/2007/02/25/AR2007022500470.html. 96. Congress Apologizes for Slavery, Jim Crow 97. Thompson, Krissah (2009-06-19). "Senate Backs Apology for Slavery". The Washington Post. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp- dyn/content/article/2009/06/18/AR2009061803877.html. Retrieved 2009-06-21. 98. Jefferson, Thomas. "Like a fire bell in the night" Letter to John Holmes, April 22, 1820. Library of Congress. Retrieved October 24, 2007. 99. Lee, R.E. "Robert E. Lees opinion regarding slavery", letter to president Franklin Pierce, December 27, 1856. civilwarhome.com. Retrieved October 24, 2007. 100. Alexis de Tocqueville. "Chapter XVIII: Future Condition Of Three Races In The United States". Democracy in America (Volume 1). 101. Beard C.A. and M.R. Beard. 1921. History of the United States. No copyright in the United States, p. 316. 102. James Henry Hammond. "The Mudsill Theory". Senate floor speech, March 4, 1858. Retrieved July 21, 2008. 103. George Fitzhugh. "The Universal Law of Slavery" in The Black American: A Documentary History, Third Ed. (Leslie H. Fishel, Benjamin Quarles, ed.). 1970. Retrieved July 21, 2008. 104. Gallay, Alan. (2002) The Indian Slave Trade: The Rise of the English Empire in the American South 1670-171. Yale University Press: New York. ISBN 0-300-10193-7. 105. Castillo, E.D. 1998. "Short Overview of California Indian History", California Native American Heritage Commission, 1998. Retrieved October 24, 2007.THE HISTORY OF SLAVERY IN AMERICA: AN INTERACTIVE MULTI-MEDIA TUTORIALRBG Street Scholar/July 2012 Update
  • 54. Page 53 of 60 106. Beasley, Delilah L. (1918). "Slavery in California," The Journal of Negro History, Vol. 3, No. 1. (Jan.), pp. 33-44. 107. Digital "African American Voices", Digital History. Retrieved October 24, 2007. 108. "Haida Warfare", civilization.ca. Retrieved October 24, 2007. 109. A history of the descendants of the slaves of Cherokee can be found at Sturm, Circe. Blood Politics, Racial Classification, and Cherokee National Identity: The Trials and Tribulations of the Cherokee Freedmen. American Indian Quarterly, Vol. 22, No. 1/2. (Winter - Spring, 1998), pp. 230-258. In 1835, 7.4% of Cherokee families held slaves. In comparison, nearly one-third of white families living in Confederate states owned slaves in 1860. Further analysis of the 1835 Federal Cherokee Census can be found in Mcloughlin, WG. "The Cherokees in Transition: a Statistical Analysis of the Federal Cherokee Census of 1835". Journal of American History, Vol. 64, 3, 1977, p. 678. A discussion on the total number of Slave holding families can be found in Olsen, Otto H. "Historians and the extent of slave ownership in the Southern United States", Civil War History, December 2004 (Accessed here June 8, 2007) 110. Duncan, J.W. 1928. "Interesting ante-bellum laws of the Cherokee, now Oklahoma history". Chronicles of Oklahoma 6(2):178-180. Retrieved July 13, 2007. 111. Davis, J. B. 1933. "Slavery in the Cherokee nation". Chronicles of Oklahoma 11(4):1056-1072. Retrieved July 13, 2007. 112. Page 124, Donald J. Berthrong, The Cheyenne and Arapaho Ordeal: Reservation and Agency Life in the Indian Territory, 1875 to 1907, University of Oklahoma (1976), hardcover, 402 pages, ISBN 0-8061-1277-8 113. Davis, Robert. Christian Slaves, Muslim Masters: White Slavery in the Mediterranean, the Barbary Coast and Italy, 1500-1800.[2] 114. "When Europeans were slaves: Research suggests white slavery was much more common than previously believed", Research News, Ohio State University 115. Linda Colley, Captives: Britain, Empire and the World, 1600-1850, London: Jonathan Cape, 2002, pp. 9-11 116. Rees Davies, "British Slaves on the Barbary Coast", BBC, 1 July 2003 117. The Mariners Museum: The Barbary Wars, 1801-1805 118. Oren, Michael B. (2005-11-03). "The Middle East and the Making of the United States, 1776 to 1815". http://www.columbia.edu/cu/news/05/11/michaelOren.html. Retrieved 2007-02- 18. 119. Richard Leiby, "Terrorists by Another Name: The Barbary Pirates", The Washington Post, October 15, 2001 120. Stampp p. 194. Oakes pp.47-48. 121. Franklin and Schweninger p. 201 122. Berlin, "Generations of Captivity" p. 9 123. Mason pp. 19-20 124. Berlin, Generations of Captivity, p. 138 125. Oakes pp. 47-48THE HISTORY OF SLAVERY IN AMERICA: AN INTERACTIVE MULTI-MEDIA TUTORIALRBG Street Scholar/July 2012 Update
  • 55. Page 54 of 60 126. Oakes pp. 47-49 127. Larry Koger, Black Slaveowners: Free Black Masters in South Carolina, 1790-1860, Columbia, SC: University of South Carolina Press, 1985, Foreword 128. Kolchin p. 134 129. Horton and Horton p. 9. David and Temin (p. 740) add, "The considerable scholarship of Phillips and his followers was devoted to rehabilitating the progressive image of white supremacist society in the antebellum South; it provided a generally sympathetic and sometimes blatantly apologetic portrayal of slaveholders as a paternalistic breed of men." 130. Foner p. xxii 131. Kolchin p. 135. David and Temin p. 741. The latter wrote, “The vantage point correspondingly shifted from that of the master to that of his slave. The reversal culminated in Kenneth M. Stampps ‘The Peculiar Institution’ (1956), which rejected both the characterization of blacks as a biologically and culturally inferior, childlike people, and the depiction of the white planters as paternal Cavaliers coping with a vexing social problem that was not of their own making.” 132. Kolchin p. 136 133. Kolchin pp. 137-143. Horton and Horton p. 9 134. Gilmore, Janet (2004-09-23), Modern slavery thriving in the United States Press Release: Modern slavery thriving in the U.S., UC Berkely, http://www.berkeley.edu/news/media/releases/2004/09/23_16691.shtml Modern slavery thriving in the United States 135. Politics of the Plate: The Price of Tomatoes, by Barry Eastbrook, Gourmet Magazine, March 2009 136. Landesman, Peter (Jul 2004), "Does preparedness make a difference?", Family & community health (The New York Times) 27 (3): 186–7, ISSN 0160- 6379, PMID 15596963, http://www.nytimes.com/2004/01/25/magazine/25SEXTRAFFIC.html 137. Murphy and Allen, ABC News, http://abcnews.go.com/GMA/AmericanFamily/story?id=2834852&page=1 138. Fitzmaurice, Hearst Communications, http://www.sfgate.com/sextrafficking/ 139. Wright, Jennifer (2000), Worldwide Tragedy: U.S. Not Immune to Sexual Slavery, National Organization for Women, http://www.now.org/nnt/summer- 2000/slavery.html 140. Victims of Trafficking and Violence Protection Act of 2000: Trafficking in Persons Report, U.S. Department of State, 2002, http://www.state.gov/g/tip/rls/tiprpt/2002/ 141. Powell, Colin L. (2002-06-05), Special Briefing on Release of Trafficking in Persons Report, June 2002, U.S. Department of State, http://www.state.gov/secretary/former/powell/remarks/2002/10748.htmBibliographyTHE HISTORY OF SLAVERY IN AMERICA: AN INTERACTIVE MULTI-MEDIA TUTORIALRBG Street Scholar/July 2012 Update
  • 56. Page 55 of 60Primary sources  Albert, Octavia V. Rogers. The House of Bondage Or Charlotte Brooks and Other Slaves. Oxford University Press, 1991. Primary sources with commentary. ISBN 0-19-506784-3 o The House of Bondage, or, Charlotte Brooks and Other Slaves, Original and Life-Like complete text of original 1890 edition, along with cover & title page images, at website of University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill  Berlin, Ira, Joseph P. Reidy, and Leslie S. Rowlands, eds. Freedom: A Documentary History of Emancipation, 1861-1867 5 vol Cambridge University Press, 1982. Very large collection of primary sources regarding the end of slavery  Berlin, Ira, Marc Favreau, and Steven F. Miller, eds. Remembering Slavery: African Americans Talk About Their Personal Experiences of Slavery and Emancipation The New Press: 2007. ISBN 978-1595582287  Blassingame, John W., ed. Slave Testimony: Two Centuries of Letters, Speeches, Interviews, and Autobiographies.Louisiana State University Press, 1977.  A Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, an American Slave (1845) (Project Gutenberg: [4]), (Audio book at FreeAudio.org [5])  "The Heroic Slave." Autographs for Freedom. Ed. Julia Griffiths Boston: Jewett and Company, 1853. 174-239. Available at the Documenting the American South website[6].  Frederick Douglass My Bondage and My Freedom (1855) (Project Gutenberg: [7])  Frederick Douglass Life and Times of Frederick Douglass (1892)  Frederick Douglass Collected Articles Of Frederick Douglass, A Slave (Project Gutenberg)  Frederick Douglass: Autobiographies by Frederick Douglass, Henry Louis Gates, Jr. Editor. (Omnibus of all three) ISBN 0-940450-79-8  Litwack, Leon Been in the Storm So Long: The Aftermath of Slavery. (1979) Winner of the 1981 National Book Award for history and the 1980 Pulitzer Prize for History.  Litwack, Leon North of Slavery: The Negro in the Free States, 1790-1860 (University of Chicago Press: 1961)  Document: "List Negroes at Spring Garden with their ages taken January 1829" (title taken from document)  Missouri History Museum Archives Slavery Collection  Rawick, George P., ed. The American Slave: A Composite Autobiography . 19 vols. Greenwood Publishing Company, 1972. Collection of WPA interviews made in 1930s with ex-slavesHistorical studies  Berlin, Ira. Generations of Captivity: A History of African American Slaves. (2003) ISBN 0-674-01061-2.THE HISTORY OF SLAVERY IN AMERICA: AN INTERACTIVE MULTI-MEDIA TUTORIALRBG Street Scholar/July 2012 Update
  • 57. Page 56 of 60  Berlin, Ira. Many Thousands Gone: The First Two Centuries of Slavery in North America. Harvard University Press, 1998. ISBN 0-674-81092-9  Berlin, Ira and Ronald Hoffman, eds. Slavery and Freedom in the Age of the American Revolution University Press of Virginia, 1983. essays by scholars  Blackmon, Douglas A. Slavery by Another Name: The Re-Enslavement of Black Americans from the Civil War to World War II. (2008) ISBN 978-0-385-50625-0.  Blassingame, John W. The Slave Community: Plantation Life in the Antebellum South Oxford University Press, 1979. ISBN 0-19-502563-6.  David, Paul A. and Temin, Peter. Slavery:The Progressive Institution? The Journal of Economic History. Vol. 34, No. 3 (September 1974)  David Brion Davis. Inhuman Bondage: The Rise and Fall of Slavery in the New World (2006)  De Tocqueville, Alexis. Democracy in America. (1994 Edition by Alfred A Knopf, Inc) ISBN 0-679-43134-9  Elkins, Stanley. Slavery : A Problem in American Institutional and Intellectual Life. University of Chicago Press, 1976. ISBN 0-226-20477-4  Fehrenbacher, Don E. Slavery, Law, and Politics: The Dred Scott Case in Historical Perspective Oxford University Press, 1981  Fogel, Robert W. Without Consent or Contract: The Rise and Fall of American Slavery W.W. Norton, 1989. Econometric approach  Foner, Eric. Forever Free.(2005) ISBN 0-375-40259-4  Franklin, John Hope and Schweninger. Runaway Slaves: Rebels on the Plantation. (1999) ISBN 0-19-508449-7.  Gallay, Alan. The Indian Slave Trade (2002).  Genovese, Eugene D. Roll, Jordan, Roll: The World the Slaves Made Pantheon Books, 1974.  Genovese, Eugene D. The Political Economy of Slavery: Studies in the Economy and Society of the Slave South (1967)  Genovese, Eugene D. and Elizabeth Fox-Genovese, Fruits of Merchant Capital: Slavery and Bourgeois Property in the Rise and Expansion of Capitalism (1983)  Hahn, Steven. "The Greatest Slave Rebellion in Modern History: Southern Slaves in the American Civil War." Southern Spaces (2004)  Higginbotham, A. Leon, Jr. In the Matter of Color: Race and the American Legal Process: The Colonial Period. Oxford University Press, 1978. ISBN 0-19-502745- 0  Horton, James Oliver and Horton, Lois E. Slavery and the Making of America. (2005) ISBN 0-19-517903-X  Kolchin, Peter. American Slavery, 1619-1877 Hill and Wang, 1993. Survey  Litwack, Leon F. Trouble in Mind: Black Southerners in the Age of Jim Crow. (1998) ISBN 0-394-52778-x.  Mason, Matthew. Slavery and Politics in the Early American Republic. (2006) ISBN 13:978-0-8078-3049-9.  Morgan, Edmund S. American Slavery, American Freedom: The Ordeal of Colonial Virginia W.W. Norton, 1975.  Morris, Thomas D. Southern Slavery and the Law, 1619-1860 University of North Carolina Press, 1996.THE HISTORY OF SLAVERY IN AMERICA: AN INTERACTIVE MULTI-MEDIA TUTORIALRBG Street Scholar/July 2012 Update
  • 58. Page 57 of 60  Oakes, James. The Ruling Race: A History of American Slaveholders. (1982) ISBN 0-393-31705-6.  Ransom, Roger L. Was It Really All That Great to Be a Slave? Agricultural History, Vol. 48, No. 4 (October 1974)  Scarborough, William K. The Overseer: Plantation Management in the Old South (1984)  Stampp, Kenneth M. The Peculiar Institution: Slavery in the Ante-Bellum South (1956) Survey  Stampp, Kenneth M. "Interpreting the Slaveholders World: a Review." Agricultural History 1970 44(4): 407-412. ISSN 0002-1482  Tadman, Michael. Speculators and Slaves: Masters, Traders, and Slaves in the Old South University of Wisconsin Press, 1989.  Wright, W. D. Historians and Slavery; A Critical Analysis of Perspectives and Irony in American Slavery and Other Recent Works Washington, D.C.: University Press of America (1978)References  Rodriguez, Junius P., ed. Encyclopedia of Slave Resistance and Rebellion. Westport, CT: Greenwood, 2007.  Rodriguez, Junius P., ed. Encyclopedia of Emancipation and Abolition in the Transatlantic World. Armonk, NY: M.E. Sharpe, 2007.State and local studies  Fields, Barbara J. Slavery and Freedom on the Middle Ground: Maryland During the Nineteenth Century Yale University Press, 1985.  Clayton E. Jewett and John O. Allen; Slavery in the South: A State-By-State History Greenwood Press, 2004  Kulikoff, Alan. Tobacco and Slaves: The Development of Southern Cultures in the Chesapeake, 1680-1800 University of North Carolina Press, 1986.  Minges, Patrick N.; Slavery in the Cherokee Nation: The Keetoowah Society and the Defining of a People, 1855-1867 2003 deals with Indian slave owners.  Mohr, Clarence L. On the Threshold of Freedom: Masters and Slaves in Civil War Georgia University of Georgia Press, 1986.  Mooney, Chase C. Slavery in Tennessee Indiana University Press, 1957.  Olwell, Robert. Masters, Slaves, & Subjects: The Culture of Power in the South Carolina Low Country, 1740-1790 Cornell University Press, 1998.  Reidy, Joseph P. From Slavery to Agrarian Capitalism in the Cotton Plantation South, Central Georgia, 1800-1880 University of North Carolina Press, 1992.  Ripley, C. Peter. Slaves and Freemen in Civil War Louisiana Louisiana State University Press, 1976.  Rivers, Larry Eugene. Slavery in Florida: Territorial Days to Emancipation University Press of Florida, 2000.  Sellers, James Benson; Slavery in Alabama University of Alabama Press, 1950THE HISTORY OF SLAVERY IN AMERICA: AN INTERACTIVE MULTI-MEDIA TUTORIALRBG Street Scholar/July 2012 Update
  • 59. Page 58 of 60  Sydnor, Charles S. Slavery in Mississippi. 1933  Takagi, Midori. Rearing Wolves to Our Own Destruction: Slavery in Richmond, Virginia, 1782-1865 University Press of Virginia, 1999.  Taylor, Joe Gray. Negro Slavery in Louisiana. Louisiana Historical Society, 1963.  Wood, Peter H. Black Majority: Negroes in Colonial South Carolina from 1670 through the Stono Rebellion W.W. Norton & Company, 1974.Historiography  John B. Boles and Evelyn T. Nolen, eds., Interpreting Southern History: Historiographical Essays in Honor of Sanford W. Higginbotham (1987).  Richard H. King, "Marxism and the Slave South", American Quarterly 29 (1977), 117-31. focus on Genovese  Peter Kolchin, "American Historians and Antebellum Southern Slavery, 1959- 1984", in William J. Cooper, Michael F. Holt, and John McCardell, eds., A Masters Due: Essays in Honor of David Herbert Donald (1985), 87-111  James M. McPherson et al., Blacks in America: Bibliographical Essays (1971).  Peter J. Parish; Slavery: History and Historians Westview Press. 1989  Tulloch, Hugh. The Debate on the American Civil War Era (1998) ch 2-4Further readingOral histories of ex-slaves  Before Freedom When I Just Can Remember: Twenty-seven Oral Histories of Former South Carolina Slaves Belinda Hurmence, 1989. ISBN 0-89587-069-X  Before Freedom: Forty-Eight Oral Histories of Former North & South Carolina Slaves. Belinda Hurmence. Mentor Books: 1990. ISBN 0-451-62781-4  God Struck Me Dead, Voices of Ex-Slaves Clifton H. Johnson ISBN 0-8298- 0945-7Historical fiction  David Bradley. The Chaneysville Incident. New York: Harper and Row, 1981. ISBN 0-06-010491-0. An exploration of the long-term effects of slavery, set mainly in Pennsylvania in the 1970s, but also including scenes set in the antebellum South.  Edward P. Jones. The Known World. New York: Amistad, 2003. ISBN 0-06- 055755-9. The 2003 winner of the National Book Critic Circle for fiction and 2004 winner of the Pulitzer Prize for Fiction.  Toni Morrison. Beloved. New York: Alfred Knopf, 1987. ISBN 1-58060-120-0. The winner of the 1987 Pulitzer Prize, this novel by Nobel Prize laureate Morrison examines the effect of slavery on one African-American family.  Alice Randall. The Wind Done Gone. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 2001. ISBN 0- 618-11309-7. A reimagining of the story of Margaret Mitchells Gone with theTHE HISTORY OF SLAVERY IN AMERICA: AN INTERACTIVE MULTI-MEDIA TUTORIALRBG Street Scholar/July 2012 Update
  • 60. Page 59 of 60 Wind (1936) from the point of view of Scarlett OHaras half-sister Cynara, a mulatto slave on the OHara plantation.  Barry Unsworth. Sacred Hunger. London: Hamish Hamilon, 1992. ISBN 0-241- 13003-4. A 1992 winner of the Booker Prize, this novel by a British novelist centers around a rebellion on a British slave ship bound for America in the mid- 18th century. The novels climactic sequence is set on the coast of colonial Florida.Literary and cultural criticism  Ryan, Tim A. Calls and Responses: The American Novel of Slavery since Gone with the Wind. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 2008.  Van Deburg, William. Slavery and Race in American Popular Culture. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1984.Links  Born in Slavery: Slave Narratives from the Federal Writers Project, 1936–1938  Voices from the Days of Slavery, interviews of 23 former slaves recorded between 1932 and 1975, American Folklife Center, Library of Congress  Report of the Brown University Steering Committee on Slavery and Justice  "John Browns body and blood" by Ari Kelman: a review in the TLS, February 14, 2007.  Slavery and the Making of America - PBS - WNET, New York (4-Part Series)  Timeline of Slavery in America  Images of slavery drawn by Thomas Nast (has background music)  History of Slavery in America at Slaveryinamerica  Teaching resources about Slavery and Abolition on blackhistory4schools.com  Slavery in the United States from EH.Net - Economic History Services by Jenny B. Wahl of Carleton College  Map of 1820 showing free and slave territories.  Classics on American Slavery collection of old documents available on-line through Dinsmore Documentation  Slavery: A Dehumanizing Institution by Nell Irvin Painter, historian and author of Creating Black Americans  New Georgia Encyclopedia (Slavery in Antebellum Georgia)  American topics sidebarbooks.html WWW-VL: Online Books on Slavery in America  Slavery Illustrated, in the Histories of Zangara and Maquama, Two Negroes Stolen From Africa and Sold Into Slavery. Related by Themselves. Manchester: Wm. Irwin, London: Simpkin, Marshall, and Co., 1849.  Recollections of Slavery by a Runaway Slave. The Emancipator, August 23, September 13, September 20, October 11, October 18, 1838.  University of North Carolina Press on finding freedom and liberty in BNA-Canada  Account of an African Prince Sold into Slavery - Islamica MagazineTHE HISTORY OF SLAVERY IN AMERICA: AN INTERACTIVE MULTI-MEDIA TUTORIALRBG Street Scholar/July 2012 Update
  • 61. Page 60 of 60  The Underground Railroad: Escape from Slavery | Scholastic.com  Stace England & The Salt Kings concept Music CD on "The Old Slave House" in Illinois  Grand Valley State University Civil War and Slavery digital collection  Susan Harbage Page and Juan Logan. "Prop Master at Charlestons Gibbes Museum of Art", Southern Spaces, 21 September 2009. http://www.southernspaces.org/contents/2009/propmaster/1a.htm.THE HISTORY OF SLAVERY IN AMERICA: AN INTERACTIVE MULTI-MEDIA TUTORIALRBG Street Scholar/July 2012 Update