RBG BLAKADEMICS                                                              January , 2010          Black Nationalist, Pa...
RBG BLAKADEMICS                                                                        January , 2010Link to companion vid...
RBG BLAKADEMICS                                                                   January , 2010City his ideas attracted p...
RBG BLAKADEMICS                                                                           January , 2010       Marcus Garv...
RBG BLAKADEMICS                                                                       January , 2010Lesson 7: Never keep t...
RBG BLAKADEMICS                                                                      January , 2010MAXIMS OF MARCUS GARVEY...
RBG BLAKADEMICS                                                                      January , 201012.There is always a tu...
RBG BLAKADEMICS                                                               January , 2010The RED, BLACK and GREEN FLAG ...
RBG BLAKADEMICS                                                         January , 2010                                    ...
RBG BLAKADEMICS                                                          January , 2010                                   ...
RBG BLAKADEMICS                                                       January , 2010                              IMAGES B...
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Lessons from The Honorable Marcus Mosiah Garvey

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Lessons from The Honorable Marcus Mosiah Garvey

  1. 1. RBG BLAKADEMICS January , 2010 Black Nationalist, Pan-Africanist and the Father of Contemporary Black NationalismThe Honorable Marcus Mosiah Garvey Play Hon. Marcus Garvey —Look for Me in the Whirl WindBlack nationalism originated in the1850s. While the origins of themovement are most commonlyassociated with Marcus GarveysUniversal Negro ImprovementAssociation (UNIA) of the 1920s,Garvey was preceded and influencedby Martin Delany, Henry Sylvestre-Williams, Dr. Robert Love and EdwardWilmot Blyden. Even though thefuture of Africa is seen as beingcentral to Black nationalist ambitions, some adherents to Black nationalism are intent onthe eventual creation of a separate black nation by Africans in American.See: A Brief History of Black Nationalism and RBGs Current AcademicContribution 1
  2. 2. RBG BLAKADEMICS January , 2010Link to companion video documentaryTHE MARCUS GARVEY STORY, NARRATED BY OSSIE DAVIS BiographyBorn in St. Anns Bay, Jamaica, on August 17, 1887, Marcus Garvey was the youngest of 11children. Garvey moved to Kingston at the age of 14, found work in a printshop, and becameacquainted with the abysmal living conditions of the laboring class. He quickly involved himselfin social reform, participating in the first Printers Union strike in Jamaica in 1907 and in settingup the newspaper The Watchman. Leaving the island to earn money to finance his projects, hevisited Central and South America, amassing evidence that black people everywhere werevictims of discrimination. He visited the Panama Canal Zone and saw the conditions underwhich the West Indians lived and worked. He went to Ecuador, Nicaragua, Honduras, Colombiaand Venezuala. Everywhere, blacks were experiencing great hardships.Garvey returned to Jamaica distressed at the situation in Central America, and appealed toJamaicas colonial government to help improve the plight of West Indian workers in CentralAmerica. His appeal fell on deaf ears. Garvey also began to lay the groundwork of the UniversalNegro Improvement Association, to which he was to devote his life. Undaunted by lack ofenthusiasm for his plans, Garvey left for England in 1912 in search of additional financialbacking. While there, he met a Sudanese-Egyptian journalist, Duse Mohammed Ali. Whileworking for Alis publication African Times and Oriental Review, Garvey began to study thehistory of Africa, particularly, the exploitation of black peoples by colonial powers. He readBooker T. Washingtons Up From Slavery, which advocated black self-help.In 1914 Garvey organized the Universal Negro Improvement Association and its coordinatingbody, the African Communities League. In 1920 the organization held its first convention in NewYork. The convention opened with a parade down Harlems Lenox Avenue. That evening,before a crowd of 25,000, Garvey outlined his plan to build an African nation-state. In New York 2
  3. 3. RBG BLAKADEMICS January , 2010City his ideas attracted popular support, and thousands enrolled in the UNIA. He beganpublishing the newspaper The Negro World and toured the United States preaching blacknationalism to popular audiences. His efforts were successful, and soon, the associationboasted over 1,100 branches in more than 40 countries. Most of these branches were located inthe United States, which had become the UNIAs base of operations. There were, however,offices in several Caribbean countries, Cuba having the most. Branches also existed in placessuch as Panama, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Venezuela, Ghana, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Namibia andSouth Africa. He also launched some ambitious business ventures, notably the Black StarShipping Line.In the years following the organizations first convention, the UNIA began to decline inpopularity. With the Black Star Line in serious financial difficulties, Garvey promoted two newbusiness organizations — the African Communities League and the Negro FactoriesCorporation. He also tried to salvage his colonization scheme by sending a delegation to appealto the League of Nations for transfer to the UNIA of the African colonies taken from Germanyduring World War I.Financial betrayal by trusted aides and a host of legal entanglements (based on charges that hehad used the U.S. mail to defraud prospective investors) eventually led to Garveysimprisonment in Atlanta Federal Penitentiary for a five-year term. In 1927 his half-servedsentence was commuted, and he was deported to Jamaica by order of President CalvinCoolidge.Garvey then turned his energies to Jamaican politics, campaigning on a platform of self-government, minimum wage laws, and land and judicial reform. He was soundly defeated at thepolls, however, because most of his followers did not have the necessary voting qualifications.In 1935 Garvey left for England where, in near obscurity, he died on June 10, 1940, in acottage in West Kensington. 3
  4. 4. RBG BLAKADEMICS January , 2010 Marcus Garvey’s lessons in learning It is quite clear that African people in America continue to be miseducated. This problem is discussed in a variety of ways in conversations everyday in our communities throughout America. From time to time we should consult the wisdom of those who have addressed this problem whom we may have forgotten. One such person who addressed this problem is the Honorable Marcus Mosiah Garvey, when he presented his formula for learning in his courses on African Philosophy in the 1930s. I think it is only appropriate to review Mr. Garvey’s formula for learning as we continue to build the Reparations Movement andseek specific guideposts to our development as a people.These lessons and guideposts in learning can be found in Marcus Garvey, Message to thePeople, The Course of African Philosophy, edited by Dr. Tony Martin.Lesson 1: One must never stop reading. Read everything that you can read, that is of standardknowledge. Don’t waste time reading trashy literature. The idea is that personal experience isnot enough for a human to get all the useful knowledge of life, because the individual life it tooshort, so we must feed on the experience of others.Lesson 2: Read history incessantly until you master it. This means your own national history,the history of the world, social history, industrial history, and the history of the different sciences;but primarily, the history of man. If you do not know what went on before you came here andwhat is happening at the time you live, but away from you, you will not know the world and willbe ignorant of the world and mankind.Lesson 3: To be able to read intelligently, you must first be able to master the language of yourcountry. To do this, you must be well acquainted with its grammar and the science of it. Peoplejudge you by your writing and your speech. If you write badly and incorrectly they becomeprejudiced towards your intelligence, and if you speak badly and incorrectly, those who hear youbecome disgusted and will not pay much attention to you, but in their hearts laugh after you.Lesson 4: A leader who is to teach men and present any fact of truth to man must first betaught in his subject.Lesson 5: Never write or speak on a subject you know nothing about, for there is alwayssomebody who knows that particular subject to laugh at you or to ask you embarrassingquestions that may make others laugh at you.Lesson 6: You should read four hours a day. The best time to read is in the evening after youhave retired from your work and after you have rested and before sleeping hours, but do sobefore morning, so that during your sleeping hours what you read may become subconscious,that is to say, planted in your memory. 4
  5. 5. RBG BLAKADEMICS January , 2010Lesson 7: Never keep the constant company of anybody who doesn’t know as much as you or(is) as educated as you, and from whom you cannot learn something from or reciprocate yourlearning.Lesson 8: Continue always in the application of the things you desire educationally, culturally,or otherwise, and never give up until you reach your objective.Lesson 9: Try never to repeat yourself in any one discourse in saying the same thing over andover again except when you are making new points, because repetition is tiresome and itannoys those who hear the repetition.Lesson 10: Knowledge is power. When you know a thing and can hold your ground on thatthing and win over your opponents on that thing, those who hear you learn to have confidencein you and will trust your ability.Lesson 11: In reading books written by white authors, of whatever kind, be aware of the factthat they are not written for your particular benefit of your race. They always write from their ownpoint of view and only in the interest of their own race.Garvey had many other lessons of learning, in his formula that journalistic constraints will notallow me to elaborate at this time. However, I encourage you to read Marcus Garvey, Messageto the People, The Course of African Philosophy, and as we celebrate begin to internalize andincorporate these “Lessons In Learning.” 5
  6. 6. RBG BLAKADEMICS January , 2010MAXIMS OF MARCUS GARVEY1. There is nothing in the world common to man, that man cannot do.2.The ends you serve that are selfish will take you no further than yourself; but the ends youserve that are for all, in common, will take you even into eternity.3. Education is the medium by which a people are prepared for the creation of their ownparticular civilization, and the advancement and glory of their own race.4. The masses make the nation and the race. If the masses are illiterate, that is the judgmentpassed on the race by those who are critical of its existence.5. Every student of Political Science, every student of Economics knows that the race can onlybe saved through a solid industrial foundation. That the race can only be saved through politicalindependence. Take away industry from a race; take away political freedom from a race, andyou have a group of slaves.6. Be as proud of your race today as our fathers were in days of yore. We have beautiful history,and we shall create another in the future that will astonish the world7. So many of us find excuses to get out of the Negro Race, because we are led to believe thatthe race is unworthy—that it has not accomplished anything. Cowards that we are! It is we whoare unworthy, because we are not contributing to the uplift and upbuilding of this noble race.8. For over three hundred years the white man has been our oppressor, and he naturally is notgoing to liberate us to the higher freedom—the truer liberty—the truer Democracy. We have toliberate ourselves.9. Let us prepare TODAY. For the TOMORROWS in the lives of the nations will be so eventfulthat Negroes everywhere will be called upon to play their part in the survival of the fittest humangroup.10. The evolutionary scale that weights nations and races, balances alike for peoples; hence wefeel sure that some day the balance will register a change for the Negro.11. The world ought to know that it could not keep 400,000,000 Negroes down forever. 6
  7. 7. RBG BLAKADEMICS January , 201012.There is always a turning point in the destiny of every race, every nation, of all peoples, andwe have come now to the turning point of Negro, where we have changed from the old cringingweakling, and transformed into full-grown men, demanding our portion as MEN.13. A race without authority and power is a race without respect.14. The only protection against injustice in man is power—physical, financial and scientific.15. Men who are in earnest are not afraid of consequences.16. Change has never yet satisfied the hope of a suffering people.17. Action, self-reliance, the vision of self and the future have been the only means by which theoppressed have seen and realized the light of their own freedom.18. Any sane man, race or nation that desires freedom must first of all think in terms of blood.Why even the Heavenly Father tells us that "without the shedding of blood there can be noremission of sins." Then how in the name of God, with history before us, do we expect toredeem Africa without preparing ourselves—some of us to die.19. LEADERSHIP means everything—PAIN, BLOOD, DEATH.20. Let Africa be our guiding Star—OUR STAR OF DESTINY.21. How dare anyone tell us that Africa cannot be redeemed, when we have 400,000,000 menand women with warm blood coursing through their veins? The power that holds Africa is notdivine.22. The power that holds Africa is human, and it is recognized that whatsoever man has done,man can do.23. All of us may not live to see the higher accomplishment of an African Empire—so strong andpowerful, as to compel the respect of mankind, but we in our life-time can so work and act as tomake the dream a possibility within another generation.24. Wake up Ethiopia! Wake up Africa! Let us work towards the one glorious end of a free,redeemed and mighty nation. Let Africa be a bright star among the constellation of nations.25. No one knows when the hour of Africas Redemption cometh. It is in the wind. It is coming.One day, like a storm, it will be here. When that day comes all Africa will stand together.Reference: Marcus Garvey Edited by E. David Cronon.(He quotes from Philosophy and Opinions of Marcus Garvey, vol. II by Amy Jacques Garvey,Editor. 7
  8. 8. RBG BLAKADEMICS January , 2010The RED, BLACK and GREEN FLAG was unveiled to the world by the Honorable MarcusMosiah Garvey and the members of the Universal Negro Improvement Association andAfrican Communities League, of the World at its first international convention on August13, 1920. The UNIA-ACL knew that Africans at home and abroad needed there own flagas other flags around the world could notrepresent the collective of African people.The use of Red, Black and Green as colorssymbolizing African nationhood was first"adopted by the UNIA-ACL as part of the 1920Declaration of Rights as the official colors of theAfrican race. The question of a flag for the racewas not as trivial as might have appeared on thesurface, for in the United States especially, thelack of an African symbol of nationhood seemsto have been cause for crude derision on thepart of whites and a source of sensitivity on thepart of Afro-Americans. White derision over thisdeficiency was summed up in a popularAmerican song, "Every Race Has a Flag But theCoon." A 1912 report apearing in the AfricaTimes and Orient Review (for which Marcus Garvey worked) documented the far-reaching consequences of this song. In 1921 he declared,Show me the race or the nation without a flag, and I will show you a race of peoplewithout any pride. Aye! In song and mimicry they have said, "Every race has a flag butthe coon." How true! Aye! But that was said of us four years ago. They cant say itnow....2The race catechism Garveyites used explained the significance of the red, black, andgreen as for the "color of the blood which men must shed for their redemption andliberty", black for "the color of the noble and distinguished race to which we belong," andgreen for "the luxuriant vegetation of our Motherland."3A flag must represent the standard by which its people live. Thus, the Universal AfricanFlag, the 52nd Article of the Declaration of Rights of the Negro Peoples of the Worldwas ratified in convention.There has been a great deal of talk and controversy over the origin, creation and use ofthe Red, Black and Green. The UNIA hopes that this controversy can be clarified onceand for all. 8
  9. 9. RBG BLAKADEMICS January , 2010 There was no Red, Black and Green Flag prior to the coming of the Honorable Marcus Garvey and the founding of the UNIA. Today there are many African Nations that have adopted the colors Red, Black and Green after the great Marcus Garvey and his program of African Redemption. Any one claiming the creation of the Red, Black and Green is historically incorrect. The UNIA organization will make every attempt to clear up any misunderstandings about the matter concerning the Red, Black and Green. Further confusion can be misleading to the masses of Blacks throughout the country and the world. The following paragraph is the official historical creation and usage of the Red, Black and Green: Notice to the General Public The UNIA in 1920 in international convention adopted the Red, Black and Green as its official colors and emblem of the Black people of the world. This flag hasbeen flown upside down contrary to the intention of Marcus Garvey and the UNIA who gave it to the world. It is unlawful, disrespecful and traitorous for any individual or group to add any other colors to the Red, Black and Green for anyother purpose. Individuals or groups doing so are not true nationalist, and should not be recognized as such. 9
  10. 10. RBG BLAKADEMICS January , 2010 Respect and honor your flag as it stands...a Universal banner for African People. 1) RACE FIRST: The Ideological and Organizational Struggles of Marcus Garvey and the Universal Negro Improvement Association 2) Negro World, March 19, 1927 (reprint of a 1921 speech) 3) Universal Black Men Catechism (n.p., n.d.) p.37 4) Garveys Voice, July 1974Sources/ further study link out to:UNIA Ode to The FlagUNIA Pledge to The FlagThe Offical Website of the UNIA and ACL andThe Marcus Garvey and UNIA Papers Project at UCLA 10
  11. 11. RBG BLAKADEMICS January , 2010 IMAGES BELOW FROM: RBG NALT (New Afrikan Leadership Training) Center 11
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