During the hippie movement started in
the 1960’s, 250,000 anti-war protestors
gathered in Washington D.C. It was the
largest protest to occur during the
Vietnam war. Many Americans were
against the war in Vietnam mainly
because 48,700 American soldiers died
including 4 Students. They did not like
the idea that America got involved in the
The Radical Left Turns Vietnam Sour
Opposition to the war grew with increased U.S. involvement.
students, member of traditional pacifist religious groups, long-time peace activists, and
citizens of all ages opposed the conflict. Some were motivated by fear of being
drafted, others out of commitment, some just joined the crowd, and a small minority
became revolutionaries who favored a victory by Ho Chi Minh and a radical restructuring
of U.S. society. College campuses became focal points for rallies and “teach-ins”—
lengthy series of speeches attacking the war. Marches on Washington began in 1971.
Suspecting that the peace movement was infiltrated by Communists, President Johnson
ordered the FBI to investigate and the CIA to conduct an illegal domestic infiltration, but
they proved only that the radicalism was homegrown. Although the antiwar movement
was frequently associated with the young, support for the war was actually highest in the
age group 20-29. The effectiveness of the movement is still debated. It clearly boosted
North Vietnamese morale; Hanoi watched it closely and believed that ultimately
America’s spirit would fall victim to attrition, but the Communists were prepared to resist
indefinitely anyway. The movement probably played a role in convincing Lyndon
Johnson not to run for reelection in 1968, and an even larger role in the subsequent
victory of Richard Nixon over the Democrat Hubert Humphrey. It may ultimately have
helped set the parameters for the conflict and prevented an even wider war. Certainly its
presence was an indication of the increasingly divisive effects of war on U.S. society.
“Hanoi Jane” Fonda
Fonda, aka Hanoi Jane,
tours North Vietnam,
during which she is
2004 Presidential candidate- “Swift
photographed sitting on
boat” John Kerry
a North Vietnamese
Salk and the Solution
Poliomyelitis has sometimes been considered a
disease of developed nations, where improved
hygiene has reduced the chances of contact with the
virus during infancy and hence also reduced the
protection provided by maternal antibodies to the
disease, but in fact poliomyelitis’ worldwide rates of
occurrence show no selectivity. The World Health
Organization is conducting an ongoing immunization
program against poliomyelitis and other common
States, development by Jonas Salk (injection) and
Albert Sabin (oral) in the 1950s of a vaccine for all
three strains of poliovirus brought about a dramatic
reduction in the incidence of the disease. In the
1980s, concern was aroused when long-term
survivors of the disease began reporting various
pain, fatigue, respiratory problems, and sometimes
an increasing loss of muscle strength (postpolio
Post-polio syndrome is
apparently related to a destabilizing of overburdened
motor neurons. Treatment for this condition includes
physical and occupational therapy.
Rock & Roll
Rock and roll has been described as a merger of country music and rhythm and
blues, but, if it were that simple, it would have existed long before it burst into the
national consciousness. The seeds of the music had been in place for decades, but
they flowered in the mid-1950’s when nourished by a volatile mix of black culture and
white spending power. Black vocal groups such as the Dominoes and the Spaniels
began combining gospel-style harmonies and call-and-response singing with earthy
subject matter and more aggressive rhythm-and-blues rhythms. Heralding this new
sound were disc jockeys such as Alan Freed of Cleveland, OH, Dewey Phillips of
Memphis, TN, and William (“Hoss”) Allen of WLAC in Nashville, TN—who created rockand-roll radio by playing hard-driving rhythm and blues and raunchy blues records that
introduced white suburban teenagers to a culture that sounded more
exotic, thrilling, and illicit than anything they had ever known. In 1954, that sound
coalesced around an image; that of a handsome white singer, Elvis Presley, who
sounded like a black man.
The Beatles’ triumphant arrival in New York City on 7 Feb 1964, opened America’s
doors to a wealth of British musical talent. What followed would be called—with
historical condescension by the willingly reconquered colony—the second British
Invasion. Like their transatlantic counterparts in the 1950’s, British youth heard their
future in the frantic beats and suggestive lyrics of American rock and roll. But initial
attempts to replicate it failed. Rock swept Britain. By 1964, Greater London could
claim the Rolling Stones, the
Rock & Roll (cont’d)
Yardbirds, the Who, the Kinks, the Pretty Things, Dusty Springfield, the Dave Clark
Five, Peter and Gordon, Chad and Jeremy, and Manfred Mann. Manchester had
the Hollies, Wayne Fontana and the Mindbenders, Freddie and the Dreamers, and
Herman’s Hermits, Newcastle had the Animals. And Birmingham had the Spencer
Davis Group (featuring Steve Winwood) and the Moody Blues. Bands sprang up
from Belfast (Them, with Van Morrison) to St. Albans (the Zombies), with more
inventive artists arriving to keep the styles moving forward, including the Small
Faces, the Move, the Creation, the Troggs, Donovan, the Walker Brothers, and
The Hippie Counterculture
“Make love, not war,” for which they were sometimes called “flower children” became
their mantra. They promoted openness and tolerance as an alternative to the
restrictions and regimentation they saw in middle-class society. Hippies often practiced
open sexual relationships and lived in various types of family groups (communes).
They commonly sought spiritual guidance from sources outside the Judeo-Christian
tradition, particularly Buddhism and other Eastern religions, and sometimes in various
combinations. Astrology was popular, and the period was often referred to as the Age
of Aquarius. Hippies promoted the recreational use of hallucinogenic drugs, particularly
marijuana and LSD (lysergic acid diethylamide), in so-called head trips, justifying the
practice as a way of expanding consciousness.
Both folk and rock music were an integral part of hippie culture. Singers such as Bob
Dylan and Joan Baez and groups such as the Beatles, Grateful Dead, Jefferson
Airplane, and Rolling Stones were among those clearly identified with the movement.
The musical “Hair,” a celebration of the hippie lifestyle, opened on Broadway in
1968, and the film Easy Rider, which reflected hippie values and aesthetics, appeared
in 1969. The novelist Ken Kesey was one of the best-known literary spokesmen for the
movement, but he became equally famous for the bus tours he made with a group
called the Merry Pranksters.
Students for a Democratic
Jeff Jones (above) of the Apollo
Alliance authored President Obama’s
2009 $787 billion stimulus bill and the
Obamacare healthcare bill. It was in
Bill Ayers’ (left) living room in Chicago
(a neighbor down the street) that
President Obama launched his political
SDS, founded in 1959, had its origins in the
student branch of the League for Industrial
Democracy, a social-democratic educational
organization. An organizational meeting was held
in Ann Arbor, Mich., in 1960, and Robert Alan
Haber was elected president of SDS. Operating
under the principles of the “Port Huron
Statement,” a manifesto written by Tom Hayden
and Haber and issued in 1962, the organization
grew slowly until the escalation of U.S.
involvement in Vietnam (1965). SDS organized a
national march on Washington, D.C., in April
1965, and, from about that period, SDS grew
increasingly militant, especially about issues
relating to the war, such as the drafting of
students. Tactics included the occupation of
university and college administration buildings on
campuses across the country. By 1969 the
organization had split into several factions, the
most notorious of which was the “Weathermen,”
or “Weather Underground,” which employed
terrorist tactics in its activities.
I Am Woman
author of the
The National Organization for Women (NOW), an American activist
organization (founded 1966) that promotes equal rights for women, was
established by a small group of feminists who were dedicated to actively
challenging sex discrimination in all areas of American society but particularly
in employment. The organization is composed of both men and women, and
in the late 20th century, it had some 250,000 members.
Among the issues that NOW addresses by means of lobbying and litigation
are child care, pregnancy leave, and abortion and pension rights. Its major
concern during the 1970’s was passage of a national Equal Rights
Amendment to the Constitution; the amendment failed to gain ratification in
1982. NOW has also campaigned for such issues as passage of state equal
rights amendments and comparable-worth legislation (equal pay for work of
comparable value) and has met with greater success on the state level.
The Majority of Women—
Antifeminists such as Phyllis Schlafly organized a crusade against the Equal Rights
Amendment (ERA), warning that it would, among other things, invalidate state sodomy
laws, outlaw single sex bathrooms in public places, legalize same-sex marriage, and
make taxpayer-funded abortion a constitutional right. Needing 38 states to ratify within
10 years of its passage by Congress, the amendment fell three states short.
By the 1990s, a movement that was once defined by its radical pitch had taken on new
tones—some of them conservative. The divide over abortion continued to alienate many
women, such as the Feminists for Life, who believed fervently in women's rights but
disagreed with the mainstream movement's position on abortion. That divide deepened
when, in 1998, Norma McCorvey, the plaintiff in Roe v. Wade, declared her opposition to
abortion on demand.
Eventually, a backlash cast doubt on many of the social and economic achievements
fostered by the women's movement. Faced with increasing numbers of single mothers
and older divorced women living in poverty, many Americans began to wonder whether
no-fault divorce and the end of most alimony had, in fact, served women's best interests.
With a growing number of young children spending their early years in institutional day
The Majority of Women—Conservative
debates erupted over whether women were abdicating their maternal
responsibilities and whether federal policies that gave tax breaks to working
mothers were encouraging a further deterioration of the family unit. Feminists were
further targeted as the primary culprits behind the many by-products of the sexual
revolution, from the increased rate of teen pregnancy to the spread of AIDS.
Phyllis Schlafly and
me at the 9/11 2009
TN Eagle Forum
César Estrada Chavez was the organizer of the migrant American farm workers and
founder of the National Farm Workers Association (NFWA) in 1962. Chavez, who
was a farm laborer himself, grew up in a migrant farm-labor family of Mexican
American descent. He lived in a succession of migrant camps and attended school
sporadically. After two years in the U.S. Navy during World War II, Chavez returned
to migrant farm work in Arizona and California. In 1966, the NFWA merged with an
American Federation of Labor-Congress of Industrial Organizations (AFL-CIO) group
to form the United Farm Workers of America (UFW). In recognition of his nonviolent
activism and support of working people, Chavez was awarded the Presidential Medal
of Freedom posthumously in 1994. His wife, Helen, accepted the award.
The American Indian Movement (AIM) was a militant American Indian civil rights
organization founded in Minneapolis, MN, in 1968 by Dennis Banks, Clyde Vernon
Bellecourt, Eddie Benton Banai, and George Mitchell. Later, Russell Means became
a prominent spokesman for the group. Its original purpose was to help Indians in
urban ghettos who had been displaced by government programs that had the effect
of forcing them from the reservations. Its goals eventually encompassed the entire
spectrum of Indian demands—economic independence, revitalization of traditional
culture, protection of legal rights, and most especially, autonomy over tribal areas and
the restoration of lands that they believed had been illegally seized.
César is signing an important agreement while many union
supporters watch with reporters from radio stations and
Flag of the American Indian
La Raza Unida
The La Raza Unida Party (RUP) started with
simultaneous efforts throughout the U.S. Southwest.
The most widely known and accepted story is that
the La Raza Unida Party was established on January
17, 1970 at a meeting of 300 Mexican-Americans in
Crystal City, Texas by José Ángel Gutiérrez and
Mario Compean, who had also helped in the
foundation of the Mexican American Youth
Organization (MAYO) in 1967.
Mario Compean at a house meeting in
Uvalde, Texas when he was running
for Governor in 1978 under the
banner of La Raza Unida Party
The goals of the Raza Movement (RUP) are
constantly changing and adjusting. It is a racially bias
movement promoting greater economic, social, and
political self-determination to Mexican Americans.
Over the years it has supported several issues
including bilingual education, women's and workers'
rights (presumably Latinos), prosecution of industrial
polluters (presumably NOT Latinos), new modes of
transportation, improved funding of public education
(bi-lingual), better medical care, and solutions to
urban problems. Like every political movement they
have their radical fringe ..... a few radicals want to
see the American southwest ceded back to Mexico.
The Black Panther Party
The Black Panther party was a militant organization of blacks founded in
Oakland, Calif., in 1966 by Huey P. Newton and Bobby G. Seale. Panther leaders called
upon blacks to arm themselves for a struggle against their oppressors and collected
small arsenals. At the same time the party provided free breakfasts, financed by
donations from local merchants and wealthy sympathizers, for children in some ghetto
Several armed clashes with the police occurred. Huey Newton was found guilty of killing
an Oakland policeman in 1967, but the conviction was reversed on appeal. He was
charged with murder in a street brawl in 1974 and fled to Cuba. Seale and other Panther
leaders were accused of torturing and murdering a former Panther whom they suspected
of being a police informer, but the jury failed to reach a verdict. Another leader, Eldridge
Cleaver, fled abroad to avoid imprisonment for parole violation; he later
returned, abandoned radicalism, and became a proselytizer for Christianity.
The Panthers lost a leader in 1969 when Chicago police made an early-morning raid on a
Panther residence and killed Fred Hampton in his bed. The movement declined after
quarrels among its leaders increased and as black radicalism waned in the 1970s. Two
former Black Panthers were implicated in the Brink's robbery incident in New York in
Politics of Protest Concept
Form of culture
1950’s and 60’s Culture Quiz
Who were the doctors that developed the polio vaccine?
Name one of the rock and roll groups that emerged in the 1950’s and 60’s.
Name one of the various aspects that defined the hippie counterculture.
The feminist movement had two differing viewpoints. Name a leader of one side.
Hispanics and American Indians were making strides in recognition. Name a leader of either
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