Urban America
Chapter 20
1865-1920
Immigrants in
America
Millions of immigrants moved to the
United States in the late 1800’s &
early 1900’s.
Give Me Your Poor
Huddled Masses

The plaque on the
Statue of Liberty
contains the poem by
Emma Lazarus—The
New Colossus, ...
Population of Selected Cities in Great
Britain
Immigration Stations
• Once immigrants arrived in the U.S., they
went through immigration stations, such
as Ellis Island i...
New immigrants arriving at Ellis Island. At Ellis they will
be "processed" before they are allowed to continue their
journ...
Laws Against Immigration
• 1882 Congress passed Chinese Exclusion Act
• Almost all Chinese immigrants were kept
out of Ame...
Immigrants helped the U.S. become one of
the richest and fastest-growing countries in
the world. They built railroads, dug...
We’re Spreading Out
Despite widespread public recognition of worsening urban housing problems and frequent
calls for refor...
Immigration and Urban Graphic
Organizer

Immigration and
Urban Issues
Urban Immigration Quiz
1. Give an example of immigration legislation.
2. Name the two principle immigration stations on th...
Origins of Socialism
From Europe to America
Socialism- is economic system characterised
SocialistanAspects- Origins
by social ownership and cooperative
I.

II.

manag...
Socialist Aspects- Origins (cont’d)
D. François Marie Charles Fourier
1. French social theorist whose vision of the ideal ...
Socialism: The Crisis of 1848 and
Aftermath
Despite all the socialist enthusiasm in Europe during the 19th century, no nat...
Socialism: The Crisis of 1848 and
Aftermath (cont’d)
Although Marx was not one of the organizers, he soon became the leade...
Today’s Little Red Hen
Once upon a time, there was a little red hen who scratched about the barnyard until she
uncovered s...
Today’s Little Red Hen (cont’d)
“Then I will,” said the little red hen. She baked the five loaves and held them up for her...
Communist Manifesto
In 1848, Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, two young socialists, published the pamphlet
titled Manifesto...
The Economic Theory of Karl Marx
Karl Marx developed an economic theory based on his analysis of history. The following
ou...
Communism: A Failed
Economy

Fidel Castro

The term communism is generally applied to the Marxist-Leninist political and
s...
Communism: A Failed Economy
(cont’d)
For 15 or more years pro-Soviet revolutionary governments ruled South Yemen and
sever...
Totalitarianism: Totally
Wrong
Adolf Hitler

Totalitarianism is a form of government in which all societal resources are m...
Democracy and
Our Republic

Liberty Bell, Philadelphia

An increase in popular participation in government has often come ...
Socialism Frayer Model
Definition

Characteristics

Socialism
Examples

Non-examples
Socialism Quiz
1. Give one revolutionary and one utopian socialist leader.

2. What is the difference between utopian and ...
Progressivism
Socialism in America
Political Reforms?
Political Machines
Political reform
• Progressive socialists subverted constitutions
and charters of local and state governments
by allowing ...
Political reform
• A Progressive reform, the Seventeenth
Amendment supposedly put more power into
the people’s hands. It a...
Political reform
• Progressives wanted big business out of
politics.
• Political machines controlled the political
parties...
Political Reform
• One infamous Democratic political machine
was the Tammany Hall Ring of NYC. Starting
with William Marcy...
New York’s Political Machine- the Tammany Hall with
Richard "Boss" Croker in the 1890s
• Political machines manipulated
people. They provided jobs to
immigrants and other services for a
vote
Economic Reform
• Another Progressive reform, the Sixteenth
Amendment allowed for a graduated income
tax which means the r...
A Large Progressive Idea- The
Progressive Income Tax
Progressive Political Machine and
Reforms Concept Map
Origins
Examples
Types

Progressivism
Socialism in America

Characte...
Progressive Political Machine and
Reforms Quiz
1. Give a characteristic of progressive political
machines.
2. Name one of ...
The Progressive Movement
1890-1920
Progressivism
• Progressivism is posed as a socialist agenda
series of reform movements through
government
regulation,
sci...
Progressive goals
Progressives sought the following:
Temperance
Reform of the government
Suffrage for women
Better working...
Political Reforms
• Progressives wanted big business out of
politics and saw themselves as elites to run
the government an...
Temperance
Movement
• Women fought
to ban alcohol
in America.
• They did this
without the
vote!

Carrie Nation with her ha...
Temperance movement
• Women would go to saloons and start
singing church hymns.
Temperance movement
It proved to be a dismal failure
• Later in 1920, they would be government
because the federal success...
“Ain’t Gonna Drink No More”
•

•

•

Prohibition was the result of decades of effort by liberal Progressive citizen groups...
U.S. Labor
Movement
Unions are distinctly national institutions that vary in structure and character from one
country to a...
Progressive Agenda Graphic
Progressive Goals
Organizer 1
Temperance Movement
Women’s Temperance Union
and the Anti-Saloon ...
Progressive Agenda Quiz
1.

What was the first large union?

2.

What was the percentage peak of union membership in 1956?...
Suffragette
The demand for the enfranchisement of American women was first seriously
formulated at the Seneca Falls Conven...
Suffragettes
• We hold these truths to be self evident
that all men and women are created
equal.
Suffragettes
• Elizabeth Cady Stanton was the grandmother
of the movement
• Women all over the USA and Britain paraded
and protested for suffrage.
Women’s suffrage
• Stanton and Susan B. Anthony fought for
women’s rights.
Men that
were against
Women’s
Suffrage
• WWI helped women get the vote
because they worked so hard during
WWI.
Political Reforms
• Suffrage movements for women gained
momentum resulted in the 19th Amendment
Beginning

Women’s Suffrage Concept
Map
Actions & Examples

Women’s
Suffrage

Leaders
Suffragette Quiz
1.

Where was the enfranchisement of American women was first seriously
formulated?

2.

Name one of the ...
More Progressive Agenda
• Progressives got laws passed that
prohibited child labor.
• Progressives passed laws limiting hours
women worked.
•

Henry Ford invented 8 Hour
day, 5 Day Work Week—Not
No industrialist enjoyed upsetting the apple cart more
Progressivea...
• Progressives passed laws requiring
workplace safety.
• Workplace safety.
The First Progressive President
• Theodore “Teddy” Roosevelt
• Teddy was the youngest president in history.
The Progressive President:
Segregation and Prejudice
Theodore Roosevelt was the first Progressive President of the United ...
Trust
busting
• Roosevelt read The Jungle
by the progressive socialist
author Upton Sinclair, a
muckraker who wrote
“Mugwump Literature....
The Founders Intent
Woodrow Wilson
We are here

Rule of Law
Constitution

Equal Justice
Communism

1791
m

Nationalsoziali...
The Progressives and the Social
Remedy
1.

The Progressive Movement was drawn from the Populists who demanded
that people ...
Progressive Agenda Concept
1 Progressive President
Actions & Examples
Map
st

Progressive
Agenda

Ideas and Theories
More Progressive Agenda Quiz
1. Name one of the laws that progressives got
passed.
2. Who was the first progressive Presid...
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  1. 1. Urban America Chapter 20 1865-1920
  2. 2. Immigrants in America Millions of immigrants moved to the United States in the late 1800’s & early 1900’s.
  3. 3. Give Me Your Poor Huddled Masses The plaque on the Statue of Liberty contains the poem by Emma Lazarus—The New Colossus, 1883 Employers in the West and Southwest had never found it necessary or desirable to recruit laborers as immigrants. Instead, they relied upon alien workers from Asian countries, who were made ineligible for citizenship under U.S. naturalization laws, and, increasingly, upon sojourner migrants from Mexico, whose muscle was wanted but who were not welcome as members of American society. Prejudice against Asians was so strong that in 1882 Congress passed the first of Chinese Exclusion Acts preventing the importation of Chinese laborers. However, the system of sojourner Mexican workers, some of whom came lawfully and others illegally, was permitted to continue. During World War I, this was formalized in the first of a series of temporary-worker programs through which workers were imported to do hard agricultural labor with the understanding that they would be sent back to Mexico when the work was finished. Immigrants, on the other hand, were encouraged to participate in American institutions By 1917 (when a literacy test for immigrants was enacted), though, most Americans were convinced that there were too many immigrants.
  4. 4. Population of Selected Cities in Great Britain
  5. 5. Immigration Stations • Once immigrants arrived in the U.S., they went through immigration stations, such as Ellis Island in New York Harbor and Angel Island in San Francisco, California. Government workers questioned them about where they planned to work & live. Doctors also examined them to make sure they didn’t have any diseases. Almost all European immigrants were allowed to enter the U.S.
  6. 6. New immigrants arriving at Ellis Island. At Ellis they will be "processed" before they are allowed to continue their journey to find a new home.
  7. 7. Laws Against Immigration • 1882 Congress passed Chinese Exclusion Act • Almost all Chinese immigrants were kept out of America • 1921 & 1924 Congress passed laws that lowered the number of Europeans & Asians • All immigrants faced prejudice upon arrival
  8. 8. Immigrants helped the U.S. become one of the richest and fastest-growing countries in the world. They built railroads, dug mines, and worked in factories.
  9. 9. We’re Spreading Out Despite widespread public recognition of worsening urban housing problems and frequent calls for reform, only after the War between the States were government efforts undertaken to improve housing conditions. In 1867, the New York state legislature enacted the first tenement-housing legislation, which regulated the construction of railroad flats by establishing minimum construction standards. The continued influx of immigrants, however, resulted in the proliferation of overcrowded tenements and deplorable health conditions. Attempts to improve housing were spurred by the writings of such reformers as Jacob Riis and Lawrence Veiller in the 1890’s, as well as by the first federal report on housing conditions, issued in 1894. Nevertheless, it was not until 1901 that a law permitting enforcement of housing standards was enacted. The landmark New York City “New Law” required building permits and inspections, prescribed penalties for noncompliance, and created a permanent city housing department. Subsequently, the New Law was copied in other U.S. cities and provided an impetus for housing legislation at the state level in the early 1900’s. By 1930, many state and local governments also had adopted city planning, zoning, and subdivision regulations to guide the development and location of new residential areas.
  10. 10. Immigration and Urban Graphic Organizer Immigration and Urban Issues
  11. 11. Urban Immigration Quiz 1. Give an example of immigration legislation. 2. Name the two principle immigration stations on the two coasts. 3. What jobs did immigrants do upon arrival? 4. Tenements became a large urban problem for most East Coast large cities. What photographer shed light upon this embarrassing aspect of urban life? 5. What New York City law was enacted to develop housing codes and copied in most American cities by the 1930s?
  12. 12. Origins of Socialism From Europe to America
  13. 13. Socialism- is economic system characterised SocialistanAspects- Origins by social ownership and cooperative I. II. management of the means of production, and a political philosophy advocating such a system. Introduction A. Ancient philosophies B. Modern origins 1. French revolution- 1789 2. British Industrial Revolution Early Figures in the Origins of Socialism A. François Noel (“Gracchus”) Babeuf 1. Minor figure in the French Revolution 2. A precursor of modern communism 3. First advocate of the abolition of private property B. Louis Auguste Blanqui 1. Advocate of workers revolution 2. Positions adopted by V.I. Lenin and Bolsheviks C. Claude Henri de Rouvroy, comte de Saint-Simon 1. Postulated the theory of “Evolutionary Organicism” 2. Influenced August Comte, Karl Marx, Herbert Spencer, Thomas Carlyle, and John Stuart Mill
  14. 14. Socialist Aspects- Origins (cont’d) D. François Marie Charles Fourier 1. French social theorist whose vision of the ideal society centered on the phalanstery, a small cooperative agricultural community 2. Communities founded in Red Bank, N.J., and at Brook Farm in Massachusetts (1841-46) E. Etienne Cabet 1. French socialist who founded a utopian community in the United States 2. Influenced by the utopian ideas of Robert Owen F. Robert Owen 1. Welsh industrialist and social reformer who had a strong influence on 19th century utopian socialism 2. Believed that human character would be greatly improved in a cooperative society rather than in the traditional family 3. Influential in the passage of the Factory Act of 1819 4. Became involved in trade unionism
  15. 15. Socialism: The Crisis of 1848 and Aftermath Despite all the socialist enthusiasm in Europe during the 19th century, no nation adopted the political/economic system. Socialist parties were in the minority but were regarded as a serious threat by both government and capitalists. The year 1848 was a critical point in socialist history. A series of revolts broke out against European monarchies, beginning in Sicily and spreading to France, Germany, and the Austrian Empire. The revolts failed, and all liberals and socialists were disillusioned by this failure. From 1848, socialism made no great gains until the Russian Revolution. Socialism itself persisted in a variety of national political parties. In the early years of the 20th century, socialism became a powerful parliamentary force throughout Europe, and it was this force that would eventually undermine revolutionary socialism everywhere. Governments—seeing the threat proposed by socialists, Communists, and anarchists— began to adopt programs of social reform that would in time create welfare states throughout Europe and in North America. In a few decades, this legislation would mount an incalculable debt on these governments. Socialism, however, did persist. After 1848, the year in which Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels published their Communist Manifesto, the movement came to be dominated by Marx. In 1864, the International Working Men’s Association was formed to unite socialist groups in all countries and to create a feeling of solidarity among workers everywhere.
  16. 16. Socialism: The Crisis of 1848 and Aftermath (cont’d) Although Marx was not one of the organizers, he soon became the leader of the association. This organization, usually remembered as the First International, dissolved in 1876 because of internal dissension. The Second International was founded in 1889. Its purpose was to build a united class feeling among workers and to use this solidarity to prevent war. If hostilities threatened, the workers might prevent the struggle by refusing to serve as soldiers.
  17. 17. Today’s Little Red Hen Once upon a time, there was a little red hen who scratched about the barnyard until she uncovered some grains of wheat. She called her neighbors and said, “If we plant this wheat, we shall have bread to eat. Who will help me plant it?” “Not I,” said the cow. “Not I,” said the duck. “Not I,” said the pig. “Not I,” said the goose. “Then I will,” said the little red hen, and she did. The wheat grew tall and ripened into golden grain. “Who will help me reap my wheat?” asked the little red hen. “Not I,” said the duck. “Out of my classification,” said the pig. “I’d lose my seniority,” said the cow. “I’d lose my unemployment compensation,” said the goose. “Then I will,” said the little red hen, and she did. At last, it came time to bake the bread. “Who will help me bake the bread?” asked the little red hen. “That would be overtime for me,” said the cow. “I’d lose my welfare benefits, said the duck. “I’m a dropout and never learned how,” said the pig. “If I’m the only helper, then that’s discrimination,” said the goose.
  18. 18. Today’s Little Red Hen (cont’d) “Then I will,” said the little red hen. She baked the five loaves and held them up for her neighbors to see. They all wanted some—in fact, demanded a fair share. But the little red hen said, “No, I can eat the five loaves myself.” “Excess profits!” yelled the cow. “Capitalist leech!” cried the duck. “I demand equal rights!” shouted the goose. The pig just grunted. Then they hurriedly painted “UNFAIR” picket signs and marched around, shouting obscenities. The government agent came and said to the little red hen, “You must not be greedy.” “But I earned the bread,” said the little red hen. “Exactly,” said the agent, “that is the wonderful free enterprise system. Anyone in the barnyard can earn as much as he wants. But, under government regulation, the productive workers must divide their product and earnings with the lazy, idle ones.” And they lived happily ever after. But the little red hen’s neighbors wondered why she never baked bread again!
  19. 19. Communist Manifesto In 1848, Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, two young socialists, published the pamphlet titled Manifesto of the Communist Party. They called it “communist,” rather than “socialist,” to disassociate themselves from utopian socialists with whom they disagreed. The Manifesto stated that the basis of Communism was historical materialism: the belief that the course of history is determined primarily by the operation of economic forces. All history, so Marx declared, could be explained in terms of class struggles between ruling groups and the oppressed. This pattern, he believed, enabled him to predict the long-range future. Capitalism (private enterprise) must, he said, inevitably give way to socialism. This would come about through a struggle between the proletariat, the class of modern wage earners, and the bourgeoisie, who owned the factories and machines. The Manifesto defines Communism as the abolition of private property. It ends with a call for the forcible overthrow of all existing social institutions. “Let the ruling classes tremble at a Communist revolution. The proletarians have nothing to lose but heir chains. They have a world to win. Workingmen of all countries, unite!” The first authentic Communist party was organized in 1864 as the International Working Men’s Association (now more commonly called the First International). Violent controversies among its different factions soon split industrialized nations, but World War I destroyed it. Each Socialist party rejected socialist unity. The Third International was founded by V.I. Lenin after the war.
  20. 20. The Economic Theory of Karl Marx Karl Marx developed an economic theory based on his analysis of history. The following outlines the stages of history envisioned by Marx. 1. History is shaped by economic forces—the way that goods are produced and distributed. 2. A class struggle exists between the “haves” and the “have nots.” In modern industrial society, the bourgeoisie, or middle class capitalists, exploit the proletariat, or wage earning laborers. 3. The class that holds economic power also controls the government for its own advantage. 4. The middle class begins to shrink, as shopkeepers and owners of small businesses are ruined by competition with powerful capitalists. The working class grows larger until society is composed of a few rich people and the proletarian masses. 5. Made desperate by their poverty, workers seize control of the government and the means of production, destroying the capitalist system and the ruling class. Through violent revolution, the workers create a “dictatorship of the proletariat.” 6. Under the new Communist system, property and the means of production are owned by the people, and all goods and services are shared equally.
  21. 21. Communism: A Failed Economy Fidel Castro The term communism is generally applied to the Marxist-Leninist political and socioeconomic doctrines that guided the USSR until its disintegration in 1991 and that were shared by governments and political parties in Eastern Europe, China, and elsewhere. The term also denotes the centralized political system of China and of the former USSR and its satellites in Eastern Europe. This system, associated with the collective ownership of the means of production, central economic planning, and rule by a single political party, was discredited almost everywhere outside China, North Korea, and Vietnam as a result of its collapse in Europe and the USSR. What remains is its Marxist ideology, shorn of its Leninist-and, in China, much of its Maoist trappings. Communism is an outgrowth of 19th-century socialism. It became a distinct movement after the Russian Revolutions of 1917, when a group of revolutionary socialists seized power and adopted the name Communist party of the USSR. Mongolia became a Communist state in 1921. After World War II other Communist states were established in the Eastern European countries of Poland, East Germany, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Romania, Bulgaria, Yugoslavia, and Albania, and in the Asian countries of China and North Korea. Communist regimes were subsequently established in Cuba, in the Southeast Asian countries of Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia, and
  22. 22. Communism: A Failed Economy (cont’d) For 15 or more years pro-Soviet revolutionary governments ruled South Yemen and several African states, notably Angola, Mozambique, and Ethiopia. In the Western Hemisphere the leftist Sandinista regime (1979-90) in Nicaragua was under substantial Soviet and Cuban influence.
  23. 23. Totalitarianism: Totally Wrong Adolf Hitler Totalitarianism is a form of government in which all societal resources are monopolized by the state (socialism) in an effort to penetrate and control all aspects of public and private life. This control is facilitated by propaganda and by advances in technology. Both in theory and practice, totalitarianism is of relatively recent origin. First used to describe the organizational principles of the National Socialist (Nazi) party in Germany, the term gained currency in political analysis after World War II. Older concepts, such as dictatorship and despotism, were deemed inadequate by Western social scientists to describe this modern phenomenon. Totalitarian regimes are characterized by distinctive types of ideology and organization. Totalitarian ideologies reject existing society as corrupt, immoral, and beyond reform, project an alternative society in which these wrongs are to be redressed, and provide plans and programs for realizing the alternative order. These ideologies, supported by propaganda campaigns, demand total conformity on the part of the people.
  24. 24. Democracy and Our Republic Liberty Bell, Philadelphia An increase in popular participation in government has often come about because the ruling group sees political advantage in it. For example, when Cleisthenes created Athenian democracy about 510 BC, he was apparently packing the assembly with new voters. In the United States several major expansions of the electorate occurred for similar reasons: Jeffersonian Republicans eliminated property qualifications to win the votes of the very poor; Republicans passed (1870) the 15th Amendment (on black voting) to win blacks' votes in southern and border states; progressive reformers from both parties in the early 20th century pushed for women's suffrage, expecting that women, more frequently than men, would support humanitarian causes such as temperance; and Republicans and Democrats vied with each other in the 1950s and '60s to promote black voting in the South in order to win black votes. Not every expansion of the electorate is so consciously selfserving, however. In colonial America, participation widened almost by accident. Most colonies initially adopted the traditional English property qualification for voting: the 40shilling freehold. This represented an income that was very high in late medieval times and still fairly high in the 17th century. By 1776, inflation and prosperity had enabled the vast majority of adult males to qualify as electors. In the 20th century some countries, such as Turkey and India, have greatly expanded their electorates as an incidental consequence of the decision to adopt democratic forms.
  25. 25. Socialism Frayer Model Definition Characteristics Socialism Examples Non-examples
  26. 26. Socialism Quiz 1. Give one revolutionary and one utopian socialist leader. 2. What is the difference between utopian and revolutionary (communism) socialism? 3. When did socialism start to affect society? What activities? 4. The goal of communism was a classless, property-less, society. What were the two classes that Karl Marx said would be in warfare?
  27. 27. Progressivism Socialism in America Political Reforms? Political Machines
  28. 28. Political reform • Progressive socialists subverted constitutions and charters of local and state governments by allowing people to introduce bills (initiative). A referendum is a vote on that initiative. They looked at constitutions as a “living document” and not as a document to guide a government which was difficult to change.
  29. 29. Political reform • A Progressive reform, the Seventeenth Amendment supposedly put more power into the people’s hands. It allowed for the direct election of US Senators. Before, state legislators would choose and could recall them if they were voting for unsupportable legislation. Now we have to wait until the next election to replace them.
  30. 30. Political reform • Progressives wanted big business out of politics. • Political machines controlled the political parties and were progressives.
  31. 31. Political Reform • One infamous Democratic political machine was the Tammany Hall Ring of NYC. Starting with William Marcy “Boss” Tweed in the 1870s.
  32. 32. New York’s Political Machine- the Tammany Hall with Richard "Boss" Croker in the 1890s
  33. 33. • Political machines manipulated people. They provided jobs to immigrants and other services for a vote
  34. 34. Economic Reform • Another Progressive reform, the Sixteenth Amendment allowed for a graduated income tax which means the rich pay a higher percentage than poor people. Presently about half of all Americans pay no income tax and have no stake in America. Progressives use class warfare to divide America.
  35. 35. A Large Progressive Idea- The Progressive Income Tax
  36. 36. Progressive Political Machine and Reforms Concept Map Origins Examples Types Progressivism Socialism in America Characteristics
  37. 37. Progressive Political Machine and Reforms Quiz 1. Give a characteristic of progressive political machines. 2. Name one of the political machine bosses in New York City. 3. Name a piece of legislation passed with progressive support. 4. How did progressives get around
  38. 38. The Progressive Movement 1890-1920
  39. 39. Progressivism • Progressivism is posed as a socialist agenda series of reform movements through government regulation, scientific methods, and evolution during the late 1800 and early 1900s.
  40. 40. Progressive goals Progressives sought the following: Temperance Reform of the government Suffrage for women Better working conditions More government regulation Efficient industry Improving society All through the federal government
  41. 41. Political Reforms • Progressives wanted big business out of politics and saw themselves as elites to run the government and make the decisions for the lower masses. • Progressives wanted more popular sovereignty and muddled the difference between socialism and democracy.
  42. 42. Temperance Movement • Women fought to ban alcohol in America. • They did this without the vote! Carrie Nation with her hatchet that she would destroy saloons
  43. 43. Temperance movement • Women would go to saloons and start singing church hymns.
  44. 44. Temperance movement It proved to be a dismal failure • Later in 1920, they would be government because the federal successful with the 18th Amendment which banned the sale attempted to regulate human or production of alcohol. behavior
  45. 45. “Ain’t Gonna Drink No More” • • • Prohibition was the result of decades of effort by liberal Progressive citizen groups such as the Women’s Temperance Union and the Anti-Saloon League. Congress approved the Eighteenth Amendment in 1917 when Wilson’s war effort was perpetrating a sense of high moral purpose through his Progressive propaganda. The amendment was ratified by two-thirds of the states in 1919. The Eighteenth Amendment proved to be difficult to enforce. Many people either violated the law or refused to help with its enforcement because bootlegging was highly profitable. Criminal gangs organized to control the flow of “bootleg” whiskey and were as well organized as the law-enforcement agencies. Violence, including murder, was their method of maintaining discipline in the ranks. Between 1920 and 1929, more than 500 gang-style killings took place in the city of Chicago alone. The best known criminal in the prohibition era was Al Capone. He controlled the flow of whiskey into Chicago’s 10,000 speakeasies.
  46. 46. U.S. Labor Movement Unions are distinctly national institutions that vary in structure and character from one country to another. Even within a country each has its own peculiar history and its own unique way of conducting its affairs. A noteworthy difference between U.S. trade unions and their British counterparts is that U.S. unions achieved a political identity with the Democratic Party and even clearly associated their individual interest as “working class.” Whether this is attributable to the absence of a traditional guild legacy in the United States, the greater degree of labor mobility compared to Britain, the negative impact of early antitrust legislation (which extended to unions), or the dominance, as late as 1930, of agricultural employment, the fact is that in 1956, the peak year of U.S. union membership, slightly less than 25% of all eligible workers were union members. The largest union at the time was the American Federation of Labor- Congress of Industrial Organizations (AFL-CIO). These data reflect, on the one hand, an ambivalence on the part of workers about aligning themselves with unions and, on the other, the unions’ less-than-sympathetic public image. The numbers, however, belie the lobbying effectiveness that unions have had, at least until the recent past, on social legislation. Legislative gains in such key areas as minimum wages, safety regulations, and unemployment compensation are in no small measure attributable to the success of labor’s powerful lobbying efforts in Washington which is a large part of the dues paid by union memebers.
  47. 47. Progressive Agenda Graphic Progressive Goals Organizer 1 Temperance Movement Women’s Temperance Union and the Anti-Saloon League Examples Union Movement AFL-CIO Examples
  48. 48. Progressive Agenda Quiz 1. What was the first large union? 2. What was the percentage peak of union membership in 1956? 3. What is one legislative bill that has been championed by unions? 4. What is one of the women’s group that led the way for Prohibition legislation of the 18th Amendment? 5. Prohibition was a failure and what criminal profited from its failure?
  49. 49. Suffragette The demand for the enfranchisement of American women was first seriously formulated at the Seneca Falls Convention (1848). After the War between the States, agitation by women for the ballot became increasingly vociferous. In 1869, however, a rift developed among feminists over the proposed 15th Amendment, which gave the vote to black men. Susan B. Anthony, Elizabeth Cady Stanton, and others refused to endorse the amendment because it did not give women the ballot. Other suffragists, however, including Lucy Stone and Julia Ward Howe, argued that once the black man was enfranchised, women would achieve their goal. As a result of the conflict, two organizations emerged. Stanton and Anthony formed the National Woman Suffrage Association to work for suffrage on the federal level and to press for more extensive institutional changes, such as the granting of property rights to married women. Stone created the American Woman Suffrage Association, which aimed to secure the ballot through state legislation. In 1890, the two groups united under the name National American Woman Suffrage Association (NAWSA). In the same year Wyoming entered the Union, it became the first state with general women’s suffrage (which it had adopted as a territory in 1869).
  50. 50. Suffragettes • We hold these truths to be self evident that all men and women are created equal.
  51. 51. Suffragettes • Elizabeth Cady Stanton was the grandmother of the movement
  52. 52. • Women all over the USA and Britain paraded and protested for suffrage.
  53. 53. Women’s suffrage • Stanton and Susan B. Anthony fought for women’s rights.
  54. 54. Men that were against Women’s Suffrage
  55. 55. • WWI helped women get the vote because they worked so hard during WWI.
  56. 56. Political Reforms • Suffrage movements for women gained momentum resulted in the 19th Amendment
  57. 57. Beginning Women’s Suffrage Concept Map Actions & Examples Women’s Suffrage Leaders
  58. 58. Suffragette Quiz 1. Where was the enfranchisement of American women was first seriously formulated? 2. Name one of the leaders of the women’s suffrage movement. 3. Name the legislation that gave women the vote. 4. What was the first state to allow general women’s suffrage? 5. What major event allowed women to get the vote?
  59. 59. More Progressive Agenda • Progressives got laws passed that prohibited child labor.
  60. 60. • Progressives passed laws limiting hours women worked.
  61. 61. • Henry Ford invented 8 Hour day, 5 Day Work Week—Not No industrialist enjoyed upsetting the apple cart more Progressiveannounced that he would Unions than Henry Ford. In 1914 he pay $5 a day to his workers, double the going rate. With the extra cash, Ford reasoned, they could purchase his Model Ts. The workers were becoming a bulwark of the middle class. • Ford's next act came in September 1926, when the company announced the five-day workweek. As he noted in his company's Ford News in October, "Just as the eight-hour day opened our way to prosperity in America, so the five-day workweek will open our way to still greater prosperity ... It is high time to rid ourselves of the notion that leisure for workmen is either lost time or a class privilege." The five-day week, he figured, would encourage industrial workers to vacation and shop on Saturday. Before
  62. 62. • Progressives passed laws requiring workplace safety.
  63. 63. • Workplace safety.
  64. 64. The First Progressive President • Theodore “Teddy” Roosevelt
  65. 65. • Teddy was the youngest president in history.
  66. 66. The Progressive President: Segregation and Prejudice Theodore Roosevelt was the first Progressive President of the United States. The elitism of Progressives led to a false science called eugenics that tried to make the human race better through the same methods a farmer uses on his livestock- selective breeding, sterilization, and slaughter of inferior stock. He made the following quote on 3 Jan 1913 about the Negro race and the less desirable Caucasian and Mongoloid of the time: “I am ‘greatly interested’ in the memoirs you have sent me. They are very instructive . . . I agree with you . . . That society has no business to permit degenerates to reproduce their kind . . . It is really extraordinary that our people refuse to apply to human beings such elementary knowledge as every successful farmer is obliged to apply to his own stock breeding. Any group of farmers who permitted their best stock not to breed and let all the increase come from the worst stock, would be treated as fit inmates for an asylum. Some day we will realize that the prime duty of the good citizens of the right type is to leave his blood behind him in the world and that we have no business to perpetuate citizens of the wrong type.” From Theodore Roosevelt’s book, The Winning of the West-“The presence of the Negro is the real problem; slavery is merely the worst possible method of solving the problem.
  67. 67. Trust busting
  68. 68. • Roosevelt read The Jungle by the progressive socialist author Upton Sinclair, a muckraker who wrote “Mugwump Literature.” • This reading led to the government regulation of the Food and Drug Act
  69. 69. The Founders Intent Woodrow Wilson We are here Rule of Law Constitution Equal Justice Communism 1791 m Nationalsozialismus National Socialism (Nazi) s i l a i c o S Parliament Queens Kings Earls Dukes Lords French Revolution 1789
  70. 70. The Progressives and the Social Remedy 1. The Progressive Movement was drawn from the Populists who demanded that people have greater role in government. 1. 2. 2. Among the problems exposed by muckrakers, critics of social and political evils, were: 1. 2. 3. 4. 3. The Progressive Movement adopted the idea that government should protect the public’s economic well-being and that the average citizen should have a more direct role in politics. This was a mirage for the average citizen. These were communist-influenced politicians who wanted to have more government control over the private sector which creates wealth. “Mugwump Literature,” which appeared in the late 1800’s, fostered a desire for laws that would make government more responsive to the needs of the people. The excessive power of big business due to favoritism by government (corporate welfare) Corruption in government Fraudulent advertising Street crime and poverty They attempted to remedy social evils through legislation. They believed that the federal government should act as a referee between big business and ordinary people.
  71. 71. Progressive Agenda Concept 1 Progressive President Actions & Examples Map st Progressive Agenda Ideas and Theories
  72. 72. More Progressive Agenda Quiz 1. Name one of the laws that progressives got passed. 2. Who was the first progressive President? 3. What did Roosevelt feel was the real problem of the human race was as an elitist? 4. What was the type of literature used to start progressive legislation, e.g., The Jungle? 5. What were among the problems exposed by

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