Millions of immigrants moved to the
United States in the late 1800’s &
Give Me Your Poor
The plaque on the
Statue of Liberty
contains the poem by
New Colossus, 1883
Employers in the West and Southwest had never found it necessary or desirable to
recruit laborers as immigrants. Instead, they relied upon alien workers from Asian
countries, who were made ineligible for citizenship under U.S. naturalization
laws, and, increasingly, upon sojourner migrants from Mexico, whose muscle was
wanted but who were not welcome as members of American society. Prejudice
against Asians was so strong that in 1882 Congress passed the first of Chinese
Exclusion Acts preventing the importation of Chinese laborers. However, the system
of sojourner Mexican workers, some of whom came lawfully and others illegally, was
permitted to continue. During World War I, this was formalized in the first of a series
of temporary-worker programs through which workers were imported to do hard
agricultural labor with the understanding that they would be sent back to Mexico
when the work was finished.
Immigrants, on the other hand, were encouraged to participate in American
institutions By 1917 (when a literacy test for immigrants was enacted), though, most
Americans were convinced that there were too many immigrants.
• Once immigrants arrived in the U.S., they
went through immigration stations, such
as Ellis Island in New York Harbor and
Angel Island in San Francisco, California.
Government workers questioned them
about where they planned to work & live.
Doctors also examined them to make sure
they didn’t have any diseases. Almost all
European immigrants were allowed to
enter the U.S.
New immigrants arriving at Ellis Island. At Ellis they will
be "processed" before they are allowed to continue their
journey to find a new home.
Laws Against Immigration
• 1882 Congress passed Chinese Exclusion Act
• Almost all Chinese immigrants were kept
out of America
• 1921 & 1924 Congress passed laws that
lowered the number of Europeans &
• All immigrants faced prejudice upon
Immigrants helped the U.S. become one of
the richest and fastest-growing countries in
the world. They built railroads, dug
mines, and worked in factories.
We’re Spreading Out
Despite widespread public recognition of worsening urban housing problems and frequent
calls for reform, only after the War between the States were government efforts
undertaken to improve housing conditions. In 1867, the New York state legislature
enacted the first tenement-housing legislation, which regulated the construction of
railroad flats by establishing minimum construction standards. The continued influx of
immigrants, however, resulted in the proliferation of overcrowded tenements and
deplorable health conditions. Attempts to improve housing were spurred by the writings
of such reformers as Jacob Riis and Lawrence Veiller in the 1890’s, as well as by the first
federal report on housing conditions, issued in 1894. Nevertheless, it was not until 1901
that a law permitting enforcement of housing standards was enacted. The landmark New
York City “New Law” required building permits and inspections, prescribed penalties for
noncompliance, and created a permanent city housing department. Subsequently, the
New Law was copied in other U.S. cities and provided an impetus for housing legislation at
the state level in the early 1900’s. By 1930, many state and local governments also had
adopted city planning, zoning, and subdivision regulations to guide the development and
location of new residential areas.
Immigration and Urban Graphic
Urban Immigration Quiz
1. Give an example of immigration legislation.
2. Name the two principle immigration stations on the two
3. What jobs did immigrants do upon arrival?
4. Tenements became a large urban problem for most East
Coast large cities. What photographer shed light upon
this embarrassing aspect of urban life?
5. What New York City law was enacted to develop housing
codes and copied in most American cities by the 1930s?
Socialism- is economic system characterised
by social ownership and cooperative
management of the means of production, and a
political philosophy advocating such a system.
A. Ancient philosophies
B. Modern origins
1. French revolution- 1789
2. British Industrial Revolution
Early Figures in the Origins of Socialism
A. François Noel (“Gracchus”) Babeuf
1. Minor figure in the French Revolution
2. A precursor of modern communism
3. First advocate of the abolition of private property
B. Louis Auguste Blanqui
1. Advocate of workers revolution
2. Positions adopted by V.I. Lenin and Bolsheviks
C. Claude Henri de Rouvroy, comte de Saint-Simon
1. Postulated the theory of “Evolutionary Organicism”
2. Influenced August Comte, Karl Marx, Herbert Spencer, Thomas
Carlyle, and John Stuart Mill
Socialist Aspects- Origins (cont’d)
D. François Marie Charles Fourier
1. French social theorist whose vision of the ideal society centered on the
phalanstery, a small cooperative agricultural community
2. Communities founded in Red Bank, N.J., and at Brook Farm in
E. Etienne Cabet
1. French socialist who founded a utopian community in the United States
2. Influenced by the utopian ideas of Robert Owen
F. Robert Owen
1. Welsh industrialist and social reformer who had a strong influence on 19th
century utopian socialism
2. Believed that human character would be greatly improved in a cooperative
society rather than in the traditional family
3. Influential in the passage of the Factory Act of 1819
4. Became involved in trade unionism
Socialism: The Crisis of 1848 and
Despite all the socialist enthusiasm in Europe during the 19th century, no nation adopted
the political/economic system. Socialist parties were in the minority but were regarded as
a serious threat by both government and capitalists. The year 1848 was a critical point in
socialist history. A series of revolts broke out against European monarchies, beginning in
Sicily and spreading to France, Germany, and the Austrian Empire. The revolts failed, and
all liberals and socialists were disillusioned by this failure. From 1848, socialism made no
great gains until the Russian Revolution.
Socialism itself persisted in a variety of national political parties. In the early years of the
20th century, socialism became a powerful parliamentary force throughout Europe, and it
was this force that would eventually undermine revolutionary socialism everywhere.
Governments—seeing the threat proposed by socialists, Communists, and anarchists—
began to adopt programs of social reform that would in time create welfare states
throughout Europe and in North America. In a few decades, this legislation would mount
an incalculable debt on these governments.
Socialism, however, did persist. After 1848, the year in which Karl Marx and Friedrich
Engels published their Communist Manifesto, the movement came to be dominated by
Marx. In 1864, the International Working Men’s Association was formed to unite socialist
groups in all countries and to create a feeling of solidarity among workers everywhere.
Socialism: The Crisis of 1848 and
Although Marx was not one of the organizers, he soon became the leader of the
association. This organization, usually remembered as the First International, dissolved
in 1876 because of internal dissension. The Second International was founded in 1889.
Its purpose was to build a united class feeling among workers and to use this solidarity to
prevent war. If hostilities threatened, the workers might prevent the struggle by refusing
to serve as soldiers.
Today’s Little Red Hen
Once upon a time, there was a little red hen who scratched about the barnyard until she
uncovered some grains of wheat. She called her neighbors and said, “If we plant this
wheat, we shall have bread to eat. Who will help me plant it?”
“Not I,” said the cow.
“Not I,” said the duck.
“Not I,” said the pig.
“Not I,” said the goose.
“Then I will,” said the little red hen, and she did. The wheat grew tall and ripened into
golden grain. “Who will help me reap my wheat?” asked the little red hen.
“Not I,” said the duck.
“Out of my classification,” said the pig.
“I’d lose my seniority,” said the cow.
“I’d lose my unemployment compensation,” said the goose.
“Then I will,” said the little red hen, and she did.
At last, it came time to bake the bread. “Who will help me bake the bread?” asked the
little red hen.
“That would be overtime for me,” said the cow.
“I’d lose my welfare benefits, said the duck.
“I’m a dropout and never learned how,” said the pig.
“If I’m the only helper, then that’s discrimination,” said the goose.
Today’s Little Red Hen (cont’d)
“Then I will,” said the little red hen. She baked the five loaves and held them up for her
neighbors to see.
They all wanted some—in fact, demanded a fair share. But the little red hen said, “No, I
can eat the five loaves myself.”
“Excess profits!” yelled the cow.
“Capitalist leech!” cried the duck.
“I demand equal rights!” shouted the goose.
The pig just grunted. Then they hurriedly painted “UNFAIR” picket signs and marched
around, shouting obscenities.
The government agent came and said to the little red hen, “You must not be greedy.”
“But I earned the bread,” said the little red hen.
“Exactly,” said the agent, “that is the wonderful free enterprise system. Anyone in the
barnyard can earn as much as he wants. But, under government regulation, the
productive workers must divide their product and earnings with the lazy, idle ones.”
And they lived happily ever after. But the little red hen’s neighbors wondered why she
never baked bread again!
In 1848, Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, two young socialists, published the pamphlet
titled Manifesto of the Communist Party. They called it “communist,” rather than
“socialist,” to disassociate themselves from utopian socialists with whom they disagreed.
The Manifesto stated that the basis of Communism was historical materialism: the belief
that the course of history is determined primarily by the operation of economic forces.
All history, so Marx declared, could be explained in terms of class struggles between
ruling groups and the oppressed. This pattern, he believed, enabled him to predict the
long-range future. Capitalism (private enterprise) must, he said, inevitably give way to
socialism. This would come about through a struggle between the proletariat, the class
of modern wage earners, and the bourgeoisie, who owned the factories and machines.
The Manifesto defines Communism as the abolition of private property. It ends with a
call for the forcible overthrow of all existing social institutions. “Let the ruling classes
tremble at a Communist revolution. The proletarians have nothing to lose but heir
chains. They have a world to win. Workingmen of all countries, unite!”
The first authentic Communist party was organized in 1864 as the International Working
Men’s Association (now more commonly called the First International). Violent
controversies among its different factions soon split industrialized nations, but World War
I destroyed it. Each Socialist party rejected socialist unity. The Third International was
founded by V.I. Lenin after the war.
The Economic Theory of Karl Marx
Karl Marx developed an economic theory based on his analysis of history. The following
outlines the stages of history envisioned by Marx.
1. History is shaped by economic forces—the way that goods are produced and
2. A class struggle exists between the “haves” and the “have nots.” In modern industrial
society, the bourgeoisie, or middle class capitalists, exploit the proletariat, or wage
3. The class that holds economic power also controls the government for its own
4. The middle class begins to shrink, as shopkeepers and owners of small businesses are
ruined by competition with powerful capitalists. The working class grows larger until
society is composed of a few rich people and the proletarian masses.
5. Made desperate by their poverty, workers seize control of the government and the
means of production, destroying the capitalist system and the ruling class. Through
violent revolution, the workers create a “dictatorship of the proletariat.”
6. Under the new Communist system, property and the means of production are owned by
the people, and all goods and services are shared equally.
Communism: A Failed
The term communism is generally applied to the Marxist-Leninist political and
socioeconomic doctrines that guided the USSR until its disintegration in 1991 and that were
shared by governments and political parties in Eastern Europe, China, and elsewhere. The
term also denotes the centralized political system of China and of the former USSR and its
satellites in Eastern Europe. This system, associated with the collective ownership of the
means of production, central economic planning, and rule by a single political party, was
discredited almost everywhere outside China, North Korea, and Vietnam as a result of its
collapse in Europe and the USSR. What remains is its Marxist ideology, shorn of its Leninist-and,
Communism is an outgrowth of 19th-century socialism. It became a distinct movement
after the Russian Revolutions of 1917, when a group of revolutionary socialists seized
power and adopted the name Communist party of the USSR. Mongolia became a
Communist state in 1921. After World War II other Communist states were established in
Germany, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Romania, Bulgaria, Yugoslavia, and Albania, and in the
Asian countries of China and North Korea. Communist regimes were subsequently
established in Cuba, in the Southeast Asian countries of Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia, and
Communism: A Failed Economy
For 15 or more years pro-Soviet revolutionary governments ruled South Yemen and
several African states, notably Angola, Mozambique, and Ethiopia. In the Western
Hemisphere the leftist Sandinista regime (1979-90) in Nicaragua was under substantial
Totalitarianism is a form of government in which all societal resources are monopolized by
the state (socialism) in an effort to penetrate and control all aspects of public and private
life. This control is facilitated by propaganda and by advances in technology.
Both in theory and practice, totalitarianism is of relatively recent origin. First used to
describe the organizational principles of the National Socialist (Nazi) party in Germany, the
term gained currency in political analysis after World War II. Older concepts, such as
dictatorship and despotism, were deemed inadequate by Western social scientists to
Totalitarian regimes are characterized by distinctive types of ideology and organization.
Totalitarian ideologies reject existing society as corrupt, immoral, and beyond
reform, project an alternative society in which these wrongs are to be redressed, and
provide plans and programs for realizing the alternative order. These ideologies, supported
by propaganda campaigns, demand total conformity on the part of the people.
Liberty Bell, Philadelphia
An increase in popular participation in government has often come about because the
ruling group sees political advantage in it. For example, when Cleisthenes created Athenian
democracy about 510 BC, he was apparently packing the assembly with new voters. In the
United States several major expansions of the electorate occurred for similar reasons:
Jeffersonian Republicans eliminated property qualifications to win the votes of the very
poor; Republicans passed (1870) the 15th Amendment (on black voting) to win blacks'
votes in southern and border states; progressive reformers from both parties in the early
20th century pushed for women's suffrage, expecting that women, more frequently than
men, would support humanitarian causes such as temperance; and Republicans and
Democrats vied with each other in the 1950s and '60s to promote black voting in the South
in order to win black votes. Not every expansion of the electorate is so consciously selfserving, however. In colonial America, participation widened almost by accident. Most
colonies initially adopted the traditional English property qualification for voting: the 40shilling freehold. This represented an income that was very high in late medieval times and
still fairly high in the 17th century. By 1776, inflation and prosperity had enabled the vast
majority of adult males to qualify as electors. In the 20th century some countries, such as
Turkey and India, have greatly expanded their electorates as an incidental consequence of
the decision to adopt democratic forms.
Socialism Frayer Model
1. Give one revolutionary and one utopian socialist leader.
2. What is the difference between utopian and revolutionary
3. When did socialism start to affect society? What
4. The goal of communism was a classless, property-less,
society. What were the two classes that Karl Marx said
would be in warfare?
Socialism in America
• Progressive socialists subverted constitutions
and charters of local and state governments
by allowing people to introduce bills
(initiative). A referendum is a vote on that
initiative. They looked at constitutions as a
“living document” and not as a document to
guide a government which was difficult to
• A Progressive reform, the Seventeenth
Amendment supposedly put more power into
the people’s hands. It allowed for the direct
election of US Senators. Before, state
legislators would choose and could recall
them if they were voting for unsupportable
legislation. Now we have to wait until the
next election to replace them.
• Progressives wanted big business out of
• Political machines controlled the political
parties and were progressives.
• One infamous Democratic political machine
was the Tammany Hall Ring of NYC. Starting
with William Marcy “Boss” Tweed in the
New York’s Political Machine- the Tammany Hall with
Richard "Boss" Croker in the 1890s
• Political machines manipulated
people. They provided jobs to
immigrants and other services for a
• Another Progressive reform, the Sixteenth
Amendment allowed for a graduated income
tax which means the rich pay a higher
percentage than poor people. Presently about
half of all Americans pay no income tax and
have no stake in America. Progressives use
class warfare to divide America.
A Large Progressive Idea- The
Progressive Income Tax
Progressive Political Machine and
Reforms Concept Map
Socialism in America
Progressive Political Machine and
1. Give a characteristic of progressive political
2. Name one of the political machine bosses in
New York City.
3. Name a piece of legislation passed with
4. How did progressives get around
• Progressivism is posed as a socialist agenda
series of reform movements through
methods, and evolution during the late 1800
and early 1900s.
Progressives sought the following:
Reform of the government
Suffrage for women
Better working conditions
More government regulation
All through the federal government
• Progressives wanted big business out of
politics and saw themselves as elites to run
the government and make the decisions for
the lower masses.
• Progressives wanted more popular
sovereignty and muddled the difference
between socialism and democracy.
• Women fought
to ban alcohol
• They did this
Carrie Nation with her hatchet that she
would destroy saloons
• Women would go to saloons and start
singing church hymns.
It proved to be a dismal failure
• Later in 1920, they would be government
because the federal successful with
the 18th Amendment which banned the sale
attempted to regulate human
or production of alcohol.
“Ain’t Gonna Drink No More”
Prohibition was the result of decades of effort by liberal Progressive citizen groups such
as the Women’s Temperance Union and the Anti-Saloon League. Congress approved
the Eighteenth Amendment in 1917 when Wilson’s war effort was perpetrating a sense
of high moral purpose through his Progressive propaganda. The amendment was
ratified by two-thirds of the states in 1919.
The Eighteenth Amendment proved to be difficult to enforce. Many people either
violated the law or refused to help with its enforcement because bootlegging was
Criminal gangs organized to control the flow of “bootleg” whiskey and were as well
organized as the law-enforcement agencies. Violence, including murder, was their
method of maintaining discipline in the ranks. Between 1920 and 1929, more than 500
gang-style killings took place in the city of Chicago alone. The best known criminal in
the prohibition era was Al Capone. He controlled the flow of whiskey into Chicago’s
Unions are distinctly national institutions that vary in structure and character from one
country to another. Even within a country each has its own peculiar history and its own
unique way of conducting its affairs. A noteworthy difference between U.S. trade unions
and their British counterparts is that U.S. unions achieved a political identity with the
Democratic Party and even clearly associated their individual interest as “working class.”
Whether this is attributable to the absence of a traditional guild legacy in the United
States, the greater degree of labor mobility compared to Britain, the negative impact of
early antitrust legislation (which extended to unions), or the dominance, as late as
1930, of agricultural employment, the fact is that in 1956, the peak year of U.S. union
membership, slightly less than 25% of all eligible workers were union members. The
largest union at the time was the American Federation of Labor- Congress of Industrial
These data reflect, on the one hand, an ambivalence on the part of workers about
aligning themselves with unions and, on the other, the unions’ less-than-sympathetic
public image. The numbers, however, belie the lobbying effectiveness that unions have
had, at least until the recent past, on social legislation. Legislative gains in such key areas
as minimum wages, safety regulations, and unemployment compensation are in no small
measure attributable to the success of labor’s powerful lobbying efforts in Washington
which is a large part of the dues paid by union memebers.
Progressive Agenda Graphic
Women’s Temperance Union
and the Anti-Saloon League
Progressive Agenda Quiz
What was the first large union?
What was the percentage peak of union membership in 1956?
What is one legislative bill that has been championed by unions?
What is one of the women’s group that led the way for Prohibition
legislation of the 18th Amendment?
Prohibition was a failure and what criminal profited from its failure?
The demand for the enfranchisement of American women was first seriously
formulated at the Seneca Falls Convention (1848). After the War between the
States, agitation by women for the ballot became increasingly vociferous. In
1869, however, a rift developed among feminists over the proposed 15th
Amendment, which gave the vote to black men. Susan B. Anthony, Elizabeth Cady
Stanton, and others refused to endorse the amendment because it did not give
women the ballot. Other suffragists, however, including Lucy Stone and Julia Ward
Howe, argued that once the black man was enfranchised, women would achieve
their goal. As a result of the conflict, two organizations emerged. Stanton and
Anthony formed the National Woman Suffrage Association to work for suffrage on
the federal level and to press for more extensive institutional changes, such as the
granting of property rights to married women. Stone created the American Woman
Suffrage Association, which aimed to secure the ballot through state legislation. In
1890, the two groups united under the name National American Woman Suffrage
Association (NAWSA). In the same year Wyoming entered the Union, it became the
first state with general women’s suffrage (which it had adopted as a territory in
• We hold these truths to be self evident
that all men and women are created
• Elizabeth Cady Stanton was the grandmother
of the movement
• Women all over the USA and Britain paraded
and protested for suffrage.
• Stanton and Susan B. Anthony fought for
Where was the enfranchisement of American women was first seriously
Name one of the leaders of the women’s suffrage movement.
Name the legislation that gave women the vote.
What was the first state to allow general women’s suffrage?
What major event allowed women to get the vote?
More Progressive Agenda
• Progressives got laws passed that
prohibited child labor.
• Progressives passed laws limiting hours
Henry Ford invented 8 Hour
day, 5 Day Work Week—Not
No industrialist enjoyed upsetting the apple cart more
Progressiveannounced that he would
than Henry Ford. In 1914 he
pay $5 a day to his workers, double the going rate.
With the extra cash, Ford reasoned, they could
purchase his Model Ts. The workers were becoming a
bulwark of the middle class.
• Ford's next act came in September 1926, when the
company announced the five-day workweek. As he
noted in his company's Ford News in October, "Just as
the eight-hour day opened our way to prosperity in
America, so the five-day workweek will open our way
to still greater prosperity ... It is high time to rid
ourselves of the notion that leisure for workmen is
either lost time or a class privilege." The five-day
week, he figured, would encourage industrial workers
to vacation and shop on Saturday. Before
The First Progressive President
• Theodore “Teddy” Roosevelt
• Teddy was the youngest president in history.
The Progressive President:
Segregation and Prejudice
Theodore Roosevelt was the first Progressive President of the United States. The elitism of
Progressives led to a false science called eugenics that tried to make the human race better
through the same methods a farmer uses on his livestock- selective
breeding, sterilization, and slaughter of inferior stock. He made the following quote on 3
Jan 1913 about the Negro race and the less desirable Caucasian and Mongoloid of the
“I am ‘greatly interested’ in the memoirs you have sent me. They are very instructive
. . . I agree with you . . . That society has no business to permit degenerates to
reproduce their kind . . . It is really extraordinary that our people refuse to apply to
human beings such elementary knowledge as every successful farmer is obliged to
apply to his own stock breeding. Any group of farmers who permitted their best
stock not to breed and let all the increase come from the worst stock, would be
treated as fit inmates for an asylum. Some day we will realize that the prime duty of
the good citizens of the right type is to leave his blood behind him in the world and
that we have no business to perpetuate citizens of the wrong type.”
From Theodore Roosevelt’s book, The Winning of the West-“The presence of the Negro is the real problem; slavery is merely the worst possible
method of solving the problem.
• Roosevelt read The Jungle
by the progressive socialist
author Upton Sinclair, a
muckraker who wrote
• This reading led to the
government regulation of
the Food and Drug Act
The Founders Intent
We are here
Rule of Law
National Socialism (Nazi)
French Revolution 1789
The Progressives and the Social
The Progressive Movement was drawn from the Populists who demanded
that people have greater role in government.
Among the problems exposed by muckrakers, critics of social and political
The Progressive Movement adopted the idea that government should protect the public’s
economic well-being and that the average citizen should have a more direct role in politics.
This was a mirage for the average citizen. These were communist-influenced politicians
who wanted to have more government control over the private sector which creates
“Mugwump Literature,” which appeared in the late 1800’s, fostered a desire for laws that
would make government more responsive to the needs of the people.
The excessive power of big business due to favoritism by government (corporate welfare)
Corruption in government
Street crime and poverty
They attempted to remedy social evils through legislation. They believed
that the federal government should act as a referee between big business
and ordinary people.
Progressive Agenda Concept
1 Progressive President
Actions & Examples
Ideas and Theories
More Progressive Agenda Quiz
1. Name one of the laws that progressives got
2. Who was the first progressive President?
3. What did Roosevelt feel was the real problem of
the human race was as an elitist?
4. What was the type of literature used to start
progressive legislation, e.g., The Jungle?
5. What were among the problems exposed by