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RBG Nat Turner Instructional Unit



Restoring America’s Memory: A Renaissance of Teacher Knowledge 2006-2007 Great Americans Biography Symposia Series Nat Turner Instructional Unit

Restoring America’s Memory: A Renaissance of Teacher Knowledge 2006-2007 Great Americans Biography Symposia Series Nat Turner Instructional Unit



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    RBG Nat Turner Instructional Unit RBG Nat Turner Instructional Unit Document Transcript

    • A U.S. Department of Education Grant Program Savannah-Chatham County Public Schools Restoring America’s Memory: A Renaissance of Teacher Knowledge 2006-2007 Great Americans Biography Symposia Series Nat Turner Instructional Unit Table of ContentsBackground Africans In America – People and Events: Nat Turner’s Rebellion 1831 …………………… 3 Nat Turner Biography …………………………………………………...…………………… 5 Slavery…………………………………………………...……………………………………. 7 Africans in America …………………………………………………...……………………… 17Literacy Links Common Features and Patterns in Social Studies Reading ……...…………………………... 27 Unwritten History ………………………………………………….............................................. 29 RAFT Assignment …………………………………………………...………………………….. 32 Making Big Words – continents …………………………………...…………………………… 33 Making Big Words – frightening …………………………………...………………………….. 36 Making Words – millions …………………………………………...………………………….. 39 Making Words – scared …………………………………………….…………………………… 42 Frederick Douglass Cloze Activity …………………………………………………...………… 45Poetry and Song On Being Brought from Africa to America ………………………..…………………………… 47 The Slave’s Complaint …………………………………………….…………………………… 48 Death of An Old Carriage Horse ……………………………………………………………….. 49 This Train …………………………………………………...………………………………… 50 Civil War …………………………………………………...…………………………………… 51 The Drinking Gourd …………………………………………………...……………………….. 52 The Ballad of Nat Turner …………………………………………………...…………………... 53 12 Sonnets in Memory of Nat Turner …………………………………………………...………. 54 Ode to Ethiopia (Lyrics in a Lowly Life, 1896) by Paul Laurence Dunbar …………………….. 60 Accountability (Lyrics in a Lowly Life, 1896) by Paul Laurence Dunbar ……………………… 62 Student Poetry …………………………………………………...……………………………… 63Restoring America’s Memory: 1 Nat Turner Instructional UnitA Renaissance of Teacher Knowledge Savannah-Chatham County Public Schools
    • Teaching and Learning Resources You Were There: A Witness to History Speech ……………………………………………… 65 An Introduction to Slave Narratives: Harriet Jacobs’s Life of a Slave Girl ………………….. 66 Lessons for the Children: Creating a Picture Book About Slavery lesson plan ……………… 69 The Middle Passage According to Olaudah Equiano lesson plan ……………………………. 71 The Underground Railroad lesson plan …………………………………………………......... 73 Applying Question–Answer Relationships to Pictures …………………………………. 74 Teaching With Documents – The Amistad Case …………………………………….............. 82Resources on CD Graphics Jeopardy – blank template and sounds Lesson Plans – Materials Primary Sources Digital History – Frederick Douglass – experience with a Negro breaker Digital History – Frederick Douglass – Matters fro which a slave may be whipped Digital History – Frederick Douglass - Assesses the meaning of emancipation Digital History – Frederick Douglass - Uses a black sailor’s papers to escape Digital History – William Lloyd Garrison – How It Is with a Slave Digital History – Primary Source Readings and Questions – Slavery Narrative – Olaudah Equiano Narrative – Solomon Northup Narrative - Harriet Jacobs Narrative – Omar ibn Said Nat Turner’s Confession Singular Escape The Fugitive Slave Act 1850 full text The Heroic Slave Slavery’s Opponents and Defenders Follow the Drinking Gourd Frederick Douglass by Paul Dunbar Paul Laurence Dunbar Slavery in America Teacher Resources (see online resources for links) Online Resources PowerPoint Underground Railroad Video Power Point and materials Nat Turner’s rebellionRestoring America’s Memory: 2 Nat Turner Instructional UnitA Renaissance of Teacher Knowledge Savannah-Chatham County Public Schools
    • People & Events Nat Turners Rebellion 1831 Nat Turner was born on October 2, 1800, in Southampton County, Virginia, the week beforeGabriel was hanged. While still a young child, Nat was overheard describing events that had happenedbefore he was born. This, along with his keen intelligence, and other signs marked him in the eyes of hispeople as a prophet "intended for some great purpose." A deeply religious man, he "therefore studiouslyavoided mixing in society, and wrapped [him]self in mystery, devoting [his] time to fasting and praying."In 1821, Turner ran away from his overseer, returning after thirty days because of a vision in which theSpirit had told him to "return to the service of my earthly master." The next year, following the death of hismaster, Samuel Turner, Nat was sold to Thomas Moore. Three years later, Nat Turner had another vision.He saw lights in the sky and prayed to find out what they meant. Then "... while laboring in the field, Idiscovered drops of blood on the corn, as though it were dew from heaven, and I communicated it to many,both white and black, in the neighborhood; and then I found on the leaves in the woods hieroglyphiccharacters and numbers, with the forms of men in different attitudes, portrayed in blood, and representingthe figures I had seen before in the heavens."On May 12, 1828, Turner had his third vision: "I heard a loud noise in the heavens, and the Spirit instantlyappeared to me and said the Serpent was loosened, and Christ had laid down the yoke he had borne for thesins of men, and that I should take it on and fight against the Serpent, for the time was fast approachingwhen the first should be last and the last should be first... And by signs in the heavens that it would makeknown to me when I should commence the great work, and until the first sign appeared I should conceal itfrom the knowledge of men; and on the appearance of the sign... I should arise and prepare myself and slaymy enemies with their own weapons."At the beginning of the year 1830, Turner was moved to the home of Joseph Travis, the new husband ofThomas Moores widow. His official owner was Putnum Moore, still a young child. Turner describedTravis as a kind master, against whom he had no complaints.Then, in February, 1831, there was an eclipse of the sun. Turner took this to be the sign he had beenpromised and confided his plan to the four men he trusted the most, Henry, Hark, Nelson, and Sam. Theydecided to hold the insurrection on the 4th of July and began planning a strategy. However, they had topostpone action because Turner became ill.On August 13, there was an atmospheric disturbance in which the sun appeared bluish-green. This was thefinal sign, and a week later, on August 21, Turner and six of his men met in the woods to eat a dinner andmake their plans. At 2:00 that morning, they set out to the Travis household, where they killed the entirefamily as they lay sleeping. They continued on, from house to house, killing all of the white people theyencountered. Turners force eventually consisted of more than 40 slaves, most on horseback.By about mid-day on August 22, Turner decided to march toward Jerusalem, the closest town. By thenword of the rebellion had gotten out to the whites; confronted by a group of militia, the rebels scattered,and Turners force became disorganized. After spending the night near some slave cabins, Turner and hismen attempted to attack another house, but were repulsed. Several of the rebels were captured. TheRestoring America’s Memory: 3 Nat Turner Instructional UnitA Renaissance of Teacher Knowledge Savannah-Chatham County Public Schools
    • remaining force then met the state and federal troops in final skirmish, in which one slave was killed andmany escaped, including Turner. In the end, the rebels had stabbed, shot and clubbed at least 55 whitepeople to death.Nat Turner hid in several different places near the Travis farm, but on October 30 was discovered andcaptured. His "Confession," dictated to physician Thomas R. Gray, was taken while he was imprisoned inthe County Jail. On November 5, Nat Turner was tried in the Southampton County Court and sentenced toexecution. He was hanged, and then skinned, on November 11.In total, the state executed 55 people, banished many more, and acquitted a few. The state reimbursed theslaveholders for their slaves. But in the hysterical climate that followed the rebellion, close to 200 blackpeople, many of whom had nothing to do with the rebellion, were murdered by white mobs. In addition,slaves as far away as North Carolina were accused of having a connection with the insurrection, and weresubsequently tried and executed.The state legislature of Virginia considered abolishing slavery, but in a close vote decided to retain slaveryand to support a repressive policy against black people, slave and free.Restoring America’s Memory: 4 Nat Turner Instructional UnitA Renaissance of Teacher Knowledge Savannah-Chatham County Public Schools
    • Nat TurnerNat, remembered today as Nat Turner, (October 2, 1800 – November 11, 1831) was an American slavewhose failed slave rebellion in Southampton County, Virginia, was the most remarkable instance of blackresistance to enslavement in the antebellum southern United States. His methodical slaughter of whitecivilians during the uprising made him a controversial figure, but he is still considered by many to be aheroic figure of black resistance to oppression. Though he became known as "Nat Turner" in the aftermathof the uprising, his actual given name was simply "Nat". Early lifeNat was born in Southampton County, Virginia. He was singularly intelligent, picking up the ability to readat a young age and experimenting with homemade paper and gunpowder. He grew up deeply religious andwas often seen fasting and praying. He frequently received visions which he interpreted as being messagesfrom God, and which greatly influenced his life; for instance, when Nat was 21 years old he ran away fromhis master, but returned a month later after receiving such a vision. He became known among fellow slavesas "The Prophet".On February 12, 1831, an annular solar eclipse was seen in Virginia. Nat took this to mean that he shouldbegin preparing for a rebellion. The rebellion was initially planned for July 4, Independence Day, but waspostponed due to deliberation between him and his followers and illness. On August 13, there was anatmospheric disturbance, a solar eclipse, in which the sun appeared bluish-green. Nat took this as the finalsignal, and a week later, on August 21, the rebellion began. Rebellion: Nat Turners slave rebellionNat started with a few trusted fellow slaves. The rebels traveled from house to house, freeing slaves andkilling all the white people they found. The insurgency ultimately numbered more than 50 slaves and freeblacks.Because the slaves did not want to alert anyone to their presence as they carried out their attacks, theyinitially used knives, hatchets, axes, and blunt instruments instead of firearms. Nat called on his group to"kill all whites." The rebellion did not discriminate by age or sex, although Nat later indicated that heintended to spare women, children, and men who surrendered as it went on. Before Nat and his brigade ofslaves met resistance at the hands of a white militia, 57 white men, women and children had been killed. Capture and executionThe rebellion was suppressed within 48 hours, but Nat eluded capture until October 30 when he wasdiscovered hiding in a cave and then taken to court. After his execution, a lawyer, Thomas Ruffin Gray,who had access to the jail in which Nat had been held, took it upon himself to publish The Confessions ofNat Turner, derived partly from research done while Nat was in hiding and partly from conversations withNat before his trial. This document is the primary historical document regarding Nat. However, its authorsbias is problematic. It is probable that Gray suppressed some facts and gave undue emphasis to others. Itseems unlikely, for example, that Nat would have said such things as, “we found no more victims to gratifyour thirst for blood.” However, the book does contain other lines which appear genuine, particularly thepassages in which Nat describes his visions and early childhood.On November 5, 1831, Nat was tried, convicted, and sentenced to death.He was hanged on November 11 in Jerusalem, Virginia, now known as Courtland, Virginia. His body wasthen flayed, beheaded and quartered, and various body parts were kept by whites as souvenirs.Restoring America’s Memory: 5 Nat Turner Instructional UnitA Renaissance of Teacher Knowledge Savannah-Chatham County Public Schools
    • ConsequencesPrior to the Nat Turner Revolt, there was a fairly substantial abolition movement in the state of Virginia,largely on account of economic trends that made slavery less profitable in the Old South in the 1820s andfears of the rising number of blacks in whites, especially in the Tidewater and Piedmont regions. Most ofthe movements members, including acting governor John Floyd, supported resettlement for these reasons.Considerations of white racial and moral purity also influenced many of these abolitionists.However, fears of repetitions of the Nat Turner Revolt served to polarize moderates and slave ownersacross the South. Municipalities across the region instituted repressive policies against slaves and freeblacks. The freedoms of all black people in Virginia were tightly curtailed, and an official policy wasestablished that forbade questioning the slave system on the grounds that any discussion might encouragesimilar slave revolts. There is evidence of trends in support of such policies and for slavery itself inVirginia before the revolt. This was probably due in part to the recovering Southern agricultural economyand the spread of slavery across the continent which made the excess Tidewater slaves a highly marketablecommodity. Nats actions probably sped up existing trends.In terms of public response and loss of white lives, no other slave uprising inflicted as severe a blow to thecommunity of slave owners in the United States. Because of this, Nat is regarded as a hero by manyAfrican Americans and pan-Africanists worldwide.Nat finally became the focus of popular historical scholarship in the 1940s, when historian HerbertAptheker was publishing the first serious scholarly work on instances of slave resistance in the antebellumSouth. Aptheker stressed how the rebellion was rooted in the exploitative conditions of the Southern slavesystem. He traversed libraries and archives throughout the South, managing to uncover roughly 250 similarinstances, though none of them reached the scale of the Nat Turner Revolt.Restoring America’s Memory: 6 Nat Turner Instructional UnitA Renaissance of Teacher Knowledge Savannah-Chatham County Public Schools
    • SlaveryIntroduction Beginning at least as early as 1502, European slave traders shipped approximately 11 to 16 millionslaves to the Americas, including 500,000 to what is now the United States. By the beginning of theeighteenth century, slaves could be found in every area colonized by Europeans. Initially, English colonists relied on indentured white servants, but by the late seventeenth century,faced with a shortage of servants, they increasingly resorted to enslaved Africans. Three distinctivesystems of slavery emerged in the American colonies. In Maryland and Virginia, slavery was widely usedin raising tobacco and corn and worked under the "gang" system. In the South Carolina and Georgia lowcountry, slaves raised rice and indigo, worked under the "task" system, and were able to reconstituteAfrican social patterns and maintain a separate Gullah dialect. In the North, slavery was concentrated onLong Island and in southern Rhode Island and New Jersey, where most slaves were engaged in farmingand stock raising for the West Indies or were household servants for the urban elite. The American Revolution had contradictory consequences for slavery. Thousands of slaves freedthemselves by running away. In the South, slavery became more firmly entrenched, and expanded rapidlyinto the Old Southwest after the development of the cotton gin. In the North, in contrast, every state freedslaves by statute, court decision, or enactment of gradual emancipation schemes. During the decades before the Civil War, slave grown cotton accounted for over half the value of allUnited States exports, and provided virtually all the cotton used in the northern textile industry and 70percent of the cotton used in British mills. The slave South failed to establish commercial, financial, ormanufacturing companies on the same scale as the North.Background Thomas Jefferson, James Madison, and George Washington were slaveholders. So, too, were BenjaminFranklin and the theologian Jonathan Edwards. John Newton, the composer of "Amazing Grace," captaineda slave ship early in his life. Robinson Crusoe, the fictional character in Daniel Defoes famous novel, wasengaged in the slave trade when he was shipwrecked. Slavery has often been treated as a marginal aspect ofhistory, confined to courses on southern or African American history. In fact, slavery played a crucial rolein the making of the modern world. Slavery provided the labor force for the Slavery played anindispensable role in the settlement and development of the New World. Slavery dates to prehistoric timesand could be found in ancient Babylon, classical Greece and Rome, China, India, and Africa as well as inthe New World.Slavery in Historical Perspective Slavery in the United States was not unique in treating human beings like animals. The institution ofslavery could be found in societies as diverse as ancient Assyria, Babylonia, China, Egypt, India, Persia,and Mesopotamia; in classical Greece and Rome; in Africa, the Islamic world and among the New WorldIndians. At the time of Christ, there were probably between two and three million slaves in Italy, makingup 35 to 40 percent of the population. Englands Domesday book of 1086 indicated that 10 percent of thepopulation was enslaved. Among some Indian tribes of the Pacific Northwest, nearly a quarter of thepopulation consisted of slaves. In 1644, just before the Dutch ceded Manhattan to the British, 40 percent ofthe population consisted of enslaved Africans. It is notable that the modern word for slaves comes from "Slav." During the Middle Ages, most slavesRestoring America’s Memory: 7 Nat Turner Instructional UnitA Renaissance of Teacher Knowledge Savannah-Chatham County Public Schools
    • in Europe and the Islamic world were people from Slavic Eastern Europe. It was only in the fifteenthcentury that slavery became linked with people from sub-Saharan Africa.The Newness of New World Slavery Was the slavery that developed in the New World fundamentally different from the kinds of servitudefound in classical antiquity or in other societies? In one respect, New World slavery clearly was not unique.Slavery everywhere permitted cruelty and abuse. In ancient India, Saxon England, and ancient China, amaster might mistreat or even kill a slave with impunity. Yet in four fundamental respects New World slavery differed from slavery in classical antiquity and inAfrica, eastern and central Asia, or the Middle East.1. Slavery in the classical and the early medieval worlds was not based on racial distinctions. Racialslavery originated during the Middle Ages, when Christians and Muslims increasingly began to recruitslaves from east, north central, and west Africa. As late as the fifteenth century, slavery did notautomatically mean black slavery. Many slaves came from the Crimea, the Balkans, and the steppes ofwestern Asia. But after 1453, when the Ottoman Turks captured Constantinople, the capital of easternChristendom, Christian slave traders drew increasingly upon captive black Muslims, known as Moors, andupon slaves purchased on the West African coast or transported across the Sahara Desert.2. The ancient world did not necessarily regard slavery as a permanent condition. In many societies,including ancient Greece and Rome, manumission of slaves was common, and former slaves carried littlestigma from their previous status.3. Slaves did not necessarily hold the lowest status in pre-modern societies. In classical Greece, manyeducators, scholars, poets, and physicians were in fact slaves.4. Only in the New World that slavery provided the labor force for a high-pressure profit making capitalistsystem of plantation agriculture producing cotton, sugar, coffee, and cocoa for distant markets. Most slavesin Africa, in the Islamic world, and in the New World prior to European colonization worked as farmers orhousehold servants, or served as concubines or eunuchs. They were symbols of prestige, luxury, and powerrather than a source of labor.Slavery in Africa Slavery existed in Africa before the arrival of Europeans--as did a slave trade that exported a smallnumber of sub-Saharan Africans to North Africa, the Middle East, and the Persian Gulf. But this system ofslavery differed from the plantation slavery that developed in the New World. Hereditary slavery, extending over several generations, was rare. Most slaves in Africa were female.Women were preferred because they bore children and because they performed most field labor. Slavery inearly sub-Saharan Africa took a variety of forms. While most slaves were field workers, some served inroyal courts, where they served as officials, soldiers, servants, and artisans. Under a system known as"pawnship," youths (usually girls) served as collateral for their familys debts. If their parents or kindefaulted on these debts, then these young girls were forced to labor to repay these debts. In manyinstances, these young women eventually married into their owners lineage, and their familys debt wascancelled. Under a system known as "clientage," slaves owed a share of their crop or their labor to an owner or alineage. Yet they owned the bulk of their crop and were allowed to participate in the societys politicalactivities. These slaves were often treated no differently than other peasant or tenant farmers.The Impact of the Slave Trade on West and Central Africa The trans-Atlantic trade profoundly changed the nature and scale of slavery in Africa itself. Thedevelopment of the Atlantic slave trade led to the enslavement of far greater numbers of Africans and tomore intense exploitation of slave labor in Africa. While the trade probably did not reduce the overall population, it did skew the sex ratio. In Angola,there were just 40 to 50 men per 100 women. As a result of the slave trade, there were fewer adult men toRestoring America’s Memory: 8 Nat Turner Instructional UnitA Renaissance of Teacher Knowledge Savannah-Chatham County Public Schools
    • hunt, fish, rear livestock, and clear fields. The slave trade also generated violence, spread disease, andresulted in massive imports of European goods, undermining local industries.Enslavement Many Americans mistakenly believe that most slaves were captured by Europeans who landed on theAfrican coast and captured or ambushed people. It is important to understand that Europeans wereincapable, on their own, of kidnapping 20 million Africans. Most slaves sold to Europeans had not been slaves in Africa. They were free people who were capturedin war or were victims of banditry or were enslaved as punishment for certain crimes or as repayment for adebt. In most cases, rulers or merchants were not selling their own subjects, but people they regarded asalien. Apologists for the African slave trade long argued that European traders purchased Africans who hadalready been enslaved and who otherwise would have been put to death. Thus, apologists claimed, theslave trade actually saved lives. This is a serious distortion of the facts. Some independent slave merchantsdid stage raids on unprotected African villages and kidnap and enslave Africans. Professional slave traders,however, set up bases along the West African coast where they purchased slaves from Africans inexchange for firearms and other goods. Before the end of the seventeenth century, England, France,Denmark, Holland, and Portugal had all established slave trading posts on the West African coast. The massive European demand for slaves and the introduction of firearms radically transformed WestAfrican society. A growing number of Africans were enslaved for petty debts or minor criminal orreligious offenses or following unprovoked raids on unprotected villages. An increasing number ofreligious wars broke out with the goal of capturing slaves. European weapons made it easier to captureslaves. Some African societies like Benin in southern Nigeria refused to sell slaves. Others, like Dahomey,appear to have specialized in enslavement. Drought, famine, or periods of violent conflict might lead aruler or a merchant to sell slaves. In addition, many rulers sold slaves in order to acquire the trade goods--textiles, alcohol, and other rare imports--that were necessary to secure the loyalty of their subjects. After capture, the captives were bound together at the neck and marched barefoot hundreds of miles tothe Atlantic coast. African captives typically suffered death rates of 20 percent or more while beingmarched overland. Observers reported seeing hundreds of skeletons along the slave caravan routes. At thecoast, the captives were held in pens (known as barracoons) guarded by dogs. Our best guess is thatanother 15 to 30 percent of Africans died during capture, the march from the interior, or the wait for slaveships along the coast.The Middle Passage Between 10 and 16 million Africans were forcibly transported across the Atlantic between 1500 and1900. But this figure grossly understates the actual number of Africans enslaved, killed, or displaced as aresult of the slave trade. At least 2 million Africans--10 to 15 percent--died during the infamous "MiddlePassage" across the Atlantic. Another 15 to 30 percent died during the march to or confinement along thecoast. Altogether, then, for every 100 slaves who reached the New World, another 40 had died in Africa orduring the Middle Passage. On shipboard, slaves were chained together and crammed into spaces sometimes less than five feethigh. Conditions within the slave ships were unspeakably awful. Inside the hold, slaves had only half thespace provided for indentured servants or convicts. Urine, vomit, mucous, and horrific odors filled thehold. The Middle Passage usually took more than seven weeks. Men and women were separated, with menusually placed toward the bow and women toward the stern. The men were chained together and forced tolie shoulder to shoulder. During the voyage, the enslaved Africans were usually fed only once or twice aday and brought on deck for limited times.Restoring America’s Memory: 9 Nat Turner Instructional UnitA Renaissance of Teacher Knowledge Savannah-Chatham County Public Schools
    • The death rate on these slave ships was very high, reaching 25 percent in the seventeenth and earlyeighteenth centuries and remaining around ten percent in the nineteenth century as a result of malnutritionand such diseases as dysentery, measles, scurvy, and smallpox. The most serious danger was dehydrationdue to inadequate water rations. Diarrhea was widespread and many Africans arrived in the New Worldcovered with sores or suffering fevers. Many Africans resisted enslavement. On shipboard, many slaves mutinied, attempted suicide, jumpedoverboard, or refused to eat. Our best estimate is that there was a revolt on one in every ten voyages acrossthe Atlantic. The level of slave exports grew from about 36,000 a year in the early eighteenth century to almost80,000 a year during the 1780s. By 1750, slavers usually contained at least 400 slaves, with some carryingmore than 700. During the peak years of the slave trade, between 1740 and 1810, Africa supplied 60,000captives a year outnumbering Europeans migrating to the New World.The Origins of New World Slavery By the beginning of the eighteenth century, black slaves could be found in every New World areacolonized by Europeans, from Nova Scotia to Buenos Aires. While the concentrations of slave labor weregreatest in Englands southern colonies, the Caribbean, and Latin America, where slaves were employed inmines or on sugar, rice, tobacco, and cotton plantations, slaves were also put to work in northern seaportsand on commercial farms. In 1690, one out of every nine families in Boston owned a slave. It was not inevitable that Europeans in the New World would rely on African slaves to raise crops,clear forests, and mine precious metals. In every New World colony, Europeans experimented with Indianslavery, convict labor, and white indentured servants. Why did every European power eventually turn to African labor? Europeans imported African slavespartly for demographic reasons. As a result of epidemic diseases, which reduced the native population by50 to 90 percent, the labor supply was insufficient to meet demand. Africans were experienced in intensiveagriculture and raising livestock and knew how to raise crops like rice that Europeans were unfamiliarwith. Initially, English colonists relied on indentured white servants rather than on black slaves. Over halfof all white immigrants to the English colonies during the seventeenth century consisted of convicts orindentured servants. As late as 1640, there were probably only 150 blacks in Virginia (the colony with the highest blackpopulation), and in 1650, 300. But by 1680, the number had risen to 3,000 and by 1704, to 10,000. Facedby a shortage of white indentured servants and fearful of servant revolt, English settlers increasinglyresorted to enslaved Africans. Between 1700 and 1775, more than 350,000 Africans slaves entered theAmerican colonies.Slavery in Colonial North America The first generation of Africans in the New World tended to be remarkably cosmopolitan. Few of thefirst generation came directly from Africa. Instead, they arrived from the West Indies and other areas ofEuropean settlement. These "Atlantic Creoles" were often multilingual and had Spanish or Portuguesenames. Sometimes they had mixtures of African and non-African ancestry. They experienced a period ofrelative racial tolerance and flexibility that lasted until the 1660s. A surprising number of Africans wereallowed to own land or even purchase their freedom. Beginning in the late 1660s, colonists in the Chesapeake colonies of Maryland and Virginia imposednew laws that deprived blacks, free and slaves, of many rights and privileges. At the same time, they beganto import thousands of slaves directly from Africa. During the late seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, three distinctive systems of slavery emerged inthe American colonies. In the Chesapeake colonies of Maryland and Virginia, slavery was widely used inagriculture--in raising tobacco and corn and other grains--and in non-agricultural employment--inshipbuilding, ironworking, and other early industries.Restoring America’s Memory: 10 Nat Turner Instructional UnitA Renaissance of Teacher Knowledge Savannah-Chatham County Public Schools
    • In the South Carolina and Georgia Low Country, slaves raised rice and indigo and were able toreconstitute African social patterns and maintain a separate Gullah dialect. Each day, slaves were requiredto achieve a precise work objective, a labor system known as the task system. This allowed them to leavethe fields early in the afternoon to tend their own gardens and raise their own livestock. Slaves often passedtheir property down for generations. In the North, slavery was concentrated in productive agriculture on Long Island and in southernRhode Island and New Jersey. Most slaves were engaged in farming and stock raising for the West Indiesor as household servants for the urban elite.Slavery’s Evolution At the beginning of the eighteenth century, most slaves were born in Africa, few were Christian, andvery slaves were engaged in raising cotton. By the start of the American Revolution, slavery had changeddramatically. As a result of a demographic revolution, a majority of slaves had been born in the NewWorld and were capable of sustaining their population by natural reproduction. Meanwhile, Second, a"plantation revolution" not only increased the size of plantations, but also made them more productive andefficient economic units. Planters expanded their operations and imposed more supervision on their slaves. A third revolution was religious. During the colonial period, many planters resisted the idea ofconverting slaves to Christianity out of a fear that baptism would change a slaves legal status. By the earlynineteenth century, slaveholders increasingly adopted the view that Christianity would make slaves moresubmissive, orderly, and conscientious. Slaves themselves found in Christianity a faith that could give themhope in an oppressive world. In general, slaves did not join their masters churches. Most became Baptistsor Methodists.A fourth revolution altered the areas in which slaves lived and worked. Between 1790 and 1860, 835,000slaves were moved from Maryland, Virginia, and the Carolinas to Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, andTexas. We know that slaves were frequently sold apart from their families or separated from familymembers when they were moved to the Old Southwest. Finally, there was a revolution in values and sensibility. For the first time in history, religious andsecular groups denounced slavery as sinful and as a violation of natural rights. During the 1760s, the firstmovements in history began to denounce slavery.Life Under Slavery Slaves suffered extremely high mortality. Half of all slave infants died during their first year of life,twice the rate of white babies. And while the death rate declined for those who survived their first year, itremained twice the white rate through age 14. As a result of this high infant and childhood death rate, theaverage life expectancy of a slave at birth was just 21 or 22 years, compared to 40 to 43 years forantebellum whites. Compared to whites, relatively few slaves lived into old age. A major contributor to the high infant and child death rate was chronic undernourishment. Slaveowners showed surprisingly little concern for slave mothers health or diet during pregnancy, providingpregnant women with no extra rations and employing them in intensive fieldwork even in the last weekbefore they gave birth. Not surprisingly, slave mothers suffered high rates of spontaneous abortions,stillbirths, and deaths shortly after birth. Half of all slave infants weighed less than 5.5 pounds at birth, orwhat we would today consider to be severely underweight. Infants and children were badly malnourished. Most infants were weaned early, within three or fourmonths of birth, and then fed gruel or porridge made of cornmeal. Around the age of three, they began toeat vegetables soups, potatoes, molasses, grits, hominy, and cornbread. This diet lacked protein, thiamine,niacin, calcium, magnesium, and vitamin D, and as a result, slave children often suffered from nightblindness, abdominal swellings, swollen muscles, bowed legs, skin lesions, and convulsions.Slave Resistance and Revolts Enslaved African Americans resisted slavery in a variety of active and passive ways. "Day-to-dayresistance" was the most common form of opposition to slavery. Breaking tools, feigning illness, stagingRestoring America’s Memory: 11 Nat Turner Instructional UnitA Renaissance of Teacher Knowledge Savannah-Chatham County Public Schools
    • slowdowns, and committing acts of arson and sabotage--all were forms of resistance and expression ofslaves alienation from their masters. Running away was another form of resistance. Most slaves ran away relatively short distances andwere not trying to permanently escape from slavery. Instead, they were temporarily withholding their laboras a form of economic bargaining and negotiation. Slavery involved a constant process of negotiation asslaves bargained over the pace of work, the amount of free time they would enjoy, monetary rewards,access to garden plots, and the freedom to practice burials, marriages, and religious ceremonies free fromwhite oversight. Some fugitives did try to permanently escape slavery. While the idea of escaping slavery quicklybrings to mind the Underground Railroad to the free states, in fact more than half of these runaways headedsouthward or to cities or to natural refuges like swamps. Often, runaways were relatively privileged slaveswho had served as river boatmen or coachmen and were familiar with the outside world. Especially in the colonial period, fugitive slaves tried to form runaway communities known as"maroon colonies." Located in swamps, mountains, or frontier regions, some of these communities resistedcapture for several decades. During the early eighteenth century there were slave uprisings in Long Island in 1708 and in NewYork City in 1712. Slaves in South Carolina staged several insurrections, culminating in the StonoRebellion in 1739, when they seized arms, killed whites, and burned houses. In 1740 and 1741,conspiracies were uncovered in Charleston and New York. During the late eighteenth century, slave revoltserupted in Guadeloupe, Grenada, Jamaica, Surinam, San Domingue (Haiti), Venezuela, and the WindwardIsland and many fugitive slaves, known as maroons, fled to remote regions and carried on guerrilla warfare(during the 1820s, a fugitive slave named Bob Ferebee led a band in fugitive slaves in guerrilla warfare inVirginia). During the early nineteenth century, major conspiracies or revolts against slavery took place inRichmond, Virginia, in 1800; in Louisiana in 1811; in Barbados in 1816; in Charleston, South Carolina, in1822; in Demerara in 1823; and in Jamaica and in Southampton County, Virginia in 1831. Slave revolts were most likely when slaves outnumbered whites, when masters were absent, duringperiods of economic distress, and when there was a split within the ruling elite. They were also mostcommon when large numbers of native-born Africans had been brought into an area at one time. The main result of slave insurrections was the mass executions of blacks. After a slave conspiracywas uncovered in New York City in 1740, 18 slaves were hanged and 13 were burned alive. AfterDenmark Veseys conspiracy was uncovered, the authorities in Charleston hanged 37 blacks. FollowingNat Turners insurrection, the local militia killed about 100 blacks and 20 more slaves, including Turner,were later executed. In the South, the preconditions for successful rebellion did not exist, and tended tobring increased suffering and repression to the slave community. Violent rebellion was rarer and smaller in scale in the American South than in Brazil or theCaribbean, reflecting the relatively small proportion of blacks in the southern population, the lowproportion of recent migrants from Africa, and the relatively small size of southern plantations. Comparedto the Caribbean, prospects for successful sustained rebellions in the American South were bleak. InJamaica, slaves outnumbered whites by ten or eleven to one; in the South, a much larger white populationwas committed to suppressing rebellion. In general, Africans were more likely than New Worldborn slavesto participate in outright revolts. Not only did many Africans have combat experience prior to enslavement,but they also had fewer family and communities ties that might inhibit violent insurrection.The Economics of Slavery Like other slave societies, the South did not produce urban centers on a scale equal with those in theNorth. Virginias largest city, Richmond, had a population of just 15,274 in 1850. That same year,Wilmington, North Carolinas largest city, had just 7,264 inhabitants. Southern cities were small becausethey failed to develop diversified economies. Unlike the cities of the North, southern cities rarely becamecenters of commerce, finance, or processing and manufacturing and Southern ports rarely engaged ininternational trade.Restoring America’s Memory: 12 Nat Turner Instructional UnitA Renaissance of Teacher Knowledge Savannah-Chatham County Public Schools
    • By northern standards, the Souths transportation network was primitive. Traveling the 1,460 milesfrom Baltimore to New Orleans in 1850 meant riding five different railroads, two stagecoaches, and twosteamboats. Its educational system also lagged far behind the Norths. In 1850, 20 percent of adult whitesoutherners could not read or write, compared to a national figure of 8 percent. Nevertheless, there is no reason to think that slavery was doomed for economic reasons. Slavery wasadaptable to a variety of occupations, ranging from agriculture and mining to factory work. During thedecades before the Civil War, slave grown cotton accounted for over half the value of all United Statesexports, and provided virtually all the cotton used in the northern textile industry and 70 percent of thecotton used in British mills. Nevertheless, the Souths political leaders had good reason for concern. Within the South, slaveownership was becoming concentrated into a smaller number of hands. The proportion of southern familiesowning slaves declined from 36 percent in 1830 to 25 percent in 1860. At the same time, slavery wassharply declining in the upper South. Between 1830 and 1860, the proportion of slaves in Missourispopulation fell from 18 to 10 percent; in Kentucky, from 24 to 19 percent; in Maryland, from 23 to 13percent. By the middle of the nineteenth century, slavery was becoming an exception in the New World,confined to Brazil, Cuba, Puerto Rice, a number of small Dutch colonies, and the American South. But themost important threat to slavery came from abolitionists, who denounced slavery as immoral.Facts about the Slave Trade and SlaverySlave TradeThe level of slave exports grew from about 36,000 a year during the early 18th century to almost 80,000 ayear during the 1780s.The Angolan region of west-central Africa made up slightly more than half of all Africans sent to theAmericas and a quarter of imports to British North America.Approximately 11,863,000 Africans were shipped across the Atlantic, with a death rate during the MiddlePassage reducing this number by 10-20 percent.As a result between 9.6 and 10.8 million Africans arrived in the Americas.About 500,000 Africans were imported into what is now the U.S. between 1619 and 1807--or about 6percent of all Africans forcibly imported into the Americas. About 70 percent arrived directly from Africa.Well over 90 percent of African slaves were imported into the Caribbean and South America. Only about 6percent of imports went directly to British North America. Yet by 1825, the U.S. had a quarter of blacks inthe New World.The majority of African slaves were brought to British North America between 1720 and 1780. (Averagedate of arrival for whites is 1890)ComparisonsAmerican plantations were dwarfed by those in the West Indies. About a quarter of U.S. slaves lived onfarms with 15 or fewer slaves. In 1850, just 125 plantations had over 250 slaves.In the Caribbean, Dutch Guiana and Brazil, the slave death rate was so high and the birth rate so low thatthey could not sustain their population without importations from Africa. Rates of natural decrease ran ashigh as 5 percent a year. While the death rate of U.S. slaves was about the same as that of Jamaican slaves,the fertility rate was more than 80 percent higher.U.S. slaves were further removed from Africa than those in the Caribbean. In the 19th century, the majorityof slaves in the British Caribbean and Brazil were born in Africa. In contrast, by 1850, most U.S. slaveswere third-, fourth-, or fifth generation Americans.Restoring America’s Memory: 13 Nat Turner Instructional UnitA Renaissance of Teacher Knowledge Savannah-Chatham County Public Schools
    • DemographySlavery in the U.S. was distinctive in the near-balance of the sexes and the ability of the slave population toincrease its numbers by natural reproduction.Unlike any other slave society, the U.S. had a high and sustained natural increase in the slave populationfor a more than a century and a half.In 1860, 89 percent of the nations African Americans were slaves; blacks formed 13 percent of thecountrys population and 33 percent of the Souths population.In 1860, less than 10 percent of the slave population was over 50 and only 3.5 percent was over 60.The average age of first birth for slave women was around 20. Child spacing averaged about 2 years.The average number of children born to a slave woman was 9.2--twice as many in the West Indies.Most slaves lived in nuclear households consisting of two parents and children: 64 percent nuclear; 21percent single parents; 15 percent non-family.Mother-headed families were 50 percent more frequent on plantations with 15 or fewer slaves than on largeones. Smaller units also had a disproportionately large share of families in which the father and motherlived on different plantations for most of the week.Average number of persons per household was 6.Average age of women at birth of their first child was about 21.Few slaves lived into old age. Between 1830 and 1860, only 10 percent of slaves in North America wereover 50 years old.ChildrenMost infants were weaned within three or four monthsThere were few instances in which slave women were released from field work for extended periods duringslavery. Even during the last week before childbirth, pregnant women on average picked three-quarters ormore of the amount normal for women.Half of all slave babies died in the first year of life--twice the rate for white babies.The average birth weight of slave infants was less than 5.5 pounds.Slave children were tiny; their average height did not reach three feet until they were 4; they were 5.5inches shorter than modern children and comparable to children in Bangladesh and the slums of Lagos.At 17, slave men were shorter than 96 percent of men today and slave women shorter than 80 percent ofcontemporary women.Slaves did not reach their full stature--67 inches for men and 62.5 inches for women--until their mid-20s.Children entered the labor force as early as 3 or 4. Some were taken into the masters house to be servantswhile others were assigned to special childrens gangs called "trash gangs," which swept yards, cleareddrying cornstalks from fields, chopped cotton, carried water to field hands, weeded, picked cotton, fedwork animals, and drove cows to pasture.By age 7, over 40 percent of the boys and half the girls had entered the work force. At about 11, boysbegan to transfer to adult field jobs.LaborAt the beginning of the 18th century, it was common for small groups of slaves to live and work bythemselves on properties remote from their masters homes.Restoring America’s Memory: 14 Nat Turner Instructional UnitA Renaissance of Teacher Knowledge Savannah-Chatham County Public Schools
    • Sugar field workers in Jamaica worked about 4,000 hours a year--three times that of a modern factoryworker. Cotton workers toiled about 3,000 hours a year.he median size of slaveholdings ranged from approximately 25 slaves in the tobacco regions of Maryland,Virginia, and North Carolina, to 30-50 slaves in upland cotton regions. Plantations in the Sea Islands ofSouth Carolina and Georgia and the sugar parishes of Louisiana averaged 60-80 slaves. In small areas ofLouisiana, Mississippi, and South Carolina, slaves lived on 125-175 person units.In 1790, 44 percent of enslaved Africans lived on units of 20 or more slaves. In 1860, the figure was 53percent (and approximately a third lived on units with 50 or more slaves).Half of all masters owned five or fewer slaves. While most small slaveholders were farmers, adisproportionate share were artisans, shopkeepers, and public officials.Prices of slaves varied widely over time. During the 18th century, slave prices generally rose. Though theyfell somewhat before the start of the revolution, by the early 1790s, even before the onset of cottonexpansion, prices had returned to earlier levels. Prices rose to a high of about $1,250 during the cottonboom of the late 1830s, fell to below half that level in the 1840s, and rose to about $1,450 in the late 1850.Males were valued 10-20 percent more than females; at age ten, childrens prices were about half that of aprime male field hand.By 1850, about 64 percent of slaves lived on cotton plantations; 12 percent raised tobacco, 5 percent sugar,4 percent rice.Among slaves 16-20, about 83 percent of the males and 89 percent of the females were field hands. Theremainder were managers, artisans, or domestic servants.Growing cotton required about 38 percent of the labor time of slaves; growing corn and caring for livestock31 percent; and 31 percent improving land, constructing fences and buildings, raising other crops, andmanufacturing products such as clothes.Slaves constructed more than 9,500 miles of railroad track by 1860, a third of the nations total and morethan the mileage of Britain, France, and Germany.About 2/3s of slaves were in the labor force, twice the proportion among free persons. Nearly a third ofslave laborers were children and an eighth were elderly or crippled.DiseaseSlaves suffered a variety of maladies--such as blindness, abdominal swelling, bowed legs, skin lesions, andconvulsions--that may have been caused by beriberi (caused by a deficiency of thiamine), pellagra (causedby a niacin deficiency), tetany (caused by deficiencies of calcium, magnesium, and Vitamin D), rickets(also caused by a deficiency of Vitamin D), and kwashiorkor (caused by severe protein deficiency).Diarrhea, dysentery, whooping cough, and respiratory diseases as well as worms pushed the infant andearly childhood death rate of slaves to twice that experienced by white infants and children.Domestic Slave TradeBetween 1790 and 1860, 835,000 slaves were moved from Maryland, Virginia, and the Carolinas toAlabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, and Texas.Between 16 and 60 percent of slaves were shipped west by traders.ProfitabilitySlaveholding became more concentrated over time. The fraction of households owning slaves fell from 36percent in 1830 to 25 percent in 1860.Restoring America’s Memory: 15 Nat Turner Instructional UnitA Renaissance of Teacher Knowledge Savannah-Chatham County Public Schools
    • The distribution of wealth in the South was much more unequal than that of the North.Nearly 2 of 3 males with estates of $100,000 or more lived in the South in 1860.If the North and South are treated as separate nations, the South was the fourth most prosperous nation inthe world in 1860. Italy did not achieve the southern level of per capita income until the eve of World WarII.During the Civil War, 140,500 freed slaves and 38,500 free blacks served in the Union Army.Restoring America’s Memory: 16 Nat Turner Instructional UnitA Renaissance of Teacher Knowledge Savannah-Chatham County Public Schools
    • Africans in AmericaIntroductionThe years 1450-1750 brought enormous changes to the North American continent. The native Americans,or Indians, as the Europeans came to call them, first encountered European explorers, and before long, sawtheir world transformed and largely destroyed by European settlers. And European explorers not onlyventured to the lands and natural wealth of the Americas; they also traveled to Africa, where they began atrans-Atlantic slave trade that would bring millions of Africans to the Americas as well. This slave tradewould over time lead to a new social and economic system: one where the color of ones skin coulddetermine whether he or she might live as a free citizen or be enslaved for life.Map: The British ColoniesBy the early 1600s, England was eager to gain a colonial foothold on the North American continent. Thefirst enduring settlement was founded at Jamestown in Virginia in 1607. Colonies in Massachusetts andelsewhere up and down the eastern seaboard were settled as the century progressed. The English settlershad occasionally friendly relations with the native "Indians" of these lands, but for the most part, theinteraction between the two turned hostile. Labor to clear the forests, tend the plantations and farms, andwork in the developing seafaring industry became a crucial concern.From 1619 on, not long after the first settlement, the need for colonial labor was bolstered by theimportation of African captives. At first, like their poorEnglish counterparts, the Africans were treated asindentured servants, who would be freed of theirobligations to their owners after serving for several years.However, over the course of the century, a new race-basedslavery system developed, and by the dawn of the newcentury, the majority of Africans and African Americanswere slaves for life.Control over the captive population became a significantissue for whites as rebellion and fear of rebellion spread.Map InformationVirginia: British1619: A Dutch ship brings the first permanent Africansettlers to Jamestown. Africans soon are put to work on Coloniestobacco plantations.1663: A Virginia court decides that a child born to a slavemother is also a slave.1705: The General Assembly declares imported servantswho were not Christians in their native lands slaves, andall negro, mulatto, and Indian slaves property.Massachusetts:1641: Massachusetts becomes the first colony to recognize slavery as a legal institution.The Middle Passage:1680: The Royal African company transports 5000 African captives annually. By the 18th century, 45,000Africans are transported annually on British ships.South Carolina:1700s: Almost half of the slaves coming to North America arrive in Charleston. Many stay in SouthCarolina to work on rice plantations.1739: The Stono rebellion breaks out around Charleston; over 20 whites are killed by Jemmy and his band.Restoring America’s Memory: 17 Nat Turner Instructional UnitA Renaissance of Teacher Knowledge Savannah-Chatham County Public Schools
    • New York:1741: Fires break out in New York City, which has the second-largest urban population of blacks.Numerous blacks are accused and executed in a witch-hunt atmosphere.Georgia:1750: Georgia is the last of the British North American colonies to legalize slavery.Europeans Come to Western AfricaConcerning the trade on this Coast, we notified your Highness that nowadays the natives no longer occupythemselves with the search for gold, but rather make war on each other in order to furnish slaves. . . TheGold Coast has changed into a complete Slave Coast.- William De La PalmaDirector, Dutch West India Co.September 5, 1705The history of the European seaborne slave trade with Africa goes back 50 years prior to Columbus initialvoyage to the Americas. It began with the Portuguese, who went to West Africa in search of gold. The firstEuropeans to come to Africas West Coast to trade were funded by Prince Henry, the famous Portuguesepatron, who hoped to bring riches to Portugal. The purpose of the exploration: to expand Europeangeographic knowledge, to find the source of prized African gold, and to locate a possible sea route to valuable Asian spices. Many years had passed between the arrival of Europeans to Africa and 1795, the time this image was engraved. The Portuguese, who had explored much of the coast of western Africa under the sponsorship of Prince Henry, landed along the shores of the Senegal River 350 years earlier. Image Credit: Musée national des Arts dAfriqueIn 1441, for the first time, Portuguese sailors obtained gold dust from traders on the western coast ofAfrica. The following year, Portuguese explorers returned from Africa with more gold dust and anothercargo: ten Africans.Forty years after that first human cargo traveled to Portugal, Portuguese sailors gained permission from alocal African leader to build a trading outpost and storehouse on Africas Guinea coast. It was near a regionthat had been mined for gold for many years and was called Elmina, which means "the mine" inPortuguese. Although originally built for trade in gold and ivory and other resources, Elmina was the firstof many trading posts built by Europeans along Africas western coast that would also come to exportslaves.The well-armed fort provided a secure harbor for Portuguese (and later Dutch and English) ships. Africanswere either captured in warring raids or kidnapped and taken to the port by African slave traders. Therethey were exchanged for iron, guns, gunpowder, mirrors, knives, cloth, and beads brought by boat fromEurope.When Europeans arrived along the West African coast, slavery already existed on the continent. However,in his book The African Slave Trade, Basil Davidson points out that slavery in Africa and the brutal formof slavery that would develop in the Americas were vastly different. African slavery was more akin toRestoring America’s Memory: 18 Nat Turner Instructional UnitA Renaissance of Teacher Knowledge Savannah-Chatham County Public Schools
    • European serfdom --the condition of most Europeans in the 15th century. In the Ashanti Kingdom of WestAfrica, for example, slaves could marry, own property and even own slaves. And slavery ended after acertain number of years of servitude. Most importantly, African slavery was never passed from onegeneration to another, and it lacked the racist notion that whites were masters and blacks were slaves.New World Exploration and English AmbitionFor the English in the New World there are really three labor options. One is to transport people fromEngland to the New World. Another is to employ or exploit the indigenous labor... And the third is to bringpeople from Africa.- Peter Wood, historianAt the end of the 16th century, Spain and Portugal dominated the South American continent and parts ofthe Caribbean. They had also gotten a foothold in Central America and the southern portions of NorthAmerica, in Florida and the Southwest. England, with colonizing ambitions of its own, was eager toestablish a foothold on the North American coast.Urging their countrymen to join in the race for the colonization of the New World were two men, an uncleand his nephew, each named Richard Hakluyt. In a number of popular pamphlets they made the argumentfor colonization: England stood to gain glory, profit, and adventure. The younger sons of English nobility,lacking property at home, would have new lands to lord over. Merchants would have exotic products tobring home and new markets in which to sell their goods. The clergy could convert "savages" toChristianity. The landless poor, who burdened English towns and cities in increasing numbers, would haveopportunity to rise up from their poverty.English colonial ambition and the exhortations of the Hakluyts set the stage for Englands first lastingsettlement in the New World: Jamestown. The colony on Chesapeake Bay was first and foremost abusiness enterprise. It was funded by investors in the Virginia Company of London, who recruited the menwho would settle Jamestown. The investors wanted what all investors dream of: a quick return of profit.The settlers were told to settle on an inland river that might lead to the Pacific and the riches of Asia.Failing that, investors hoped settlers would send home profitable goods, such as minerals, wooden masts,dyes, plant medicines, glass, and tar.Captain John Smith, one of the leaders of the Jamestown venture, later wrote that the force behindthe settlement "was nothing but present profit."In 1607, 105 colonists landed in Jamestown, and by 1609, 500 settlers had come. However, Englishambition was at first dashed by ignorance and an unforgiving land. Famine struck during the winter of1609-1610. The settlers had arrived in the midst of a severe regional drought, and they had been tooarrogant to till the soil. They could have received help from native Americans, but they considered theindigenous people to be savages and, eventually, enemies. The settlers ate their cattle, hogs, poultry, andfinally their horses. And then they starved. Some cases of cannibalism were recorded. By the spring of1610, only 60 were left alive. Nearly nine of every ten colonists had died. The dream of fortune had turnedinto a deadly nightmare.Not willing to give up and absorb heavy financial losses, the Virginia Company of London sent morecolonists from England. In the next few years, they experimented with various types of tobacco, and by1617, found success with a variety of seed from Trinidad. Only three years later, a staggering 55,000pounds of tobacco reached English markets. Jamestown had found a way to survive: by growing andselling tobacco.Restoring America’s Memory: 19 Nat Turner Instructional UnitA Renaissance of Teacher Knowledge Savannah-Chatham County Public Schools
    • But all these new tobacco fields required many hands and hard labor. At first, the men needed in the fieldscame from the working classes of England. While the world of colonial America was controlled by thewealthy Englishmen, most immigrants were poor men under 25 years of age. At first, the supply of willingconscripts matched the demand. The population of England had swelled from under three million in 1500to more than five million by the mid-1600s. The homeless and the unemployed turned their hopes to theNew World. Throughout the 17th century, between half and two-thirds of all white immigrants to theAmerican colonies came as indentured servants.In exchange for passage to Virginia or other colonies, these poor English people traded 4-7 years of theirlabor. They were fed, sheltered and clothed in exchange for their work. After their time was up, theseindentured servants received their so-called "freedom dues." This often amounted to a bushel of corn forplanting, a new suit of clothes and 100 acres of land. Now these men (and small numbers of women too)were free to labor for a living on their own. The turn-over in indentured servants was rapid, Howard Pyle so aspiring planters considered two other illustrated many options for solving the need for plantation historical and labor. One was to hire or exploit the native adventure stories for Americans. But such workers were susceptible periodicals, including to new diseases and often proved unreliable, as Harpers Weekly. In they could always choose to leave work behind 1917, he created this and return to their people. There was also a depiction of the 1619 second option. In 1619, a Dutch ship that had arrival of Virginias pirated the cargo of a Spanish vessel -- captive first blacks. Africans --anchored at Jamestown in the mouth of the James River. The ship needed supplies, so the Dutch sailors traded the Africans for food. The colonists purchased the Africans, baptized them, and gave them Christian names. At least some of these Africans, like their white counterparts, werepurchased according to the usual terms for all indentured servants. They and other Africans who weretransported to America at this time would become free after their years of service.The English who had settled in Jamestown and, over the rest of the 17th century, in the other British NorthAmerican colonies soon reached a turning point. Would they continue to hire Europeans and Africans asindentured servants? Or would they rely on Africans as enslaved workers for life, the model that haddeveloped in the Caribbean? The colonists had a choice to make. They could use laborers who were free orwho would one day become free. Or they could force people to work their fields for them indefinitely,without any hope of freedom for themselves or their children. To this day, we carry the scars of thedecision they made: gradually, over several generations, they chose slavery.By the start of the 16th century, almost 200,000 Africans had been transported to Europe and islands in theAtlantic. But after the voyages of Columbus, slave traders found another market for slaves: New Worldplantations. In Spanish Caribbean islands and Portuguese Brazil by the mid 1500s, colonists had turned tothe quick and highly profitable cultivation of sugar, a crop that required constant attention and exhaustinglabor. They tried to recruit native Americans, but many died from diseases brought by Europeans, such assmallpox, diphtheria, and tuberculosis. And the Indians who survived wanted no part of the work, oftenfleeing to the countryside they knew so well. European colonists found an answer to their pressing laborshortage by importing enslaved workers from Africa.Restoring America’s Memory: 20 Nat Turner Instructional UnitA Renaissance of Teacher Knowledge Savannah-Chatham County Public Schools
    • By 1619, more than a century and a half after the Portuguese first traded slaves on the African coast,European ships had brought a million Africans to colonies and plantations in the Americas and force themto labor as slaves. Trade through the West African forts continued for nearly three hundred years. TheEuropeans made more than 54,000 voyages to trade in human beings and sent at least ten to twelve millionAfricans to the Americas.From Indentured Servitude to Racial SlaveryWe sometimes imagine that such oppressive laws were put quickly into full force by greedy landowners.But thats not the way slavery was established in colonial America. It happened gradually -- one person at atime, one law at a time, even one colony at a time. All servants imported and brought into the Country. . .who were not Christians in their native Country. . . shall be accounted and be slaves. All Negro, mulattoand Indian slaves within this dominion. . . shall be held to be real estate. If any slave resists his master. . .correcting such slave, and shall happen to be killed in such correction. . . the master shall be free of allpunishment. . . as if such accident never happened.- Virginia General Assembly declaration, 1705One of the places we have the clearest views of that "terrible transformation" is the colony of Virginia. Inthe early years of the colony, many Africans and poor whites -- most of the laborers came from the Englishworking class -- stood on the same ground. Black and white women worked side-by-side in the fields.Black and white men who broke their servant contract were equally punished.All were indentured servants. During their time as servants, they were fed and housed. Afterwards, theywould be given what were known as "freedom dues," which usually included a piece of land and supplies,including a gun. Black-skinned or white-skinned, they became free.Historically, the English only enslaved non-Christians, and not, in particular, Africans. And the status ofslave (Europeans had African slaves prior to the colonization of the Americas) was not one that was life-long. A slave could become free by converting to Christianity. The first Virginia colonists did not eventhink of themselves as "white" or use that word to describe themselves. They saw themselves as Christiansor Englishmen, or in terms of their social class. They were nobility, gentry, artisans, or servants.One of the few recorded histories of an African in America that we can glean from early court records isthat of "Antonio the negro," as he was named in the 1625 Virginia census. He was brought to the colony in1621. At this time, English and Colonial law did not define racial slavery; the census calls him not a slavebut a "servant." Later, Antonio changed his name to Anthony Johnson, married an African Americanservant named Mary, and they had four children. Mary and Anthony also became free, and he soon ownedland and cattle and even indentured servants of his own. By 1650, Anthony was still one of only 400Africans in the colony among nearly 19,000 settlers. In Johnsons own county, at least 20 African men andwomen were free, and 13 owned their own homes.In 1640, the year Johnson purchased his first property, three servants fled a Virginia plantation. Caught andreturned to their owner, two had their servitude extended four years. However, the third, a black mannamed John Punch, was sentenced to "serve his said master or his assigns for the time of his natural life."He was made a slave.Traditionally, Englishmen believed they had a right to enslave a non-Christian or a captive taken in a justwar. Africans and Indians might fit one or both of these definitions. But what if they learned English andconverted to the Protestant church? Should they be released from bondage and given "freedom dues?"Restoring America’s Memory: 21 Nat Turner Instructional UnitA Renaissance of Teacher Knowledge Savannah-Chatham County Public Schools
    • What if, on the other hand, status were determined not by (changeable ) religious faith but by(unchangeable) skin color?This disorder that the indentured servant system had created made racial slavery to southern slaveholdersmuch more attractive, because what were black slaves now? Well, they were a permanent dependent laborforce, who could be defined as a people set apart. They were racially set apart. They were outsiders. Theywere strangers and in many ways throughout the world, slavery has taken root, especially where people areconsidered outsiders and can be put in a permanent status of slavery. - David Blight, historianAlso, the indentured servants, especially once freed, began to pose a threat to the property-owning elite.The colonial establishment had placed restrictions on available lands, creating unrest among newly freedindentured servants. In 1676, working class men burned down Jamestown, making indentured servitudelook even less attractive to Virginia leaders. Also, servants moved on, forcing a need for costlyreplacements; slaves, especially ones you could identify by skin color, could not move on and become freecompetitors.In 1641, Massachusetts became the first colony to legally recognize slavery. Other states, such as Virginia,followed. In 1662, Virginia decided all children born in the colony to a slave mother would be enslaved.Slavery was not only a life-long condition; now it could be passed, like skin color, from generation togeneration.In 1665, Anthony Johnson moved to Maryland and leased a 300-acre plantation, where he died five yearslater. But back in Virginia that same year, a jury decided the land Johnson left behind could be seized bythe government because he was a "negroe and by consequence an alien." In 1705 Virginia declared that"All servants imported and brought in this County... who were not Christians in their Native Country...shall be slaves. A Negro, mulatto and Indian slaves ... shall be held to be real estate."English suppliers responded to the increasing demand for slaves. In 1672, England officially got into theslave trade as the King of England chartered the Royal African Company, encouraging it to expand theBritish slave trade. In 1698, the English Parliament ruled that any British subject could trade in slaves.Over the first 50 years of the 18th century, the number of Africans brought to British colonies on Britishships rose from 5,000 to 45,000 a year. England had passed Portugal and Spain as the number onetrafficker of slaves in the world.The African Slave Trade and the Middle Passage.Who are we looking for, who are we looking for?Its Equiano were looking for.Has he gone to the stream? Let him come back.Has he gone to the farm? Let him return.Its Equiano were looking for. - Kwa chant about the disappearance of an African boy, EquianoThis African chant mourns the loss of Olaudah Equiano, an 11-year-old boy and son of an African triballeader who was kidnapped in 1755 from his home in what is now Nigeria. He was one of the 10 to 12million Africans who were sold into slavery from the 15th through the 19th Centuries.."I believe there are few events in my life that have not happened to many," wrote Equiano in hisAutobiography. The "many" he refers to are the Africans taken as free people and then forced into slaveryin South America, the Caribbean and North America.Restoring America’s Memory: 22 Nat Turner Instructional UnitA Renaissance of Teacher Knowledge Savannah-Chatham County Public Schools
    • Along the west coast of Africa, from the Cameroons in the south to Senegal in the north, Europeans builtsome sixty forts that served as trading posts. European sailors seeking riches brought rum, cloth, guns, andother goods to these posts and traded them for human beings. This human cargo was transported across theAtlantic Ocean and sold to New World slave owners, who bought slaves to work their crops.European traders such as Nicolas Owen waited at these forts for slaves; African traders transported slavesfrom the interior of Africa. Equiano and others found themselves sold and traded more than once, often inslave markets. African merchants, the poor, royalty -- anyone -- could be abducted in the raids and warsthat were undertaken by Africans to secure slaves that they could trade. The slave trade devastated Africanlife. Culture and traditions were torn asunder, as families, especially young men, were abducted. Gunswere introduced and slave raids and even wars increased. In 1888, Harpers requested that Henry M. Stanleys Through a Dark Continent be adapted for young readers. On Stanleys recommendation, Thomas Wallace Knox was selected to write the book, which would be entitled, The Boy Travellers on the Congo. The illustrations used in Knoxs book came from several volumes on African travels, including the book it was based on. Slave Caravans on the Road accompanies text describing Arab involvement with the slave trade and the town of Mombasa, a port on Africas east coast. The book tells how Arabs made war with natives and enslaved captives, as well as inciting war between various tribes in order to purchase, as slaves, the prisoners of thoseAfter kidnapping potential slaves,merchants forced them to walk in slave caravans to the European coastal forts, sometimes as far as 1,000miles. Shackled and underfed, only half the people survived these death marches. Those too sick or wearyto keep up were often killed or left to die. Those who reached the coastal forts were put into undergrounddungeons where they would stay -- sometimes for as long as a year -- until they were boarded on ships.Just as horrifying as these death marches was the Middle Passage, as it was called -- the transport of slavesacross the Atlantic. On the first leg of their trip, slave traders delivered goods from European ports to WestAfrican ones. On the "middle" leg, ship captains such as John Newton (who later became a foe of slavery),loaded their then-empty holds with slaves and transported them to the Americas and the Caribbean. Atypical Atlantic crossing took 60-90 days but some lasted up to four months Upon arrival, captains sold theslaves and purchased raw materials to be brought back to Europe on the last leg of the trip. Roughly 54,000voyages were made by Europeans to buy and sell slaves.Africans were often treated like cattle during the crossing. On the slave ships, people were stuffed betweendecks in spaces too low for standing. The heat was often unbearable, and the air nearly unbreathable.Women were often used sexually. Men were often chained in pairs, shackled wrist to wrist or ankle toankle. People were crowded together, usually forced to lie on their backs with their heads between the legsof others. This meant they often had to lie in each others feces, urine, and, in the case of dysentery, evenblood. In such cramped quarters, diseases such as smallpox and yellow fever spread like wildfire. Thediseased were sometimes thrown overboard to prevent wholesale epidemics. Because a small crew had tocontrol so many, cruel measures such as iron muzzles and whippings were used to control slaves.Restoring America’s Memory: 23 Nat Turner Instructional UnitA Renaissance of Teacher Knowledge Savannah-Chatham County Public Schools
    • The importation of slaves had been prohibited in the United States since [1808], and yet, the trade continued illegally on a smaller scale for many years -- even up to the outbreak of the Civil War. Published in the June 2, 1860 issue of Harpers Weekly, The Slave Deck of the Bark "Wildfire" illustrated how Africans travelled on the upper deck of the ship. On board the ship were 510 captives, recently acquired from an area of Africa near the Congo River. The author of the article reported seeing, upon boarding the ship, "about four hundred and fifty native Africans, in a state of entire nudity, in a sitting or squatting posture, the most of them having their k l t d t f ti l f th i h d d "Over the centuries, between one and two million persons died in the crossing. This meant that the livingwere often chained to the dead until ship surgeons such as Alexander Falconbridge had the corpses thrownoverboard.While ships were still close to shore, insurrections of desperate slaves sometimes broke out. Many wentmad in these barbaric conditions; others chose to jump to their watery deaths rather than endure. Equianowrote of his passage: "Often did I think many of the inhabitants of the deep much happier than myself."The Growth of Slavery in North AmericaIs not the slave trade entirely at war with the heart of man? And surely that which is begun by breakingdown the barriers of virtue, involves in its continuance destruction to every principle, and buries allsentiments in ruin! When you make men slaves, you... compel them to live with you in a state of war.- Olaudah Equiano, former slaveSlavery became a highly profitable system for white plantation owners in the colonial South. In SouthCarolina, successful slave owners, such as the Middleton family from Barbados, established a system offull-blown, Caribbean-style slavery. The Middletons settled on land near Charleston, Carolinas main portand slave-trading capital. They took advantage of the fact that at the end of the 17th century, some of theearliest African arrivals had shown English settlers how rice could be grown in the swampy coastalenvironment. With cheap and permanent workers available in the form of slaves, plantation ownersrealized this strange new crop could make them rich.As rice boomed, land owners found the need to import more African slaves to clear the swamps where therice was grown and to cultivate the crop. Many of the Africans knew how to grow and cultivate the crop,which was alien to Europeans. By 1710, scarcely 15 years after rice came to Carolina, Africans began toout-number Europeans in South Carolina.Slavery was rapidly becoming an entrenched institution in American society, but it took brutal force toimposed this sort of mass exploitation upon once-free people. As Equiano wrote, white and black livedtogether "in a state of war." The more harshly whites enforced racial enslavement, the more they came tofear black uprisings. As they became more fearful, they responded by further tightening the screws ofoppression.Restoring America’s Memory: 24 Nat Turner Instructional UnitA Renaissance of Teacher Knowledge Savannah-Chatham County Public Schools
    • "If youre a white authority, youre constantly trying to figure how tightly you want to impose the lid withrespect to people running away. How fierce should the punishments be? Should it be a whipping? Should itbe the loss of a finger or a hand or a foot? Should it be wearing shackles perpetually?"- Peter Wood, historianCarolina authorities developed laws to keep the African American population under control. Whipping,branding, dismembering, castrating, or killing a slave were legal under many circumstances. Freedom ofmovement, to assemble at a funeral, to earn money, even to learn to read and write, became outlawed. This disturbing image was created for a book entitled, Narrative of a Five-Years Expedition against the Revolted Negroes of Surinam. The author, Englishman John Gabriel Stedman, was hired by the Dutch to help quell slave uprisings in their South American colony. In his "narrative" he describes the plants and animals he encountered, as well as how he and fellow soldiers tortured runaway slaves who had been recaptured. A Negro Hung Alive by the Ribs to a Gallows is based on a crude sketch by Stedman, engraved by the famous English poet and artist, William Blake. Its graphic depiction of a slave in Surinam hanging by a single rib illustrates the general lack of compassion whites had when dealing with enslaved Africans throughout the world. Image Credit: James Ford Bell Library, University of Minnesota This disturbing image was created for a book entitled, Narrative of a Five-Years Expedition against the Revolted Negroes of Surinam. The author, Englishman John Gabriel Stedman, was hired by the Dutch to help quell slave uprisings in their South A i l I hi " ti " h d ib th l t d i l hAt times the cruelty seemed almost casual. A Virginia slaveowners journal entry for April 17, 1709 reads:"Anaka was whipped yesterday for stealing the rum and filling the bottle up with water. I said my prayersand I danced my dance. Eugene was whipped again for pissing in bed and Jenny for concealing it."On the 9th of September last at Night a great Number of Negroes Arose in Rebellion, broke open a Storewhere they got arms, killed twenty one White Persons, and were marching the next morning in a Daringmanner out of the Province, killing all they met and burning several Houses as they passed along the Road.- Wm BullWhite fears of the people they kept enslaved were entirely justified. On September 9, 1739, an African mannamed Jemmy, thought to be of Angolan origin, led a march from Stono near Charleston toward Floridaand what he believed would be freedom on Spanish soil. Other slaves joined Jemmy and their numbersgrew to nearly 100. Jemmy and his companions killed dozens of whites on their way, in what becameknown as the Stono Rebellion. White colonists caught up with the rebels and executed those whom theymanaged to capture. The severed heads of the rebels were left on mile posts on the side of the road as awarning to others.White fear of blacks was also rampant in New York City, which had a density of slaves nearing that ofCharleston. In 1741, fires were ignited all over New York, including one at the governors mansion. Inwitch-hunt fashion, 160 blacks and at least a dozen working class whites were accused of conspiringagainst the City of New York. Thirty-one Africans were killed; 13 were burned at the stake. Four whiteswere hung.A few white men, although in the minority, balked at the cruelty toward African slaves. Francis Le Jau, anAnglican minister who oversaw a church built on land donated by the Middletons, spoke against the crueltyRestoring America’s Memory: 25 Nat Turner Instructional UnitA Renaissance of Teacher Knowledge Savannah-Chatham County Public Schools
    • of Carolina slavery. Samuel Sewall, a Boston judge, wrote a pamphlet called The Selling of Joseph,criticizing slavery.Georgia, the last free colony, legalized slavery in 1750. That meant slavery was now legal in each of thethirteen British colonies that would soon become the United States. But the conflict between those whosupported racial enslavement and those who believed in freedom was only just beginning. In thetumultuous generation of the American Revolution, protests against "enslavement" by Britain and demandsfor American "liberty " would become common in the rebellious colonies, and many African Americans,both slave and free, had high hopes that the rhetoric of Independence would apply to them. These hopes,however, would eventually be dashed, and it would take a bloody civil war three generations later to finallybring an end to the enslavement of black Americans.Teacher’s Guide athttp://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aia/part1/narrative.htmlRestoring America’s Memory: 26 Nat Turner Instructional UnitA Renaissance of Teacher Knowledge Savannah-Chatham County Public Schools
    • Common Features and Patterns in Social Studies ReadingEveryday ReadingWhat kinds of reading do you do every day? Probably more than you think. For example, when youare waiting for dinner, you might look over the newspaper headlines or television listings. You mayread e-mail and surf the Internet. You go to school and do homework. This all requires plenty ofreading.Social Studies ReadingWhen you are reading for a social studies class, you may not be reading just for pleasure. You aregathering information. What kinds of social studies reading does your teacher assign? How can youget the most benefit out of each kind?Social studies reading falls into two basic groups: primary sources and secondary sources. Primarysources include firsthand information: eyewitness accounts, true stories someone tells about his orher own life, speeches, laws, and other official documents. Secondary sources are everything else.They are other peoples versions of something that has happened.Primary sources letters court records diaries oral (spoken) histories speeches government records autobiographiesSecondary sources textbooks biographies news reports histories magazine or journal articlesBoth groups are important in social studies. Textbooks and other secondary sources give youthe big picture about an era or a special theme in history. Diary accounts and other primarysources give you real-life details, feelings, and viewpoints about historical events and times.For most social studies students, though, reading assignments tend to be secondary sources-textbooks and other histories.Features and Patterns to Look ForHere are some of the most common features to watch for when you read social studies assignments:Common Features Graphics Special Text•maps •bulleted/ numbered lists•charts •boxed or shaded text•graphs •special chapter introductions with key topics•time lines •special chapter endings with summaries•photos •questions to think about•drawings •highlighted materialEach of these features needs your attention as you read. They give you important information that isRestoring America’s Memory: 27 Nat Turner Instructional UnitA Renaissance of Teacher Knowledge Savannah-Chatham County Public Schools
    • not found in the regular text.Here are some of the most common patterns in social studies readings.These are ways of organizing information to be aware of as you read.Common Patterns • Chronological order • Main idea and details • Cause and effect • Compare and contrastLearn how to recognize these features and patterns. Then you can use the best reading strategy foreach one. This will help you master your social studies material. It will also help you organize andexpress your thoughts better when you write. In the following lessons, you will look at many of thesecommon features and patterns in more detail.Restoring America’s Memory: 28 Nat Turner Instructional UnitA Renaissance of Teacher Knowledge Savannah-Chatham County Public Schools
    • Unwritten History The integration of history and archaeology has led to the study of people who have often beendenied a voice in traditional history because of race, class, or gender. The historical archaeologistchallenges traditional interpretations of the past and questions written sources of history. Thehistorical archaeologist goes directly to the people for evidence of the peoples history. The followingtwo examples show historical archaeology at work. While digging a site for an office tower in lower Manhattan, New York City, workers unearthedthe bones of some 400 bodies buried in an 18th-century cemetery for African slaves. The informationheld in this cemetery provided data about the health of enslaved Africans prior to the AmericanRevolution. Half of the 400 skeletons belonged to children under the age of 12. Nearly half of thosewere infants. Of the children who survived infancy, half showed signs of illness and malnutrition.Evidence of cultural continuity from Africa to the New World was found in a heart-shaped design oftacks hammered into one coffin lid. The design is thought to be a ritual symbol of the Akan people ofGhana and Ivory Coast. The second example is found in the excavations at Southern plantations by Charles H. Fairbanksin the 1960s. Fairbankss research pieced together information from the enslaved people. Byexcavating slave cabins, he found that Africans ate a variety of wild local plants, hunted game withguns, trapped and ate raccoons and opossums, caught mullet and catfish in tidal streams, and cookedin their homes. And like the evidence of the New York coffin design, Fairbankss evidence alsoshowed that African culture and identity-expressed in the peoples pottery, food, and architecture-hadbeen preserved in the New World.Main Idea 1 Answer Score Mark the main idea M 15 Mark the statement that is too broad B 5 Mark the statement that is too narrow N 5 Score 15 points for each correct answer. a. Historical archaeologists study cemeteries and plantations. b. Historical archaeologists study the nonwritten evidence of people lives. c. Historical archaeology is a field of study.Check the correct answer for 2-6Subject Matter 2 This passage mostly focuses ona. why historical archaeology is important.b. what historical archaeology can show about poor or enslaved people.c. how historical archaeology is changing today.d. comparing classical archaeology and historical archaeologyRestoring America’s Memory: 29 Nat Turner Instructional UnitA Renaissance of Teacher Knowledge Savannah-Chatham County Public Schools
    • Supporting Details 3 The Manhattan cemetery yielded information about the a. health of African slaves. b. diet of African slaves c. clothing of African slaves d. literacy rate of African slaves. Conclusion 4 Fairbankss excavations show that slaves on Southern plantations a. often went hungry. b. were excellent cooks. c. had a fair amount of leisure time d. had a varied diet. Clarifying Devices 5 The term historical archaeology is explained through a. a dictionary definition. b. a question-and-answer format. c. definition and examples. d. comparison and contrast Vocabulary in Context 6 In this passage, interpretations means a. questions. b. evaluations c. translations. d. summaries Add your scores for questions 1-6. Enter the total here.Restoring America’s Memory: 30 Nat Turner Instructional UnitA Renaissance of Teacher Knowledge Savannah-Chatham County Public Schools
    • Unwritten History Answer Key1 a N b M c B2 a b √ c d3 a √ b c d4 a b c d √5 a b c √ d6 a b √ c dRestoring America’s Memory: 31 Nat Turner Instructional UnitA Renaissance of Teacher Knowledge Savannah-Chatham County Public Schools
    • RAFT AssignmentTo complete a RAFT Assignment you are expected to write from the point of view of a historical character.It is important that you include historically accurate details to help the reader better understand yourcharacter, write clearly, strive for creativity, and pay attention to the format.Answer the following to help you plan your writing:R-ole: Which role from the historical past will you play?A-udience: Who will you be writing to? [This relates to the format below and you have many choices. Youcould write to yourself in a diary entry, the public in a speech or newspaper article, a loved one in a letter orpoem, etc.]F-ormat: What type of format or writing style will you use? (Remember you can write a song, newspaperarticle, journal entry, letter, public speech, or poem.)T-opic: What important event will you be writing about? [Think about the most significant times in yourcharacters life.]You may include an illustration that you draw or paste into the document.RAFT Rubric 10 5 0 Exhibits knowledge of the history, No historical facts Exhibits some knowledgeContent includes important facts and included or major of the material. information. historical inaccuracies. Displays a lack ofWriting Uses proper punctuation, spelling, Some mistakes. attention for rules ofTechnique grammar, and sentence structure. formal writing. Displays originality, creativity and Some attempts at Predictable, littleCreativity thoughtfulness. creativity. creativity. Neat, easy to read, interesting Neat, but lacks artisticPresentation Messy or no illustration. graphics. flair. © Copyright 2004 by the University Library, The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, all rights reserved URL: http://docsouth.unc.edu/classroom/lessonplans/RAFT.html Last updated October 27, 2005Restoring America’s Memory: 32 Nat Turner Instructional UnitA Renaissance of Teacher Knowledge Savannah-Chatham County Public Schools
    • Restoring America’s Memory: 33 Nat Turner Instructional UnitA Renaissance of Teacher Knowledge Savannah-Chatham County Public Schools
    • Teacher cards – Making Words: continentRestoring America’s Memory: 34 Nat Turner Instructional UnitA Renaissance of Teacher Knowledge Savannah-Chatham County Public Schools
    • Student cards – Making Words: continent e i o c n n n s t t e i o c n n n s t t e i o c n n n s t t e i o c n n n s t t e i o c n n n s t t e i o c n n n s t t e i o c n n n s t t e i o c n n n s t t e i o c n n n s t t e i o c n n n s t t e i o c n n n s t t e i o c n n n s t tRestoring America’s Memory: 35 Nat Turner Instructional UnitA Renaissance of Teacher Knowledge Savannah-Chatham County Public Schools
    • Restoring America’s Memory: 36 Nat Turner Instructional UnitA Renaissance of Teacher Knowledge Savannah-Chatham County Public Schools
    • Teacher cards – Making Words: frighteningRestoring America’s Memory: 37 Nat Turner Instructional UnitA Renaissance of Teacher Knowledge Savannah-Chatham County Public Schools
    • Student cards – Making Words: frighteninge i i f g g h n n r te i i f g g h n nr te i i f g g h n nr te i i f g g h n nr te i i f g g h n nr te i i f g g h n nr te i i f g g h n nr te i i f g g h n nr te i i f g g h n nr te i i f g g h n nr te i i f g g h n nr te i i f g g h n nr tRestoring America’s Memory: 38 Nat Turner Instructional UnitA Renaissance of Teacher Knowledge Savannah-Chatham County Public Schools
    • Restoring America’s Memory: 39 Nat Turner Instructional UnitA Renaissance of Teacher Knowledge Savannah-Chatham County Public Schools
    • Teacher cards – Making Words: millionsRestoring America’s Memory: 40 Nat Turner Instructional UnitA Renaissance of Teacher Knowledge Savannah-Chatham County Public Schools
    • Student cards – Making Words: millions i i o l l m n s i i o l l m n s i i o l l m n s i i o l l m n s i i o l l m n s i i o l l m n s i i o l l m n s i i o l l m n s i i o l l m n s i i o l l m n s i i o l l m n s i i o l l m n sRestoring America’s Memory: 41 Nat Turner Instructional UnitA Renaissance of Teacher Knowledge Savannah-Chatham County Public Schools
    • Restoring America’s Memory: 42 Nat Turner Instructional UnitA Renaissance of Teacher Knowledge Savannah-Chatham County Public Schools
    • Teacher cards – Making Words: scaredRestoring America’s Memory: 43 Nat Turner Instructional UnitA Renaissance of Teacher Knowledge Savannah-Chatham County Public Schools
    • Student cards – Making Words: scareda e c d r sa e c d r sa e c d r sa e c d r sa e c d r sa e c d r sa e c d r sa e c d r sa e c d r sa e c d r sa e c d r sa e c d r sRestoring America’s Memory: 44 Nat Turner Instructional UnitA Renaissance of Teacher Knowledge Savannah-Chatham County Public Schools
    • Frederick Douglass Cloze Activity ReadingFrederick Augustus Washington Bailey Douglass (Feb. 7, 1817-Feb. 20,1895) was an abolitionist, orator and writer who fought against slavery andfor womens rights. Douglass was the first African-American citizenappointed to offices of high rank in the U.S. government.Douglass was born into slavery; his mother was a slave and his father waswhite. In 1838, he escaped slavery in Maryland and moved to Massachusetts,where he soon became an international figure in the fight against slavery.Douglass lectured extensively against slavery in the US and in Great Britain.During the Civil War, Douglass met with U.S. President Abraham Lincolnmany times, discussing Lincolns efforts to abolish slavery and the arming offormer slaves to fight the Confederacy.In 1847, Douglass started an anti-slavery newspaper called the North Star (itwas later called Frederick Douglasss Paper); it was published until 1860.Douglass served as the assistant secretary of the Santo Domingo Commission (1871). He was laterappointed marshal (1877-81) and recorder of deeds (1881-86) of Washington, D.C. His last governmentappointment was as the U.S. minister and consul general to Haiti (1889-91). Douglass autobiography, "Lifeand Times of Frederick Douglass," was published in 1882.Restoring America’s Memory: 45 Nat Turner Instructional UnitA Renaissance of Teacher Knowledge Savannah-Chatham County Public Schools
    • Frederick Douglass Cloze Activity Fill in the blanks below using the word bank.Word Bank: Confederacy slave Massachusetts father writer Civil offices slavery north abolish first Great Lincoln former newspaperFrederick Augustus Washington Bailey Douglass (Feb. 7, 1817-Feb. 20, 1895) wasan abolitionist, orator and _____________________ who fought against slavery andfor womens rights. Douglass was the _____________________ African-Americancitizen appointed to _____________________ of high rank in the U.S. government.Douglass was born into slavery; his mother was a ___________________ and his_____________________ was white. In 1838, he escaped slavery in Maryland andmoved __________________ to _____________________, where he soon becamean international figure in the fight against slavery. Douglass lectured extensivelyagainst _____________________ in the U.S. and in _____________________Britain. During the _____________________ War, Douglass met with U.S.President Abraham _____________________ many times, discussing Lincolnsefforts to _____________________ slavery and the arming of_____________________ slaves to fight the _____________________.In 1847, Douglass started an anti-slavery _____________________ called the North Star (it was later called Frederick Douglasss Paper); it was published until 1860. Douglass served as the assistant secretary of the Santo Domingo Commission (1871). He was later appointed marshal (1877-81) and recorder of deeds (1881-86) of Washington, D.C. His last government appointment was as the U.S. minister and consul general to Haiti (1889-91). Douglass autobiography, "Life and Times of Frederick newspaper," was published in 1882.Restoring America’s Memory: 46 Nat Turner Instructional UnitA Renaissance of Teacher Knowledge Savannah-Chatham County Public Schools
    • On being brought from A F R I C A to A M E R I CA. Phyllis Wheatley ‘Twas mercy brought me from my Pagan land, Taught my benighted soul to understand That theres a God, that theres a Saviour too: Once I redemption neither sought nor knew, Some view our sable race with scornful eye, "Their colour is a diabolic die." Remember, Christians, Negroes, black as Cain, May be refind, and join th angelic train.Restoring America’s Memory: 47 Nat Turner Instructional UnitA Renaissance of Teacher Knowledge Savannah-Chatham County Public Schools
    • THE SLAVES COMPLAINT by: George Moses Horton (c.1797-c.1883) Am I sadly cast aside, On misfortunes rugged tide? Will the world my pains deride Forever? Must I dwell in Slaverys night, And all pleasure take its flight, Far beyond my feeble sight, Forever? Worst of all, must Hope grow dim, And withhold her cheering beam? Rather let me sleep and dream Forever! Something still my heart surveys, Groping through this dreary maze; Is it Hope?--then burn and blaze Forever! Leave me not a wretch confined, Altogether lame and blind-- Unto gross despair consigned, Forever! Heaven! in whom can I confide? Canst thou not for all provide? Condescend to be my guide Forever: And when this transient life shall end, Oh, may some kind eternal friend Bid me from servitude ascend, Forever!Restoring America’s Memory: 48 Nat Turner Instructional UnitA Renaissance of Teacher Knowledge Savannah-Chatham County Public Schools
    • DEATH OF AN OLD CARRIAGE HORSE by: George Moses Horton (c.1797-c.1883) I was a harness horse, Constrained to travel weak or strong, With orders from oppressing force, Push along, push along. I had no space of rest, And took at forks the roughest prong, Still by the cruel driver pressed, Push along, push along. Vain strove the idle bird, To charm me with her artless song, But pleasure lingered from the word, Push along, push along. The order of the day Was push, the peal of every tongue, The only word was all the way, Push along, push along. Thus to my journeys end, Had I to travel right or wrong, Till death my sweet and favored friend, Bade me from life to push along.Restoring America’s Memory: 49 Nat Turner Instructional UnitA Renaissance of Teacher Knowledge Savannah-Chatham County Public Schools
    • This Train The passengers are hidden The conductors are on guard. The stations secret places – A cellar, a barn, a yard The train tracks are invisible, Hope is the engineer, The final stop is freedom From slavery and fear.From Brainjuice: American History Fresh Squeezed, by Carol Diggory Shields, Handprint Books, 2002 Restoring America’s Memory: 50 Nat Turner Instructional Unit A Renaissance of Teacher Knowledge Savannah-Chatham County Public Schools
    • Civil War Harper’s Ferry, Shiloh, Picket’s Mill, Seven Pines, Appomattox, Malvern Hill. Vicksburg, Atlanta, Battle of Bull Run. Names like the beat Of a muffled drum. Cedar Mountain, Mossy Creek, Bloody Bridge, Nashville, Saltville, Indian Ridge. Chickamauga, Tupelo, Gettysburg. Their names are the words Of a funeral dirge. Face to face, Side by side, We fought ourselves. Many of us died.From Brainjuice: American History Fresh Squeezed, by Carol Diggory Shields, Handprint Books, 2002Restoring America’s Memory: 51 Nat Turner Instructional UnitA Renaissance of Teacher Knowledge Savannah-Chatham County Public Schools
    • The Drinking Gourd When the sun comes back and the first quail calls, Follow the Drinking Gourd. For the old man is waiting for to carry you to freedom, If you follow the Drinking Gourd. The river bank makes a very good road, The dead trees show you the way, Left foot, peg foot, traveling on Follow the Drinking Gourd. Tombigbee from other north-south rivers that flow into it. The river ends between two hills, Follow the Drinking Gourd. Theres another river on the other side, Follow the Drinking Gourd. Where the great big river meets the little river, Follow the Drinking Gourd. For the old man is awaiting to carry you to freedom if you follow the Drinking Gourd.Restoring America’s Memory: 52 Nat Turner Instructional UnitA Renaissance of Teacher Knowledge Savannah-Chatham County Public Schools
    • The Ballad of Nat Turner BY ROBERT E. HAYDEN Then fled, O brethren, the wicked juba Hide me, the rock, the bramble cried. . . . and wandered wandered far How tell you of that holy battle? from curfew joys in the Dismal’s night. Fool of St. Elmo’s fire The shock of wing on wing and sword on sword was the tumult of In scary night I wandered, praying, a taken city burning. I cannot Lord God my harshener, say how long they strove, speak to me now or let me die; speak, Lord, to this mourner. For the wheel in a turning wheel which is time And came at length to livid trees in eternity had ceased where Ibo warriors its whirling, and owl and moccasin, hung shadowless, turning in wind panther and nameless beast that moaned like Africa, And I were held like creatures fixed Their belltongue bodies dead, their eyes in flaming, in fiery amber. alive with the anger deep But I saw I saw oh many of in my own heart. Is this the sign, those mighty beings waver, the sign forepromised me? Waver and fall, go streaking down The spirits vanished. Afraid and lonely into swamp water, and the water I wandered on in blackness. hissed and steamed and bubbled and locked Speak to me now or let me die. shuddering shuddering over Die, whispered the blackness. The fallen and soon was motionless. And wild things gasped and scuffled in Then that massive light the night; seething shapes began a-folding slowly in of evil frolicked upon the air. upon itself, and I I reeled with fear, I prayed. Beheld the conqueror faces and, lo, Sudden brightness clove the preying they were like mine, I saw darkness, brightness that was they were like mine and in joy and terror itself a golden darkness, brightness wept, praising praising Jehovah. so bright that it was darkness. Oh praised my honer, harshener And there were angels, their faces hidden till a sleep came over me, from me, angels at war a sleep heavy as death. And when with one another, angels in dazzling I awoke at last free combat. And oh the splendo And purified, I rose and prayed The fearful splendor of that warring. and returned after a time Hide me, I cried to rock and bramble. to the blazing fields, to the humbleness. And bided my time.Restoring America’s Memory: 53 Nat Turner Instructional UnitA Renaissance of Teacher Knowledge Savannah-Chatham County Public Schools
    • 12 Sonnets in Memory of Nathaniel Turner Poet & Prophet of Southampton By Rudolph LewisNovember 11 (on a Friday at high noon), 175 years ago (1831), NathanielTurner, the son of an African woman, was executed by the state of Virginiafor his leadership of a revolt against slavery in the town of Cross Keys in Southampton County,Virginia.There has been much that has been written about Turner and his life, much that undermined his integrityand dignity and the truth of his life. This series of 12 poems may be an excellent means of teachingTurners life and the role he played in reforming religion and political democracy in America. Loving That Other Man Former-slaves built Jerusalem with hard labor. But for their children today it is no sanctuary from misery. Fog thickens after a day of showers & revelations. A full moon rises high. Nathaniel Turner knew such an evening as his Day of Reckoning came nearer during August Revival. Like Baldwin he knew men turn away from true being for fleshly ecstasy—incest, & pride in the marketing of hearts & souls—all for small comforts & manliness. I am no naturalist. I know evil when discovered wears the mask that glumly grins. * * * * * Sonnet for 22 August 1831 If we slipped away unknown into dark forests often as black men did so long ago in secret coves like Booze Island in the Loco woods & converse in tongues dine on dripping hot roast pig, smoking yams with moonshine & brandy, we could win all. Nobody will know what we put down or the cross we pick up. A faith communion will fuel acts heroic—sacrificial. Beyond our master’s grasp & driver’s whip, free of fears & reckonings, wingéd flights across the dark purple skies will birth a bold love & a daring defiance. For seven determined men can rock the world.Restoring America’s Memory: 54 Nat Turner Instructional UnitA Renaissance of Teacher Knowledge Savannah-Chatham County Public Schools
    • * * * * * Rivers Run Into Oceans More than a month of dangerous nights in the dark forest had come & gone since his six men fell to bullets or from the rope. Wooly heads without eyelids rested on pikes at plantation crossroads; skeletons left as signs of those pleasures taken by fastidious insects, birds, dogs & men lay in the woods—mothers, fathers, babies. Those terrible hours on cool autumn days still haunt their kinsmen after almost two centuries. We’re under fence rails concealed in a cave with God—tears fall for the dead. The minstrel moments of servitude pass as we embrace our turn for martyrdom. * * * * * Meditations on the Moons He hides out in the forest of Cross Keys alone. The carnage has ended—only sullen silence remains. The 2nd moon since August Revival comes into view from behind dark clouds. It’s not loneliness or his belly that drives him to spy out farmhouses nightly. He listens at doors & windows. Darkness fills the candlelit rooms. Masters have rekindled their slavish routines: truth remains twisted as grapevines. Soft breezes are in the autumn leaves. He knows his work’s unfinished: he must rescue sacramental blood that fell to earth by sacrificing himself on the 3rd moon. * * * * *Restoring America’s Memory: 55 Nat Turner Instructional UnitA Renaissance of Teacher Knowledge Savannah-Chatham County Public Schools
    • Wanted Alive, Not Dead He knew his blood must fall to earth like red dew from heaven on leaves of corn. This debt due he had to pay. The community he loved would thrash him like wheat all along the route—whips with nails; needle punctures; feet fists thudding on yellow flesh; curses hurled. This torment he must endure for their sake. Cross Keys wanted to know the origins— dust storming brigands on horseback hacking away at white flesh—men, women, children. He needed a scribe to re-mark pages— tales dispersed at home & afar—a means for his reentry to the human fold. His vision of Christ was unforgiving. * * * * * Crickets Sing His Song Clouds thicken dark over Jerusalem. Winds come & go. A gust—pines dance, their limbs of green needles sweeping the air. A breeze in the pear tree shimmers the yellow leaves like sweet love flesh. Crickets chirp by my window. In his cell, the moon will not shine for him tonight nor will stars twinkle through the jailhouse bars. This is his second night in prison chained— wrist & ankles. He desires no escape. This was the destiny he freely chose. His ruse was at work, & Mr. Tom Gray had bought into his scheme—his visions shall be broadcast near & far. His final sword thrust into the Serpent is his death song. * * * *Restoring America’s Memory: 56 Nat Turner Instructional UnitA Renaissance of Teacher Knowledge Savannah-Chatham County Public Schools
    • Drowning Noise with Silence His mind moves to its fullness like the moon that glows purple in his dark cell. He prays without cease. He tracks back over the ground, the metaphysical turf & prologue he traversed after Thomas Gray stepped from the autumn sun to the chirping chorus of crickets crashing leaves by his window. He thanks God he’s not like his white father who sought to resolve slavery between white sheets. . . . The pen waits to drum out echoes of dead bones in the shadows of madness. . . . His tale is silent beats bleeding the stink of church men—their death stamp on holiness. His gospel blues won’t hang on rotting trees. * * * * * Eyes Bound to Lies The near full moon set & rose behind clouds on his 2nd interview. The crickets were silent. The chilled air sharpened his mind sharper than the razor edge of his sword. His voyage through this hell was near complete. The setting sun shone bright & cast shadows through the bars onto Gray’s pen & paper. In blue eyes the slaughter of children made him blacker than a million sinister midnights—children who’ll never sing sunlight in the mad luxury of their whiteness. This unholy fantasy stilled his heart. He had crossed that Nottoway years ago: black life falling, ever falling like leaves. * * * * *Restoring America’s Memory: 57 Nat Turner Instructional UnitA Renaissance of Teacher Knowledge Savannah-Chatham County Public Schools
    • Dying Echoes of Dead Words This full moon frost night he will leave his cell slipping from chains/shackles, like dirty clothes & stroll the woods where the Spirit who speaks to prophets—chastens men to sacrifice. Hunting dogs will sense his haunting presence whimper in their pens fearing his grandeur. He will pass through fields of boll-filled white fleece in purple light. Shadowed tombstones, symbols of nigger luck, gained on black backs & blood: owl wisdom will sound darkness with “Who? Whoooo?” His father lies there. Fires will blaze tonight. Smoke from chimneys will bellow to the stars. They sleep cozy now with doom at their door. Small rainbows glisten from the morning lawn. * * * * * Birthed in a Conundrum The heaven purples with stars twinkling clear above this autumn forest. No sound stirs this cold full moon silence. Frost thickens white on leaves & grass in the blue hours before midnight. He reads again Gray’s “Confessions.” He sleeps soundly without dreams. Mockingbird sings a sun overture. Jailers march him from his cell. At the courthouse crows rally. Icy-faced judges are suffused with guilt. Their cave eyes are horror without remorse . . . mouths rusty hinges that open & close. This dark mirror mystery outrageous is beyond their scalpels. They are losers— his righteous spirit blossoms yet from thorns. * * * * *Restoring America’s Memory: 58 Nat Turner Instructional UnitA Renaissance of Teacher Knowledge Savannah-Chatham County Public Schools
    • Blues in the Cosmos A star falls in the southern sky. Dogs bark at the rising of the moon.. The seasons flip through the calendar pages quickly. First the glow of autumn, then frost, showers & then I’m sweating. The earth is soaked in cosmic tears of joy & despair. The noose shapes our destiny. Crickets sing. Rooster crows before daybreak. Naked vibrations! These are witnesses, a greater audience than he who walks. They are no clockmaker withdrawn, sightless, uncaring of a work begun at eternity’s beginning. We don’t come/go without signifying. We’re healed when Mockingbird sings in the sun. * * * * * 40 Days & 40 Nights We hovel, we slaves, trembling. It’s been weeks since the sun shone clear, or the rising moon appeared through the trees, when dew drops fell on the blown, un-bagged brown leaves. It keeps raining. The water keeps rising—the rain keeps falling. They should’ve known, we all should’ve known, it’s no routine stroll—picnic to hang a prophet, a holy man, even Ben Turner’s boy. The vault of heaven turned black, clouds & winds gathered & the sky cracked, the earth rumbled when he fell from the rope & hung still like a scarecrow. In fright the gathering scattered. The surgeons keep busy with their scalpels while we wade gospel waters of end time.Restoring America’s Memory: 59 Nat Turner Instructional UnitA Renaissance of Teacher Knowledge Savannah-Chatham County Public Schools
    • ODE TO ETHIOPIA Lyrics of Lowly Life - 1896 Paul Dunbar O Mother Race! to thee I bring This pledge of faith unwavering, This tribute to thy glory. I know the pangs which thou didst feel, When Slavery crushed thee with its heel, With thy dear blood all gory. Sad Days were those - ah, sad indeed! But through the land the fruitful seed Of better times was growing. The plant of freedom upward sprung, And spread its leaves so fresh and young - Its blossoms now are blowing. On every hand in this fair land, Proud Ethiopes swarthy children stand Beside their fairer neighbor; The forests flee before their stroke, Their hammers ring, their forges smoke, - They stir in honest labour. They tread the fields where honor calls; Their voices sound through senate halls In majesty and power. To right they cling; the hymns they sing Up to skies in beauty ring, And bolder grow each hour. Be proud, my Race, in mind and soul; They name is writ on Glorys scroll In characters of fire. High mid the clouds of Fames bright sky Thy banners blazoned folds now fly, And truth shall lift them higher. Thou hast the right to nobel pride, Whose spotless robes were purified By bloods severe baptism. Upon thy brow the cross was laid, And labours painful sweat-beads made A consecrating chrism. No other race, or white or black, When bound s thou wert, to the rack, So seldom stooped to grieving;Restoring America’s Memory: 60 Nat Turner Instructional UnitA Renaissance of Teacher Knowledge Savannah-Chatham County Public Schools
    • No other race, when free again, Forgot the past and proved them men So noble in forgiving. Go on and up! Our souls and eyes Shall follow they continuous rise; Our ears shall list thy story From bards who from thy root shall spring, And proudly tune their lyres to sing Of Ethiopias glory.Restoring America’s Memory: 61 Nat Turner Instructional UnitA Renaissance of Teacher Knowledge Savannah-Chatham County Public Schools
    • Poems in the Lyrics in a Lowly Life, 1896 Accountability By Paul Laurence Dunbar FOLKS aint got no right to censuah othah folks about dey habits; Him dat giv de squirls de bushtails made de bobtails fu de rabbits. Him dat built de gread big mountains hollered out de little valleys, Him dat made de streets an driveways wasnt shamed to make de alleys. We is all constructed diffent, daint no two of us de same; We caint hep ouah likes an dislikes, ef we se bad we aint to blame. Ef we se good, we neednt show off, case you bet it aint ouah doin We gits into suttain channels dat we jes caint hep pusuin. But we all fits into places dat no othah ones could fill, An we does the things we has to, big er little, good er ill. John caint tek de place o Henry, Su an Sally aint alike; Bass aint nuthin like a suckah, chub aint nuthin like a pike. When you come to think about it, how it s all planned out it s splendid. Nuthin s done er evah happens, dout hit s somefin dat s intended; Dont keer whut you does, you has to, an hit sholy beats de dickens,-- Viney, go put on de kittle, I got one o mastahs chickens.Restoring America’s Memory: 62 Nat Turner Instructional UnitA Renaissance of Teacher Knowledge Savannah-Chatham County Public Schools
    • Poems in the Lyrics in a Lowly Life, 1896 Frederick Douglass By Paul Laurence Dunbar HELLO, ole man, you re a-gittin gray, An it beats ole Ned to see the way At the crows feet s a-getherin aroun yore eyes; Tho it ought nt to cause me no suprise, Fur there s many a sun at you ve seen rise An many a one you ve seen go down Sence yore step was light an yore hair was brown, An storms an snows have had their way-- Hello, ole man, you re a-gittin gray. Hello, ole man, you re a-gittin gray, An the youthful pranks at you used to play Are dreams of a far past long ago That lie in a heart where the fires burn low-- That has lost the flame though it kept the glow, An spite of drivin snow an storm, Beats bravely on forever warm. December holds the place of May-- Hello, ole man, you re a-gittin gray. Hello, ole man, you re a-gittin gray-- Who cares what the carpin youngsters say? For, after all, when the tale is told, Love proves if a man is young or old! Old age cant make the heart grow cold When it does the will of an honest mind; When it beats with love fur all mankind; Then the night but leads to a fairer day-- Hello, ole man, you re a-gittin gray!Restoring America’s Memory: 63 Nat Turner Instructional UnitA Renaissance of Teacher Knowledge Savannah-Chatham County Public Schools
    • In 1828, students in the New York African Free School were asked to writepoems on the subjects of slavery and freedom. These topics were very muchon the minds of even free Blacks. Here are poems that were written by twoof the students from the school. Both students were 12 years of age. On Slavery by George R. Allen Slavery, oh, thou cruel stain, Thou dost fill my heart with pain: See my brother, there he stands Chained by slavery’s cruel bands. Could we not feel a brother’s woes, Relieve the wants he undergoes,! Snatch him from slavery’s cruel smart, And to him freedom’s joy impart? On Freedom by Thomas Sidney Freedom will break the tyrant’s chains, And shatter all his whole domain; From slavery she will always free And all her aim is liberty.Restoring America’s Memory: 64 Nat Turner Instructional UnitA Renaissance of Teacher Knowledge Savannah-Chatham County Public Schools
    • You Were There: A Witness to History Speech Objective: To promote historical awareness, storytelling techniques, and speech delivery. Instructions: 1. Based on your reading of a primary source, choose a particular event(s) which might be of interest to you and your audience. 2. Give a "birds eye view" of the event as if you were an actual witness or participant. Aim for historical accuracy and creativity in your account. 3. The speech should be told in the first person and should be delivered in a clear voice and easy-to-understand format. 4. You can pretend that you were either an active participant or an interested spectator. 5. You may use a note card as you speak and should limit your speech to 3 minutes. 10 5 0An Exhibits knowledge of the Exhibits some No historical facts Content history, includes important knowledge of the included or major facts and information. material. historical inaccuracies. Some aspects of the Displays a lack of Speech Delivers the speech in a delivery are attention to delivery of Technique clear manner. unorganized or hard to the speech. understand. Displays originality, Some attempts at Predictable, little Creativity creativity and creativity. creativity. thoughtfulness. © Copyright 2004 by the University Library, The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, all rights reservedRestoring America’s Memory: 65 Nat Turner Instructional UnitA Renaissance of Teacher Knowledge Savannah-Chatham County Public Schools
    • An Introduction to Slave Narratives: Harriet Jacobs Life of a Slave GirlThis lesson is intended to enhance student knowledge about the life experiences of a slave inAmerica during the 1800s by using the story of a North Carolina slave woman who eventuallyescaped.For Grade 8 Social Studies by Joe HootenAbout the authorThis lesson plan was created at the 2004 Documenting the South Summer Writing Institute andmade possible through funding provided by NC ECHO, Learn NC, the UNC-Chapel Hill School ofEducation, and the UNC-Chapel Hill library system.On the web • Find websites with resources on African Americans and United States history.Learning outcomesStudents will read a selected oral history to learn about individual experiences of AfricanAmericans in the pre Civil War era.Students will use collaborative skills with each other to share their understandings and developdifferent perspectives on the reading.Interpret primary source oral history document.Summarize narrative of former slave.Teacher planningTime required for lesson - 1 to 2 daysMaterials/resourcesStudents will need: • excerpt of Harriet Jacobs Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl • pen & paperTechnology resourcesNone.Or... if you do not want to use handouts and instead, display the excerpt on an overhead: • LCD projector • internet connection to Doc South • laptopPre-activitiesTeacher will need to read the excerpt prior to handout to be able to answer any student questionsregarding the reading.Explain the importance of using primary documents to investigate historical events and eras tobetter understand history.Restoring America’s Memory: 66 Nat Turner Instructional UnitA Renaissance of Teacher Knowledge Savannah-Chatham County Public Schools
    • Activities 1. Introduce the lesson. 2. Teacher will place students in groups of 3–4 depending on size of class. Have students sitting in their groups, if possible. 3. Ask students to have pen and paper out on their desks. 4. Pass out selected reading of Harriet Jacobs narrative. 5. Allow time (depending on ability) for students to completely read the handout. 10–20 minutes. 6. Students will then meet with their small collaborative groups. 7. Pass out the Discussion Handout. This handout will have questions that students can use in their discussions. They should record each others responses and thoughts during the discussion. 8. Allow for collaboration between the groups. 10–20 minutes. 9. End the discussions and engage the whole class in a dialogue about their perceptions and what they discussed. 10. Collect their completed Discussion Handouts.AssessmentAssessment can be based on student completion of Discussion Handout.Teachers can also assess student learning by asking questions to see if students have gainedknowledge of slave life through the readings and discussions.Teachers may create their own quiz based on the reading if applicable.Supplemental informationRelated websitesPicture of Harriet Jacobs narrative title page from UNC-Chapel Hill DocSouth. You may want toshowcase the written by herself on this page.Excerpt of Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl starting on page 71. Have them read to top of page74. Cut and paste this as your handout.Starting at page 97 through top of page 103 is another excellent excerpt.Slave Narratives. This is another site on the Doc South with more relevant material andexplanation for further research and investigation.CommentsTeachers may revise the Discussion Handout to best fit the objectives you would like to focus on.Teachers may revise the selected excerpts to best fit the objectives you would like to focus on.Restoring America’s Memory: 67 Nat Turner Instructional UnitA Renaissance of Teacher Knowledge Savannah-Chatham County Public Schools
    • Discussion Handout Harriet Jacobs: “Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl”After you and your group have read the selected passages from Jacob’s narrative, all studentsshould participate in a discussion –using the questions below- to help you further understandingthe experiences of an African American slave prior in the pre-Civil War era.Students should write their own thoughts as well as the rest of the group. 1) What was life like for slaves prior to the beginning of the Civil War? You may list both the good & bad if applicable. 2) What are some specific examples of hardships suffered by slaves during this time? 3) Do you believe that all whites held the same view about African American slaves during this time period? What is your evidence (from the readings) that would prompt your response? 4) Education was denied to most slaves, does it surprise you that she was able to write such a descriptive account of her experiences? Why or why not? 5) Why is it important to study history through the use of primary sources?Restoring America’s Memory: 68 Nat Turner Instructional UnitA Renaissance of Teacher Knowledge Savannah-Chatham County Public Schools
    • Lessons for the Children: Creating a Picture Book about SlaveryUsing the slave narratives of Harriet Jacobs and Ellen Craft made available through theDocumenting the American South on-line collection, students will examine the institution ofslavery, and create their own picture books.by Meghan Mcglinn About the authorThis plan was created with the support of the Documenting the American South collection at theUniversity of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Schoolof Education, the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Library System, and NC ECHO. Learning outcomes1. Students will learn more about the institution of slavery and its social and emotional effects.2. Students will gain an understanding of history on a more human and personal level.3. Students will learn to evaluate and read primary sources. Teacher planning Time required for lesson - 3-4 days Materials/resourcesExamples of picture books such as The Daring Escape of Ellen Craft by Cathy Moore and Mary OKeefe Young (illus.).Art supplies for making picture books (optional) Technology resourcesInternet connectionMicrosoft publisher or word processing software (optional) Pre-activitiesRead students a picture book on slavery like the story titled The Daring Escape of Ellen Craft byCathy Moore and Mary O Keefe Young (illus.). Activities1. Choose excerpts from Harriet Jacobs Life of a Slave Girl and Ellen and Henry Craftsnarratives. It is suggested that you choose excerpts related to particular themes such as: work,plantation life, family, the role of church, love, escape, etc. You can make paper copies of these todistribute to students or give page numbers to students working on-line.2. Divide students into groups of three. Assign each of the groups a collection of documentexcerpts to read. Have students complete an "Evaluating Primary Sources" handout for eachdocument excerpt.3. Ask students to join in a discussion with the whole group about major themes read in theexcerpts. The teacher may wish to create a concept map as a class or ask individual students tocreate their own.4. Next, allow students to begin developing their own picture book related to slavery and one ofthe themes encountered in the primary sources. You may want students to work in groups of 2-3.Restoring America’s Memory: 69 Nat Turner Instructional UnitA Renaissance of Teacher Knowledge Savannah-Chatham County Public Schools
    • 5. Depending on the available resources, students can create their finished book from constructionpaper and other art supplies or using Microsoft Publisher or word processing software. AssessmentStudents should be evaluated on the basis of the historical content, creativity, and aesthetics of thepicture book they produce. Supplemental informationStudents will probably be thrilled to share their books with younger students. If possible arrangefor a visit to the local elementary school or after-school program. Related websitesHarriet Jacobs: Life of a Slave GirlRunning a Thousand Miles to Freedom: The Escape of William and Ellen Craft from SlaveryRestoring America’s Memory: 70 Nat Turner Instructional UnitA Renaissance of Teacher Knowledge Savannah-Chatham County Public Schools
    • The Middle Passage According to Olaudah EquianoOlaudah Equiano is perhaps one of the most well-known abolitionist writers and former slaves to live inAmerica. His narrative has been digitized as a part of the Documenting the American South NorthAmerican Slave Narratives collection. His vivid retelling of his trip onboard a slave ship bound for the NewWorld illustrates the horrific and dehumanizing experience.by Regina Wooten About the authorThis plan was created with the support of the Documenting the American South collection at the Universityof North Carolina at Chapel Hill, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill School of Education, theUniversity of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Library System, and NC ECHO. On the web Learning outcomesStudents will: • learn more about the kidnapping, enslavement, and transport of African slaves to the New World via the infamous Middle Passage. • gain insight into the horrifying conditions facing slaves throughout the ordeal. Teacher planning Time required for lesson - 15 minutes Technology resourcesInternet access to Documenting the American South resources. Pre-activities K-W-L format 1. The teacher should divide the board into three columns. In the first column, labeled "K" (what you know) have the students brainstorm and record a list of all of the things they already know about slaver and the process of bringing slaves to the New World. 2. Next, in the "W" (what you want to know) have students list all of the things they would like to know or the subjects on which they need more information. ActivitiesHave students each read the account of Equiano. Assessment Pair-share format 1. After students read their documents they should list all of the things they learned in the final "L" column (representing what you learned). 2. Students should share these with a partner first and then add anything to their list that they gained through collaboration. 3. Finally, as a group the students help the teacher list one long “L” on the board. Again, students should add anything they learned.Restoring America’s Memory: 71 Nat Turner Instructional UnitA Renaissance of Teacher Knowledge Savannah-Chatham County Public Schools
    • 4. Teachers may choose to collect the charts for a daily participation grade or ask students to write a brief free write on the topic of the Middle Passage. Supplemental informationThese options require additional class time and extend the reading.Option #1: Compare Olaudah Equianos account of passage to the New World with that of WilliamBradfords writings about his journey.Option #2: Have students conduct further research on Equianos life. (He is an amazing figure whoeventually bought his own freedom and became a well-known abolitionist in England.)Option #3: Students may also wish to compare Equianos experiences to those of other slaves or theaccounts of slave traders. Related websitesThe Interesting Narrative of the Life of Olaudah Equiano, or Gustavus Vassa the African CommentsRecently, video recreations of the Middle Passage have been produced; these provide vivid illustrations ofthe horrendous conditions endured. Teachers should pre-view these videos, of course, as they are graphic inportions.Restoring America’s Memory: 72 Nat Turner Instructional UnitA Renaissance of Teacher Knowledge Savannah-Chatham County Public Schools
    • The Underground Railroad Ideas developed in this lesson: ♦ The Underground Railroad helped many slaves to freedom. ♦ Many slaves gained their freedom in other ways.Objectives: The student will be able to: 1. understand what it meant to be a slave in the South in the mid 1800s. 2. realize the struggle and danger many African Americans faced to be free. Description of lesson/activity: 1. Look up the words "slave" and "slavery" in the dictionary. Record the meaning on a chart or the board. 2. Read The Drinking Gourd , by F.N. Monjo, to the children. In small groups have the children make up a role play to be presented to the class about the Underground Railroad. 3. Define "Underground Railroad" on the chart or the board. 4. Beneath the definitions, create a class story about a slave who used the Underground Railroad. Have the students draw pictures to hang around the story about a part of the journey. 5. Read A Picture Book of Frederick Douglass , by David A. Adler. Discuss what it was like to be a slave. Did he use the Underground Railroad to get his freedom? Brainstorm the steps in Frederick Douglasss life to his death. List in any order on the board. When done, transpose them to a time line with the children putting them in the right order. 6. Have the children make their own stories telling about slavery. When complete, share these with each other and another class.Resources: Monjo, F.N. The Drinking Gourd . (New York: Harper and Row Publishers, 1970). Adler, David A. A Picture Book of Frederick Douglass . (New York: Holiday House, 1993) (ISBN 0823410021).Restoring America’s Memory: 73 Nat Turner Instructional UnitA Renaissance of Teacher Knowledge Savannah-Chatham County Public Schools
    • Applying Question–Answer Relationships to PicturesOverviewStudents are often asked comprehension questions based on text that they have read. However, it isimportant for students to consider pictures used in the text as well. Pictures can help increase studentsunderstanding of the text, topic, or story. In this lesson, students are asked four different types of questionsabout the pictures found in a wordless picture book. The questions range in difficulty from those withanswers that can be found in the text to those that require inferences. Students learn to categorize questionsby the four question types and use pictures to help them better understand a story.From Theory to PracticeCortese, E.E. (2003). The application of Question–Answer Relationship strategies to pictures. The ReadingTeacher, 57, 374–380. • Pictures can be used with question-answer relationships (QARs) as a way to teach students how to use pictorial images, in addition to the printed text, to answer comprehension questions. • Engaging students in different levels of questioning in relationship to pictures can help them to identify main ideas, make inferences, and draw conclusions. • Applying the QAR strategy to pictures may help to increase students schema and background knowledge needed to comprehend the text.Student ObjectivesStudents will • Categorize questions according to the four picture–question–answer relationships: Right There, Artist and You, On My Own, and Putting It Together • Answer basic and inferential comprehension questions using the pictures in a text Explain their reasoning when answering comprehension questionsInstructional PlanPreparation1. This lesson uses individual pictures or pictures in a book.2. Familiarize yourself with the Purpose and Meaning of the P–QAR Types (below). For older students, you may wish to distribute this list to students before or after the lesson as a reference.3. Peruse the pictures or the text in the book you are using and make up questions that you would like to use for the four question types. Make sure that you include questions for all four question types. If you are using a book with pictures and text, the students will be asked not to read the text.Instruction and ActivitiesSession 11. If you don’t have copies of the pictures or book for each student, have students sit in such a way that they will all be able to see the pictures or the screen if you are using a computer and projector or overhead.2. Begin by introducing students to the pictures or book. If using a book, explain that you want them not to read the text because you want them to think about how pictures can tell a story. Go on to explain that pictures can also help readers to better understand a story they are reading. The focus of this session will be to practice this type of thinking by looking only at the pictures in the story.3. Explain that you will be asking students four different types of questions about the pictures in the book. They will be able to answer some of the questions by looking directly at the picture. Other questions will require them to make their best guess based on the other pictures they have seen or their own prior knowledge. If you wish, you may state the four question types now or wait to discuss each one as you progress through the story (see Purpose and Meaning of the P–QAR Types below). Tell students thatRestoring America’s Memory: 74 Nat Turner Instructional UnitA Renaissance of Teacher Knowledge Savannah-Chatham County Public Schools
    • the purpose of these questions is to help them think about what is going on in the story and to make connections across the pictures.4. Begin by showing students the picture(s) or cover of the book. Pose the question, “What time of day is it in this picture?” This would be an example of a Right There question. State some things that are right there in the picture. An example would be, “I can tell it is not nighttime because the sky is not dark.”5. Engage students in a brief discussion about how answering this type of question can help them as readers. In this case, you might say, “Knowing this information helps me to make predictions about the story. I think this picture/book is going to be about something that happens at during the day. I am also guessing that the story is about _______ since that is in the title of the book.”6. Ask students to brainstorm and share some other examples of Right There questions based on the picture/cover illustration. You may wish to list these questions on a sheet of chart paper for later reference. When finished, ask students what other predictions they can make about the picture of if using a book, what they can predict based on the picture on the cover and the questions they have developed.7. For a book, have students begin examining the pictures on each page of the book while you ask them questions. Move through the story page by page, making sure to ask one or more of the four questiontypes for each set of pictures. Explain to students the definition and purpose of each question type asyou introduce it (see Purpose and Meaning of the P–QAR Types below). As you progress through thestory, have students identify the type of question you are asking. Remember to allow time for studentsto also develop their own questions in addition to answering yours, and record their questions for eachquestion type on chart paper as reference. Always ask students to explain how they arrived at theiranswers, as well as how each type of question can help them as readers.A few examples of questions for a story follow. You will need to adapt depending on your story. Also seeTeacher’s Guide below.Right There. Open to the first page of the book, and pose the following examples of Right There questions: • What is the setting for this page? • What time of day is it?Artist and You. Turn to the next page and ask the following examples of Artist and You questions: • What do you think the people are doing? • How do you think they feel? You can ask a combination of Right There and Artist and You questions as follows: • What is the setting for this page? • What are the children/people doing? • How do the masters seem to feel about the slaves?On My Own. Pictures later in the story lend themselves well to On My Own questions, such as: • Why do you think this (whatever you choose) happened?Putting It Together. To answer this type of question, students may need to review numerous pictures inthe story. Have students look at the picture on the last page of the book. • What is going to happen next?8. Remind students that good readers ask themselves questions as they read a story. Asking and answering questions about the pictures in a story can help them to better make predictions about the story and understand what is happening.9. End the session by reviewing the four question types, and answering any questions students may have. In the next session, students will have an opportunity to apply the strategy in small groups or in pairs.Session 2 (for older students)1. Review and discuss with students the activity from the previous session. Remind students how they used pictures in a book to help answer questions about the story.Restoring America’s Memory: 75 Nat Turner Instructional UnitA Renaissance of Teacher Knowledge Savannah-Chatham County Public Schools
    • 2. Use different pictures or a different book and P–QARs you have created . Have students look at the pictures or read the book and complete the activity sheet in groups or in pairs.3. Make sure that students understand how to complete the activity sheet. After reading each question, students will first need to determine the question type. Then, after examining the picture, they can record their answers to the question. In the third column, students will need to explain how they arrived at their answers. You might work through a few questions together as a class to make sure that students are comfortable with the directions.4. Upon completion, gather students together to go over the activity sheet. Make sure students are actively involved in the discussion, particularly if they have disagreements about the categorization of or answers to certain questions. Encourage students to explain their rationales and work together to come to a consensus.5. Ask students to reflect on the usefulness of this questioning strategy, and if they can see themselves using pictures more often to help them better understand a story and answer comprehension questions. You might have them complete a written journal reflection for assessment purposes.Extensions • Have students use the Comic Creator (http://www.readwritethink.org/materials/comic/index.html) to make wordless stories. When they are finished, have them question and answer each other in pairs about the stories they created. Make sure that they use the P-QAR question types. • Have students create and draw their own stories based on the concept in Zoom. Have them use the P-QAR strategy to ask each other questions about the story illustrations and then answer the questions.Student Assessment/Reflections • Note how successful students were at brainstorming and answering each of the four question types in Session 1. For example, some students may be comfortable with Right There questions, but may have difficulty with the other question types. • Ask students to write journal reflections explaining whether they find this strategy to be useful or not. Have students explain their rationales. • Use the completed P–QARs activity sheets and the class discussion at the end of Session 2 to assess each students ability to: a. Determine the type of question–answer relationship b. Answer questions by looking at pictures c. Explain how they arrived at the answers to questions You may want to review the question types that seem to give students the most difficulty.Adapted from ReadWriteThinkRestoring America’s Memory: 76 Nat Turner Instructional UnitA Renaissance of Teacher Knowledge Savannah-Chatham County Public Schools
    • Purpose and Meaning of the  Picture–Question–Answer Relationship (P–QAR) Types Right There   These questions ask students to state what they see in the  picture. Right There questions do not require students to  make inferences, draw conclusions, or make judgments.  These questions are appropriate to use at the beginning of  the lesson to help get students oriented to the book.  Artist and You   These questions ask students to make inferences about  what they think is happening in a picture. Students are   encouraged to explain how they came to their  conclusions. Unlike Right There questions, the answers to  Artist and You cannot be found by looking at the picture.  Students should use the picture and their own prior   knowledge of the topic to reach a conclusion.  On My Own   These questions ask students to make inferences about a  picture based solely on their own knowledge base.    Answers to these questions cannot be found in the  pictures. Students do not even need to look at the picture  in order to answer this type of question. However,  studentsʹ conclusions should still be logical.  Putting It  These questions require students to think about what they Together   have seen in pictures on previous pages, as well as the one  they are currently viewing. Students are encouraged to   draw conclusions based on what they have noticed across  all the illustrations.     Copyright 2006 IRA/NCTE. All rights reserved. ReadWriteThink.org materials may be reproduced for educational purposes.  Restoring America’s Memory: 77 Nat Turner Instructional UnitA Renaissance of Teacher Knowledge Savannah-Chatham County Public Schools
    •   TEACHERʹS GUIDE TO THE Types of  P–QAR Types Questions for P‐QARS  1 What do you think this is a picture of? Artist and You What do you see in the picture? Right There 2 How does this picture connect to the picture before it? Putting it Together 3 Where is the rooster? Artist and You Where do you think the children are? Artist and You 4 Where are you looking at the children from? On My Own Why are the children smaller? On My Own What is around the barn? Right There 5 Why do the kids look even smaller? On My Own What else do you see in the picture? Right There 6 Why can you see even more buildings? On My Own What do you see in the upper-left and upper-right corners? Right There 7 Somebody can move the houses and animals by hand. Why? Artist and You What do you think the girl is doing? Right There 8 Why is there writing at the top of the picture? Artist and You Why do the girl and the toys look smaller? Artist and You 9 Look at the top right corner. What do you see? Right There Where are the girl and the toys now? Right There 10 What is the boy doing? Right There Where is the boy? Artist and You 11 Why do the boy and the book look smaller? On My Own What are the people in the picture doing? Right There 12 Why does the boy look even smaller? On My Own Where are the people in the picture? Right There 13 Why do they look smaller? On My Own 14 Where do you think the ship is? Artist and Me 15 Where is the ship now? Right There 16 Where is the bus? Right There Why does the ship look smaller? On My Own 17 Where is the bus? Artist and You There is something on the bottom left of the picture. What do you Artist and You think it is?Restoring America’s Memory: 78 Nat Turner Instructional UnitA Renaissance of Teacher Knowledge Savannah-Chatham County Public Schools
    • TEACHERʹS GUIDE TO THE Types of  P–QAR Types Questions for P‐QARS What do you think the thing on the bottom left of the last picture is Right There now?18 Where is the cowboy watching TV? Artist and You Why is the downtown scene becoming smaller? On My Own19 Where is the cowboy? Right There Where is the desert located? Right There20 What do you think is around the edges of the picture? Artist and You Where is the cowboy now and why is he even smaller? Right There21 Who is the mail for and where does it come from? Right There Who is holding the mail? Artist and You How do you know that the people are from a tribe? Artist and You22 Who do you think the man is in the middle? Right There Why does the stamp on the mail look even smaller? On My Own How does the postman come to deliver the mail? Right There23 Where do you think the people live? Artist and You Why do the shore and the postmans boat become smaller? On My Own24 There is something else on the left side of the picture. What do you Artist and You think it is?25 Who do you see in the picture? Right There26 Where do the people in the tribe live? Right There Where is the plane going? Artist and You27 What else do you see besides the island and the plane? Right There Why are the island and the plane becoming even smaller? On My Own Why do you not see the island at all? On My Own28 Why is the plane becoming smaller? On My Own What do you see? Artist and You29 Why do you not see the plane in the picture? On My Own30 What do you see? Right There What do you see? Right There31 Why is it now a spot? On My Own What have you seen in the story and how is each picture connected? Putting It Together Copyright 2006 IRA/NCTE. All rights reserved. ReadWriteThink materials may be reproduced for educational purposes Restoring America’s Memory: 79 Nat Turner Instructional Unit A Renaissance of Teacher Knowledge Savannah-Chatham County Public Schools
    • Restoring America’s Memory: 80 80 Nat Turner Instructional Unit Nat Turner Instructional UnitA Renaissance of Teacher Knowledge Savannah-Chatham County Public Schools Savannah-Chatham County Public Schools
    • Restoring America’s Memory: 81 Nat Turner Instructional UnitA Renaissance of Teacher Knowledge Savannah-Chatham County Public Schools
    • Teaching With Documents: The Amistad Case". . . each of them are natives of Africa and were born free, and ever sincehave been and still of right are and ought to be free and not slaves . . ."S. Staples, R. Baldwin, and T. Sedgewick, Proctors for the Amistad Africans,January 7, 1840BackgroundIn February of 1839, Portuguese slave hunters abducted a large group of Africans from Sierra Leone andshipped them to Havana, Cuba, a center for the slave trade. This abduction violated all of the treaties then inexistence. Fifty-three Africans were purchased by two Spanish planters and put aboard the Cuban schoonerAmistad for shipment to a Caribbean plantation. On July 1, 1839, the Africans seized the ship, killed thecaptain and the cook, and ordered the planters to sail to Africa. On August 24, 1839, the Amistad was seizedoff Long Island, NY, by the U.S. brig Washington. The planters were freed and the Africans wereimprisoned in New Haven, CT, on charges of murder. Although the murder charges were dismissed, theAfricans continued to be held in confinement as the focus of the case turned to salvage claims and propertyrights. President Van Buren was in favor of extraditing the Africans to Cuba. However, abolitionists in theNorth opposed extradition and raised money to defend the Africans. Claims to the Africans by the planters,the government of Spain, and the captain of the brig led the case to trial in the Federal District Court inConnecticut. The court ruled that the case fell within Federal jurisdiction and that the claims to the Africansas property were not legitimate because they were illegally held as slaves. The case went to the SupremeCourt in January 1841, and former President John Quincy Adams argued the defendants case. Adamsdefended the right of the accused to fight to regain their freedom. The Supreme Court decided in favor ofthe Africans, and 35 of them were returned to their homeland. The others died at sea or in prison whileawaiting trial.Cross-curricular ConnectionsShare these exercises with your history, government, language arts, and drama colleagues.Teaching Activities1. Review with students the meanings of the following terms: schooner, brig, writ of habeas corpus, proctor, and libel. Terms are defined in the text of the online headnotes.2. Divide students into five groups. Print out the featured documents and the Written Document Analysis Worksheet (below), and provide one document and a copy of the worksheet for each group. Ask each group to analyze their document. Using the jigsaw method, regroup the students to share the information. Lead the class in oral responses to the worksheet questions, and discuss how the documents relate to one another.3. Ask students to complete a chart similar to the one below comparing the individuals involved in the Amistad case. Documents #1 and #2 provide adequate information to compare Thomas R. Gedney and the Africans. Additional research will provide information on President Van Buren, the Spanish Government, the Abolitionists, and the Spanish planters.Comparison ChartWho?Africans Gedney Van Buren The Spanish Government Abolitionists Spanish Planters What role didthey play in the trial? (defendants) (financial & moral support for Africans) What was their motivation?(economic gain) (political gain) What were their arguments? (property rights) What was the basis fortheir arguments? (Pinckneys Treaty)4. Ask students to write an article for an 1841 newspaper describing the decision of the Supreme Court in the Amistad case. Encourage them to research the provisions of the Congressional Act of March 19,Restoring America’s Memory: 82 Nat Turner Instructional UnitA Renaissance of Teacher Knowledge Savannah-Chatham County Public Schools
    • 1819, for background information. To insure that students recognize the differences in sectional reactions to the case, assign students particular newspapers, some in the North and some in the South.5. Encourage students to write a review of the Amistad movie, comparing the film version to the actual events as described in the documents. Ask for student volunteers to share their reviews with the class. Lead a class discussion about the value of preserving the historical integrity of the story and the value of changing that story for a screenplay.6. Following analysis of the documents, divide students into groups of five. Instruct student groups to write and stage a one-act play about the events and personalities involved in the case. The acts might focus on the formation of the Amistad Committee by abolitionists Lewis Tappan, Joshua Levitt, and Symeon Jocelyn; the decision by John Quincy Adams to represent the Africans; the challenges of securing translators for the Africans; and Van Burens concerns about the election of 1840. Encourage students to quote directly from the documents. Schedule a media specialist to videotape the final productions.7. Ask student volunteers to research and make an oral presentation to the class comparing the Amistad case to other significant incidents related to slavery prior to the Civil War, including Nat Turners rebellion (1831), the Creole revolt (1841), and the Dred Scott decision (1857). Use the following questions to prompt comparisons: To what extent did these incidents involve violence? What were their outcomes? How did they influence sectional differences?For Further Reading:Jones, Howard. Mutiny on the Amistad: The Saga of a Slave Revolt and its Impact on American Abolition,Law, and Diplomacy. New York: Oxford University Press, 1987.The Legal Information Institute at Cornell University has created a web site devoted to the legal issuessurrounding the Amistad case.Restoring America’s Memory: 83 Nat Turner Instructional UnitA Renaissance of Teacher Knowledge Savannah-Chatham County Public Schools
    • Written Document Analysis Worksheet1. TYPE OF DOCUMENT (Check one): ___ Newspaper ___ Map ___ Advertisement ___ Letter ___ Telegram ___ Congressional record ___ Patent ___ Press release ___ Census report ___ Memorandum ___ Report ___ Other2. UNIQUE PHYSICAL QUALITIES OF THE DOCUMENT (Check one or more): ___ Interesting letterhead ___ Notations ___ Handwritten ___ "RECEIVED" stamp ___ Typed ___ Other ___ Seals3. DATE(S) OF DOCUMENT: ___________________________________________________________________________4. AUTHOR (OR CREATOR) OF THE DOCUMENT: ___________________________________________________________________________ POSITION (TITLE): ___________________________________________________________________________5. FOR WHAT AUDIENCE WAS THE DOCUMENT WRITTEN? ___________________________________________________________________________6. DOCUMENT INFORMATION (There are many possible ways to answer A-E.) A. List three things the author said that you think are important: ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ B. Why do you think this document was written? ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ C. What evidence in the document helps you know why it was written? Quote from the document. ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ D. List two things the document tells you about life in the United States at the time it was written: ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ E. Write a question to the author that is left unanswered by the document: ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ Designed and developed by the Education Staff, National Archives and Records Administration, Washington, DC 20408Restoring America’s Memory: 84 Nat Turner Instructional UnitA Renaissance of Teacher Knowledge Savannah-Chatham County Public Schools
    • "Slave Ship Interior," Library of Congress.Restoring America’s Memory: 85 Nat Turner Instructional UnitA Renaissance of Teacher Knowledge Savannah-Chatham County Public Schools