Riots and Rebellion in America          The 1960s              Playwright LeRoi Jones arrested in Newark for possessing tw...
View the VideoText and Image source: http://www.kingsacademy.com/mhodges/03_The-World-since-1900/11_The-Bewildering-60s/11...
But things just do not work out that way. People actually are quite able to accommodate themselvesto their chains. This is...
Malcolm X, 1925-1965.                                          Bob Adelman                                   Jennings and ...
Malcolm X                                                UPI                                      Athearn [Vol. 16] p. E58...
Rioting and arson in Watts - 1965                 (less than a week after the passing of the Voting Rights Act)           ...
Black looters in the Watts section of Los Angeles – August 1965                                      Joe Flowers - Black S...
Detroit – 1965: Black summertime rioting and pillaging.                                      Dennis Brack/Black Star      ...
Rev. Martin Luther King, Jr.; President Lyndon Johnson in background (the breakdown of social order was not at all what ei...
Blacks lining up for the vote in rural Peachtree, Alabama – May 3, 1966                                        Corbis / Be...
Looters in Newarks riots – mid-July 1967                                              UPI                           Grauer...
National Guardsmen and police arresting looters in Newarks riots – mid-July                                   1967        ...
A boy wounded in the Newark riots - 1967                                      (26 died)                                   ...
Playwright LeRoi Jones arrested in Newark for possessing two loaded pistols                             – mid-July 1967   ...
The arrest of a Black cab driver in Newark, NJ, set off a rampage by Blacks. Firebombs and looting degenerated into sniper...
Blacks rioting in Detroit – July 1967                                         The Detroit News                            ...
Black district in Detroit set afire – July1967                        Declan Haun, Life Magazine, 1967 Time Warner, Inc.  ...
One of the many burned-out sections of Detroit – late-July 1967                                              UPI          ...
A burned out Black middle class section of Detroit - 1967                                (43 people died)                 ...
National Guardsmen in Detroit – July 23, 1967                                          Corbis-Bettmann                    ...
A National Guardsman standing watch in Detroit as firemen battle blazes set                        by rioters – late-July ...
Meanwhile the violence spread to New York City where a 28,000-man police with experience in riot control restored order to...
H. Rap Brown arrested for inciting the Cambridge, MD riot – late-July 1967                                              UP...
Black Panthers in a defiant mood                                         Hap Stewart/Bethel                               ...
SNCC leader Stokely Carmichael at a University of Texas gathering,                        denouncing US imperialism       ...
White flight to the suburbs left Blacks who had migrated to the northern cities with no jobs and a rapidly deteriorating u...
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Riots and Rebellion in America |The 1960s

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  1. 1. Riots and Rebellion in America The 1960s Playwright LeRoi Jones arrested in Newark for possessing two 1 Riots and loaded pistols – mid-July 1967 Rebellion in America | The 1960s
  2. 2. View the VideoText and Image source: http://www.kingsacademy.com/mhodges/03_The-World-since-1900/11_The-Bewildering-60s/11c_Johnson%27s-%27Great-Society%27-2.htm “The Revolution of Rising Expectations”Things seemed to be getting just as confusing at home as well. Despite quite visible progress ingetting a cultural shift moving in America that would finally make way for Blacks to come into full andequal participation in American society – it was never fast enough for young Blacks that now began tovoice their deep hostility to the White society around them. And that hostility began to take the formof attacks on White businesses in their neighborhoods, even pillaging and burning them indemonstration of the outrage that was growing in their hearts against White injustice.Idealistic or Liberal Whites could not understand this strange response of the Blacks to White efforts atreform. They probably had never heard of "the revolution of rising expectations." They did notunderstand that people long compliant to oppressive authority do not just automatically rise up tothrow off their chains just because the oppression is great. Marx thought this is how the noble humanspirit would automatically and inevitably produce the great revolution that would one day usher in theclass-less, state-less, totally egalitarian, totally voluntary society (voluntary with respect to a person’swillingness to work hard for the common good). As oppression worsened people would begin to moveautomatically to move toward revolution, even violent revolution. A nice, humanistic idea. 2 Riots and Rebellion in America | The 1960s
  3. 3. But things just do not work out that way. People actually are quite able to accommodate themselvesto their chains. This is not a very noble picture of human nature. But it is an accurate picture. Actionmoving people to change things does not happen until the people begin to have reason to begin tobelieve that change is possible. They will not throw off the way they have learned to live withoppression – until they are fairly confident that change, that some kind of release from the oppression,is possible. And once they see the system bending or cracking, then they begin to become more boldin their push for change. As the oppressing system begins to back down then they become irate andindignant at the injustice of the way things were. Once they finally see that things are moving in theirfavor then they become bold – defiant, even heroic in that defiance. But not until then. But this ishow “the revolution of rising expectations” actually works.Thus the more that the White society began to accommodate Black interests, those interests began togather momentum, until they became truly a storm of passion. It was not because just at that pointthat oppression was just starting to get severe, but because at that point the severity of it seemed tobe lightening. Then all the impatience at the slowness of the momentum began to set in. Then theanger mounted, then the violence picked up. This was the phenomenon the Whites were observing –rising Black militancy in response to the White’s honest interest in seeing an improvement in the Blacksituation. Liberal Idealism and White guiltBut the Whites had no idea of why the more they tried to improve things, the more indignant andresentful the Blacks became. It was just human nature. But American Idealists had (and still have)very little accurate insight into human nature. They had made man into a rational, loving man-God.But this man-God was behaving neither rationally nor lovingly in the American streets as the 1960srolled along.The White effort to make sense of their Idealistic universe gradually took the form of either a risingself-hatred and the deep need to apologize for their ancestors having left such a horrible legacy ofracism (the typical response of the Boomers) – or a rising bitterness about Blacks’ inability to maintaina decent sense of law and order among themselves (the typical response of the Vets). Political lineswere beginning to be drawn up as the situation in America worsened. Inner cities began to burn to therefrain of "Burn Baby, Burn" and police sirens answering back in refrain as Black Power advocateswere carted off to jail, either as self-sacrificing heroes or mere criminals, depending on which side ofthe ideological divide you found yourself on. 3 Riots and Rebellion in America | The 1960s
  4. 4. Malcolm X, 1925-1965. Bob Adelman Jennings and Brewster, p. 4044 Riots and Rebellion in America | The 1960s
  5. 5. Malcolm X UPI Athearn [Vol. 16] p. E585 Blacks demonstrate their new freedoms by torching the world around them (what exactly was the logic in this behavior?)5 Riots and Rebellion in America | The 1960s
  6. 6. Rioting and arson in Watts - 1965 (less than a week after the passing of the Voting Rights Act) Co Rentmeester / LIFE LIFE, p. 2966 Riots and Rebellion in America | The 1960s
  7. 7. Black looters in the Watts section of Los Angeles – August 1965 Joe Flowers - Black Star The Vietnam Experience: A Nation Divided, p. 657 Riots and Rebellion in America | The 1960s
  8. 8. Detroit – 1965: Black summertime rioting and pillaging. Dennis Brack/Black Star Jennings and Brewster, p. 4038 Riots and Rebellion in America | The 1960s
  9. 9. Rev. Martin Luther King, Jr.; President Lyndon Johnson in background (the breakdown of social order was not at all what either of them expected or wanted the civil rights movement to develop into) By Yoichi Okamoto, Washington, DC, March 18, 1966 Lyndon Baines Johnson Library, National Archives9 Riots and Rebellion in America | The 1960s
  10. 10. Blacks lining up for the vote in rural Peachtree, Alabama – May 3, 1966 Corbis / Bettman-UPI LIFE, p. 252 For many young Blacks, 1967 was yet another summer for looting and burning (giving rise to the new mantra: "Burn baby, burn")10 Riots and Rebellion in America | The 1960s
  11. 11. Looters in Newarks riots – mid-July 1967 UPI Grauer, NBC News Picture Book of 1968, p. 5711 Riots and Rebellion in America | The 1960s
  12. 12. National Guardsmen and police arresting looters in Newarks riots – mid-July 1967 UPI Grauer, NBC News Picture Book of 1968, p. 5212 Riots and Rebellion in America | The 1960s
  13. 13. A boy wounded in the Newark riots - 1967 (26 died) Bud Lee / LIFE LIFE, p. 30313 Riots and Rebellion in America | The 1960s
  14. 14. Playwright LeRoi Jones arrested in Newark for possessing two loaded pistols – mid-July 1967 UPI Grauer, NBC News Picture Book of 1968, p. 5914 Riots and Rebellion in America | The 1960s
  15. 15. The arrest of a Black cab driver in Newark, NJ, set off a rampage by Blacks. Firebombs and looting degenerated into sniper shooting. A curfew was imposed on the city, which slowly restored order. But 11 people had been killed, 600 wounded or injured and whole sections of the city were completely gutted by fire. When several days later a pre-scheduled National Unity Conference was held in the city, the language was one not of unity but of declared war. Black-power advocate H. Rap Brown urged the gathering to "wage guerrilla war on the white man." Los Angeles Black Nationalist Ron Karenga stated "Everybody knows Whiteys a devil. The question is what to do about it." Moderate Black leaders such as Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. and Roy Wilkins , Whitney Young, Jr. avoided the conference. In late July, violence broke out in Detroit. Learning from Newark, Detroit mayor Cavanagh immediately called in the National Guardsmen. But seven thousand Guardsmen, complete with tanks and armored cars, could not restore order. Governor George Romney (who was understood to be a potential Republican candidate for the Presidential election in 1968) contacted President Johnson for assistance. Johnson held back until Romney confessed before the public that he had lost control of the situation. Then Johnson sent in US paratroopers to retake the city house-by-house, block-by-block - - similar to a Vietnam military action. When a week later the troops had brought Detroit back to order, 33 people had been killed and over a thousand injured.15 Riots and Rebellion in America | The 1960s
  16. 16. Blacks rioting in Detroit – July 1967 The Detroit News Athearn [Vol. 16] p. 141116 Riots and Rebellion in America | The 1960s
  17. 17. Black district in Detroit set afire – July1967 Declan Haun, Life Magazine, 1967 Time Warner, Inc. Peck and Deyle, p. 698.17 Riots and Rebellion in America | The 1960s
  18. 18. One of the many burned-out sections of Detroit – late-July 1967 UPI Grauer, NBC News Picture Book of 1968, p. 5818 Riots and Rebellion in America | The 1960s
  19. 19. A burned out Black middle class section of Detroit - 1967 (43 people died) Declan Haun / LIFE19 Riots and Rebellion in America | The 1960s
  20. 20. National Guardsmen in Detroit – July 23, 1967 Corbis-Bettmann Evans, p. 54720 Riots and Rebellion in America | The 1960s
  21. 21. A National Guardsman standing watch in Detroit as firemen battle blazes set by rioters – late-July 1967 UPI Grauer, NBC News Picture Book of 1968, p. 5821 Riots and Rebellion in America | The 1960s
  22. 22. Meanwhile the violence spread to New York City where a 28,000-man police with experience in riot control restored order to East Harlem after three nights of violence. Two people were killed. H. Rap Brown had in the meantime moved on to Cambridge, MD, and following a Black- power rally there, the town was subjected to looting and arson. Brown was arrested for inciting a riot. As he was led away by FBI agents, Brown challenged: "Well burn the country down."22 Riots and Rebellion in America | The 1960s
  23. 23. H. Rap Brown arrested for inciting the Cambridge, MD riot – late-July 1967 UPI Grauer, NBC News Picture Book of 1968, p. 5723 Riots and Rebellion in America | The 1960s
  24. 24. Black Panthers in a defiant mood Hap Stewart/Bethel Time - 75 Years, p. 92-93 Athearn [Vol. 16] p. 139924 Riots and Rebellion in America | The 1960s
  25. 25. SNCC leader Stokely Carmichael at a University of Texas gathering, denouncing US imperialism Wide World Grauer, NBC News Picture Book of 1968, p. 56 The White community began to divide over the Civil Rights issue -- some Whites demanding a strict clamp-down on Black defiance, others urging reforms to meet Black complaints. Johnson appointed a study commission to investigate the root causes of the violence. What it announced in its preliminary report in late February of 1968 was a situation of high expectations among the Blacks for social reform -- met with little practical chance that such improvements would actually come about. This is what was producing the mood of angry despair among poor Blacks. The inner cities abandoned by25 Riots and Rebellion in America | The 1960s
  26. 26. White flight to the suburbs left Blacks who had migrated to the northern cities with no jobs and a rapidly deteriorating urban infrastructure. Educational levels were very low -- with poor schools able to provide no remedies. It quickly became the assumption within Johnsons Great Society government that huge amounts of governmental money were going to have to be poured into the inner-cities where Blacks had congregated to correct these problems of jobs, schooling and housing. In the meantime everyone looked on wondering what the summer of 1968 would hold for America in terms of race relations. [Grauer, NBC News Picture Book of 1968, pp. 53-55] Although this problem did not present itself in as dramatic a form as other events of the times, nonetheless a huge financial problem was brewing, one that threatened the health of the government and the nation. By 1967 the amount of government spending involved in both Johnson’s Great Society and his heavy military investment in Vietnam was way outpacing the government’s income from all of its tax sources. A huge deficit or government debt began to build up as a result. In that year a Commission on Budget Concepts studied the problem and concluded that a proposed 1968 national budget was going to entail a (what was then huge) deficit of anywhere from $2 to $8 billion in size. Creating the ‘unified’ budget.’ Using the justification of ‘rationalizing’ the entire national or ‘federal’ government budgeting process – including the Social Security budget, which at that time was largely self-running and not considered part of the national budget (or off-budget) – the Commission recommended integrating the Social Security budget with the regular operating budget of the federal government. At that time the Social Security program, originally focused on retirement or pension benefits of Americans but in 1965 adding also Medicare (health insurance for the elderly) and Medicaid (health care for the poor, shared as a joint expense with the States), was running a huge surplus – taking in each year in the form of Social Security tax revenue more than it was spending for its various programs. By combining the deficit-running federal budget with the surplus- running Social Security budget, the government’s budget deficit run up by Johnson’s programs could be recast as now greatly ‘reduced,’ or even be shown as running a ‘surplus.’ Thus in January 1968 Johnson introduced the new unified budget. Even with the inclusion of the Social Security surplus with the regular federal budget Johnson admitted that the new unified budget would still be running up a $8 billion deficit (the government’s expenditures were turning out to be vastly greater than anticipated in 1967). But the figure was a lot lower than it would have been without adding in the Social Security surplus.26 Riots and Rebellion in America | The 1960s

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