YALTA (in the USSR)
Date: Feb 1945
Roosevelt and Stalin
Date: July 1945
Truman and Stalin
Iron Curtain –
A term used by
to describe the
lands of East
Europe from the
Improve your knowledge
The Russians took very high casualties to
capture Berlin in May 1945. They spent
the early occupation trying to take over
all zones of the city but were stopped by
German democrats such as Willy Brandt
and Konrad Adenauer. Reluctantly the
Russians had to admit the Americans,
French and British to their respective
Political foreign relations after
World War II were aggravated by a
difference in how Germany should
be controlled in the post-war
world. The United States believed
that Germany and the rest of
economically to rebuild from the
devastation caused by war. Stalin
saw this as an attempt by the
United States to take over
Europe. The Cold War had begun.
When President Truman announced to the American
people that Russia had an atomic bomb, a program of
nuclear preparedness began.
Many cities formulated defense plans.
The illustration below is a warning plan
from the city of Grand Rapids, Michigan.
School kids were a focus of the campaign, drills, and other
activities designed to raise awareness of the possibilities of
nuclear war. One activity was duck-and-cover.
Student awareness groups
were very popular. Many
held Civil Defense fairs to
pass out flyers on nuclear
clubs were quite popular!!
The next two slides are of a flyer on Civil Defense from 1955
Nuclear war drills became a part of the
FCDA held Family Fallout Shelter
exhibitions in towns across the USA.
Improve your knowledge
The nuclear bomb gave America a lead
which was expected to last at least 5
years. The rapid Russian development of
nuclear technology, helped by the work of
the “atom spies” was a shock.
Significantly, Russia hurriedly declared
war against Japan at the beginning of
August 1945 and rushed to advance into
Asia to stake out a position for the postwar settlement. This helped make both the
Korean and Vietnamese conflicts more
Atomic Age Frayer Model
Reason for it to occur
Atomic Age Quiz
What were the two meetings of the Big Three that were
What was the competitiveness between the two
superpowers over nuclear weapons?
What government agency developed fall out plans and
awareness about nuclear attacks?
What was one of the activities that school children practiced
as part of the school day?
What were families investing in to give themselves an added
measure of protection against nuclear attacks?
The term cold war refers to the strategic and political struggle that developed after
World War II between the United States and its Western European allies, on one hand,
and the USSR and Communist countries, on the other. The expression was coined by
the American journalist Herbert Bayard Swope in a 1947 speech he wrote for financier
The cold war initially centered on the use of USSR military forces to install Communist
government in Eastern Europe. These Soviet actions ran counter to the U.S.
government’s insistence upon the right of self-determination for the peoples of Eastern
Europe and raised fears that the USSR, after gaining control of Eastern Europe and
raised fears that the USSR, after gaining control of Eastern Europe, would try to
communize Western Europe. The USSR had suffered enormous losses in the war
against Nazi Germany and looked upon Eastern Europe as a bulwark against another
invasion from the West. The Soviet leaders considered U.S. objections to Soviet actions
in Poland, Hungary, and Romania a betrayal of wartime understandings about spheres
of influence in Europe. Thus they placed Eastern Europe behind a military and political
barrier known in the West as the Iron Curtain—coined by Winston Churchill.
The Truman Doctrine
Truman, who has been chosen as vice president for domestic political reasons, was poorly
prepared to assume the presidency. He had no experience in foreign affairs, knew little about
Roosevelt’s intentions, and was intimidated by the giant shoes he now had to fill. His first
decisions were dictated by events or plans already laid. In July, two months after the German
forces surrendered, he met at Potsdam, Ger., with Stalin and Churchill (who was succeeded at
the conference by Clement Attlee) to discuss future operations against Japan and a peace
settlement for Europe. Little was accomplished, and there would not be another meeting
between Soviet and American heads of state for 10 years.
Hopes that good relations between the superpowers would ensure world peace soon faded as
a result of the Stalinization of eastern Europe and Soviet support of communist insurgencies in
various parts of the globe. Events came to a head in 1947 when Britain, weakened by a failing
economy, decided to pull out of the eastern Mediterranean. This would leave both Greece,
where a communist-inspired civil war was raging, and Turkey to the mercies of the Soviet
Union. Truman now came into his own as a national leader, asking Congress to appropriate aid
to Greece and Turkey and asserting, in effect, that henceforth the United States must help free
peoples in general to resist communist aggression. This policy, known as the Truman Doctrine,
has been criticized for committing the United States to the support of unworthy regimes and
for taking on greater burdens than it was safe to assume. At first, however, the Truman
Doctrine was narrowly applied. Congress appropriated $400,000,000 for Greece and Turkey,
saving both from falling into
The Truman Doctrine (cont’d)
unfriendly hands, and thereafter the United States relied mainly on economic assistance to
support its foreign policy.
The keystone of this policy, and its greatest success, was the European Recovery Program,
usually called the Marshall Plan. Thus, in June 1947 Secretary of State George C. Marshall
proposed the greatest foreign-aid program in world history in order to bring Europe back to
economic health. In 1948, Congress created the Economic Cooperation Administration and
over the next five years poured some $13,000,000,000 worth of aid into western Europe.
(Assistance was offered to Eastern-bloc countries also, but they were forced by Stalin to
U.S. policy for limiting Soviet expansion had developed with remarkable speed. Soon after the
collapse of hopes for world peace in 1945 and 1946, the Truman administration had accepted
the danger posed by Soviet aggression and resolved to shore up noncommunist defenses at
their most critical points. This policy, known as containment, a term suggested by its principal
framer, George Kennan, resulted in the Truman Doctrine and the Marshall Plan, as well as in
the decision to make the western zones of Germany (later West Germany) a pillar of strength.
When the Soviet Union countered this development in June 1948 by blocking all surface routes
into the western-occupied zones of Berlin (Berlin Blockade), Britain, and the United States
supplied the sectors by air for almost a year until the Soviet Union called off the blockade. A
logical culmination of U.S. policy was the creation in 1949 of the North Atlantic Treaty
Organization (NATO), a military alliance among 12 (later 16) nations to resist Soviet
The Truman Doctrine in March 1947
promised that the USA “would support
free peoples who are resisting”
This led to containment – policy of
containing communism where it is and not
letting it spread.
Communism spreads like a disease
The Marshall Plan, formally known as the European Recovery Program, was a program of
U.S. economic and technical assistance to 16 European countries after World War II. Its
objectives were to restore the war-ravaged West European economy and to stimulate
economic growth and trade among the major non-Communist countries.
In early 1947 as the cold war between the United States and the USSR began to take
shape, U.S. policymakers concluded that Western Europe would require substantial
economic aid in order to attain political stability. This program, announced by Secretary
of State George C. Marshall in an address to Harvard University on 5 Jun 1947, proposed
that the European countries draw up a unified plan for economic reconstruction to be
funded by the United States. The USSR and other countries of Eastern Europe were
invited to join, but they declined. The Economic Cooperation administration was
established by the United States to administer the plan, with Paul G. Hoffman as head.
The 16 West European countries then formed the Organization for European Economic
Cooperation to coordinate the program.
From 1948 to 1952, the 16 participating countries received $13.15 billion in U.S. aid. The
program succeeded in reviving the West European economy and setting it on the path of
Marshall Plan – helped countries
economically so they wouldn’t go red.
See a pattern?
trade or aid
Still today, the USA
has an economic
Their only cars are
from before the
USA’s plan to send food, blankets,
and fuel to Europe to help them
AND to keep them from turning
Two sides of Cold War
NATO – North
Warsaw Pact –
Soviets strongarmed the countries
to join, and all
by the USSR.
The Cold War was a period after
WWII when the USA and the Soviet
Union were the super powers rivaling
for their spheres of world influence.
NATO vs. Warsaw Pact
The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) was established in 1949 by representatives
Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Greece and
Turkey joined in 1952, the Federal Republic of Germany in 1955, and Spain in 1982. The North
Atlantic Treaty, which was signed in Washington, D.C., on 4 Apr 1949, provided for mutual
defense and collective security, primarily against the threat of aggression by the Soviet Union.
It was the first peacetime alliance joined by the United States.
The Warsaw Treaty Organization (WTO), often called the Warsaw Pact, was a military alliance
(1955-91) between the USSR and its Eastern European satellites. The WTO was established in
Warsaw on 14 May 1955, as an Eastern counterpart to the North Atlantic Treaty Organization
USSR, Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, the German Democratic Republic (East
Germany), Hungary, Poland, and Romania. The WTO had a unified high command with
headquarters in Moscow. Key posts in satellite forces were held by Soviet-trained or Sovietborn officers. In 1956, Hungary withdrew from the WTO but was pulled back into the alliance
when Soviet troops crushed the Hungarian Revolution. In 1968, Czechoslovakia also
attempted to withdraw but was forced back in by an invasion of Warsaw Pact forces led by the
Soviet Union. Albania was allowed to resign in 1958. With the end of the cold war and the fall
of the Communist regimes in Eastern Europe, the WTO lost its reason for existence.
NATO (North Atlantic Treaty
Organization) vs. Warsaw Pact
Communist Containment Concept Map
Forms of Policies (pro or
Cold War Definition
Communist Containment Quiz
What were the two “super powers” that emerged from
When the Soviet Union took control of Eastern Europe, what
did Winston Churchill say divided Europe?
Name one of the policies of communist containment (for or
Give an example of conflicts during the beginning of
What two organizations were developed as a result of the
The Berlin Wall
The Berlin Wall (German: Berliner Mauer), was a barrier that surrounded West Berlin and
prevented access to it from East Berlin and adjacent areas of East Germany during the
period from 1961 to 1989. In the years between 1949 and 1961, about 2.5 million East
Germans had fled from East to West Germany, including steadily rising numbers of
skilled workers, professionals, and intellectuals. Their loss threatened to destroy the
economic viability of the East German state. In response, East Germany built a barrier to
close off East Germans’ access to West Berlin (and hence West Germany). This barrier,
the Berlin Wall, was first erected on the night of 12-13 Aug 1961, as the result of a decree
passed on 12 Aug by the East German Volkskammer (“People’s Chamber”). The original
wall, built of barbed wire and cinder blocks, was subsequently replaced by a series of
concrete walls (up to 15 ft. high) that were topped with barbed wire and guarded with
watchtowers, gun emplacement, and mines. By the 1980’s, this system of walls,
electrified fences, and fortifications extended 28 miles through Berlin, dividing the two
parts of the city, and extended a further 75 miles around West Berlin, separating it from
the rest of East Germany.
Berlin Wall-a concrete wall topped with barbed wire that
severed the city in two (communism/democracy). **Berlin Airlift
Berlin is Germany’s capital
The Soviets built the wall to
keep defectors from escaping
to the American sector.
Alger Hiss was accused of being a Soviet spy in 1948 and
convicted of perjury in connection Ethel and Julius Rosenberg
Blacklist-A blacklist is a list or register of persons (communists or
union leaders/strikers) who, for one reason or another, are being
denied a particular privilege, service, mobility, access or
recognition. To blacklist can mean to deny someone work in a
Ethel and Julius Rosenberg- were American communists who were
executed after having been found guilty of conspiracy to commit
espionage. The charges were in relation to the passing of
information about the atomic bomb to the Soviet Union.
H-Bomb- 1952 Weapon of mass destruction that was 25-50
times more powerful than the original bomb that destroyed
Hiroshima. After a test of its power by the US, its byproduct
traveled around the world and had devastating
environmental effects. It was estimated that the explosion of
100 H-bombs could have made life in this very world
Brinkmanship-is the practice of pushing a dangerous situation to
the verge of disaster in order to achieve the most advantageous
outcome. It occurs in international politics, foreign policy, labor
relations and for our interest in military strategies during the cold
war involving the threatened use of nuclear weapons.
Chiang Kai-Shek- Nationalist leader in China before their Communist
Revolution. His regime was corrupt and the US supported him and wanted to
see his policies prevail because he was friendly to the U.S. Unfortunately his
political rival Mao Tse-tung, far more corrupt, was able to win over the people
and gain more political power “through the barrel of a gun” by becoming the
largest mass murdering megalomaniac in history.
CIA-Central Intelligence Agency (formerly The Office of Strategic
Services OSS)-a U.S. agency created to gather secret information
about foreign governments. Our intelligence on the USSR was not
Korea and Vietnam
USA tried to contain
communism. In both wars,
communist troops fought
armies trained and funded
by the USA.
The Korean War
It was a conflict that began in June 1950 between the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea
(North Korea) and the Republic of Korea (South Korea), which resulted in an estimated
4,000,000 casualties, including civilians. The United Nations, with the United States as the
principal participant, joined the war on the side of the South Koreans, and the People’s
Republic of China eventually came to North Korea’s aid. After exceptional vicissitudes, the war
ended inconclusively in July 1953; it established a precedent for United States intervention to
contain communist expansion.
At the end of World War II, the Allies agreed that Soviet forces would accept the surrender of
Japanese troops in Korea north of the 38th degree of latitude, while American troops would
accept the Japanese surrender south of that line. In 1947, after the failure of negotiations to
achieve the unification of the two separate Korean states that had thus been created, the
United States turned the problem over to the United Nations. The Soviet Union refused to
cooperate with UN plans to hold general elections in the two Koreas, and, as a result, a
communist state was permanently established under the Soviet auspices in the north and a
pro-Western state was set up in the south.
On 25 Jun 1950, the North Koreans, with the tacit approval of the Soviet Union, unleashed a
carefully planned attack southward across the 38th parallel. The United Nations Security
Council met in emergency session and passed a resolution calling for the assistance of all UN
members in halting the North Korean invasion. On 27 Jun, U.S. President Harry Truman,
without asking Congress to declare war, ordered United States forces to come to
The Korean War (cont’d)
the assistance of South Korea as part of the UN “police action.”
Meanwhile, GEN Douglas MacArthur was demanding the authority to blockade China’s
coastline and bomb its Manchurian bases. Truman refused, feeling that such a course
would bring the Soviet Union into the war and thus lead to a global conflict. In response,
MacArthur appealed over Truman’s head directly to the American public in an effort to
enlist support for his war aims. On 11 Apr 1951, President Truman relieved MacArthur as
UN commander and as commander of U.S. forces in the Far East and replaced him with
GEN Matthew B. Ridgeway. On 10 Jul 1951, truce talks began while the North Koreans
and Chinese vainly strove for further success on the battlefield. The negotiations dragged
on for months, but in the fall of 1952 and the victory of Dwight D. Eisenhower, who had
criticized the unpopular war and announced his intention to visit Korea if elected.
Eisenhower secretly informed the North Koreans and Chinese that he was prepared to
use nuclear weapons and would also carry the war to China if a peace agreement was not
reached. After a brief renewal of hostilities in June 1953, an armistice was concluded on
27 Jul, and the front line was accepted as the de facto boundary between North and South
Korea. The exchange and repatriation of prisoners soon followed.
invaded from the
north. China sent a
million troops to
President Harry S. Truman's draft order terminating
MacArthur as Supreme Commander, Allied Powers,
Commander in Chief, Far East; and Commanding
General, U.S. Army, Far East.
Senator Robert Taft in the Chicago Tribune called for
immediate impeachment proceedings against Truman:
President Truman must be impeached and convicted. His
hasty and vindictive removal of Gen. MacArthur is the
culmination of series of acts which have shown that he is
unfit, morally and mentally, for his high office. The
American nation has never been in greater danger. It is
led by a fool who is surrounded by knaves.
On April 18, 1951, MacArthur received a ticker-tape
parade in San Francisco, attended by hundreds of
thousands of people. MacArthur received another tickertape parade in New York City, on April 22, 1951. At the
time, the New York City parade was the largest tickertape parade in history.
The Diet (Japanese parliament) passed a resolution of
gratitude for MacArthur, and Emperor Hirohito visited
him at the embassy in person, the first time a Japanese
Emperor had ever visited a foreigner with no standing.
The Mainichi newspaper said:
"MacArthur's dismissal is the greatest shock since the
end of the war. He dealt with the Japanese people not as
a conqueror but a great reformer. He was a noble political
missionary. What he gave us was not material aid and
democratic reform alone, but a new way of life, the
freedom and dignity of the individual. We shall continue
to love and trust him as one of the Americans who best
understood Japan's position.”
MacArthur left Japan on April 16, 1951. That morning,
250,000 Japanese lined the street to say goodbye to their
respected General "Makassar." Signs read:"We Love You,
MacArthur," 25, 1951
MacArthur addressing an audience of 50,000 at Soldier Field, Chicago, April"With Deep Regret," "Sayonara," and "We
are Grateful to the General.
President Harry S. Truman and GEN Douglas MacArthur
After the failure of the promise of Korean independence by the
Allied nations, on June 25, 1950, communist North Korean troops
invaded South Korea. Poorly armed, the South Koreans were no
match for the North. The United Nations ordered North Korea to
withdraw its troops. General MacArthur was appointed to
command all UN troops in Korea. After three years of fighting a
stalemate, more than 54,000 American troops perished.
Korean War-The Korean War refers to a period of military conflict
between North Korean and South Korean regimes, with major
hostilities lasting from June 25, 1950 until the armistice signed on
July 27, 1953.
Mao Tse-tung (Zedong)--Communist leader of China who was once
quoted as saying to the U.S. “your nuclear weapons are like a paper
tiger”, he almost brought the US into another nuclear war. He also said,
“Power comes from the end of the barrel of a gun.”
HUAC- House Un-American Activities is best known for investigating
communism in America and specifically within the film industry and on college
Joseph McCarthy & McCarthyism-A senator from Wisconsin who made accusations that
numerous people in the government were communists. The Venona Project which was still
highly classified could not back up his accusations without divulging its sources and existence.
Eventually, the communist-liberal left accused him of wild accusations and he was ousted from
his government position as senator. He became an alcoholic because of the media’s attacks on
him and accused him of conducting a witch hunt.
The Venona project was a long-running secret collaboration of the United States and
United Kingdom intelligence agencies involving crypto-analysis of messages sent by
intelligence agencies of the Soviet Union, the majority during World War II. There were at
least 13 codewords for this project that were used by the US and British intelligence
agencies (including the NSA); "Venona" was the last that was used. That code word has
no known meaning. (In the decrypted documents issued from the National Security
Agency, "VENONA" is written in capitals, but lowercasing is common in modern
journalism.) The project was started on February 1, 1941 during World War II but was not
regularly depended on until the Cold War.
During the initial years of the Cold War, the Venona project was a source of information on
Soviet intelligence-gathering activity that was directed at the Western military powers.
Although unknown to the public, and even to Presidents Franklin D. Roosevelt and Harry
S. Truman, these programs were of importance concerning crucial events of the early Cold
War. These included the Julius and Ethel Rosenberg spying case and the defections of
Donald Maclean and Guy Burgess to the Soviet Union.
VENONA Project (cont’d)
There were many new scientists who worked on decrypting the Soviet messages but the
ones who made the biggest difference were Richard Hallock, Cecil Phillips, Robert
Lamphere, and Meredith Gardener.
Most decipherable messages were transmitted and intercepted between 1942 and 1945.
Sometime in 1945, the existence of the Venona program was revealed to the Soviet Union
by the NKVD agent and United States Army SIGINT analyst and cryptologist Bill
Weisband. These messages were slowly and gradually decrypted beginning in 1946 and
continuing (many times at a low-level of effort in the latter years) through 1980, when the
Venona program was terminated, and the remaining amount of effort that was being
spent on it was moved to more important projects.
To what extent the various individuals were involved with Soviet intelligence is a topic of
dispute. While a number of academic people and historians assert that most of the
individuals mentioned in the Venona decrypts were most likely either clandestine assets
and/or contacts of Soviet intelligence agents, others argue that many of those people
probably had no malicious intentions and committed no crimes.
Meredith Gardner (far left); most of the other code breakers were young women.
The parts of the messages deciphered by Gardner and Lamphere held information
about whom and where KGB spies were. These messages contained information
about KGB in Latin America, the presidential campaigns during the 1944 elections, and
of the atomic bomb). One note even said that the Soviets had a man inside the War
Department that was giving them U.S. secrets, but this is unconfirmed. The most
important information found by Gardner was the cover names of the spies that were
running missions in the United States, they also found out who or what some of the
cover names stood for. Some of the cover names looked simple enough to figure
out, President Roosevelt’s cover name was Kapitan, but some less important
people had names such as God. Arlington Hall was able to decrypt these names:
Liberal – Julius Rosenberg, Babylon – San Francisco, The Bank – U.S. Dept. of
State, Arsenal – U.S. War Dept., and Anton – Leonid Kvasnikov (the leader of the
KGB atomic bomb espionage). The Soviets were very careful to pick cover names
and only made a few mistakes such as Boris Moros’s name, Frost which means
“moroz” in Russian. The decryptions show that many of Stalin’s top agents were in
many top governmental agencies.
Nikita Khrushchev-Political leader of USSR who succeeded
Stalin, who brought the world very close to WW III/Nuclear War.
He made the statement to the U.S.—”We will bury you!”
1957 Sputnik – first satellite
Score 1 for Soviets!
First man in space-Yuri Gagarin
USA – 0
Soviets - 2
Francis Gary Powers- Pilot who was flying the U-2 spy plane that was shot down
over USSR. He was initially sentenced to prison, but was later released.
U-2 Incident- The 1960 U-2 incident occurred during the Cold War on 1 May 1960
(during the presidency of Dwight D. Eisenhower) when an American U-S spy
plane was shot down over the Soviet Union. At first, the United States
government denied the plane's purpose and mission, but was forced to admit its
role as a covert surveillance aircraft when the Soviet government produced its
remains (largely intact) and surviving pilot, Gary Powers.
Cold War Intervention Concept Map
What are some agencies involved?
Cold War Intervention
What are some people involved?
What are some examples?
Cold War Intervention Quiz
What did the Warsaw Pact build to stem the flow of Germans
fleeing East Berlin?
What two groups of people were convicted of espionage and
imprisoned and/or executed?
Who were the two leaders that the civil war in China were
between that resulted in the Communist Revolution.
Give two agencies that were involved in Cold War intervention?
What two Soviet events scared the USA that they were falling
behind in technology?